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Ravimandalam, SeethalakshmiNewspaper and News Magazine Coverage of the USA PATRIOT Act Before It Was Passed Into Law, September 11, 2001—October 26, 2001
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Journalism (Communication)

This study examined print news media coverage of the USA PATRIOT Act before it was passed into law. Seventeen publications, including fourteen top-30-circulation newspapers and three news magazines were selected to represent American print news media. This three-part content analysis examined:

1. Sourcing: The use of sources in news stories through direct and indirect quotation. The incidence, opinion, direct quotation, and prominence of various sources were analyzed to compare the use of government and non-governmental sources in the coverage.

2. Framing: The aspects of the legislation that were highlighted by the coverage, and the aspects of the legislation that were overlooked or underplayed. The most frequently used frames of coverage were counterterrorism, government powers, civil liberties, privacy, and non-citizen issues.

3. Editorial treatment: The tone (supportive, critical/cautionary, or mixed/ambiguous) of the editorials was examined overall, and over time. The framing of the issue in editorial coverage was studied and contrasted with the overall framing trends in coverage.

Committee:

Joseph Bernt (Advisor)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

Patriot Act; Coverage [Press coverage, newspaper coverage, media coverage]; Legislation; Terrorism [Anti-Terrorism, counterterrorism]

Kumar, SantoshFoundations of coverage for wireless sensor networks
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Computer and Information Science

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) promise to revolutionize the way we monitor our surroundings by enhancing our senses. Prototype systems are already being demonstrated. Several fundamental research issues, however, remain unaddressed. Sensing events being the main task of a WSN, appropriately addressing the issue of coverage is critical.

In this dissertation, we make a two fold contribution on establishing a strong foundation for the issue of coverage. First, we argue that a single concept of coverage such as k-full coverage (where every point in the deployment region needs to be within the monitoring range of at least k sensors) does not fit all applications. We propose a new concept of coverage called k-barrier coverage that is appropriate for intrusion detection applications. A WSN provides k-barrier coverage} if it guarantees that every penetrating object is detected by at least k sensors before crossing the barrier of sensors.

Second, we address five foundational problems for the issue of k-barrier coverage: optimal deployment pattern, critical conditions, coverage status determination, coverage restoration, and optimal sleep wakeup.

The problem of optimal deployment pattern is to determine a pattern of deployment that uses the minimum number of sensors. The problem of critical conditions is to derive conditions that can be used to determine the minimum number of sensors to deploy in probabilistic deployments. The problem of coverage status determination is to determine whether a deployed WSN provides a desired quality of monitoring. The problem of coverage restoration is to determine the minimum number of sensors to deploy, and their locations, such that a desired quality of monitoring can be restored in a deployed WSN. The problem of optimal sleep wakeup is to produce a sleeping schedule for sensors that maximizes the network lifetime.

We comprehensively solve four of the five foundational problems. For the problem of critical conditions, we derive the conditions for a weaker notion of k-barrier coverage, called weak k-barrier coverage. In addition, we derive critical conditions for the case of k-full coverage.

Committee:

Ten Lai (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Wireless Sensor Neworks; coverage; k-coverage; barrier coverage; sleep-wakeup

Weisman, Chad M.Just Coverage and the Path to Peace: Reporting Operation Protective Edge in Haaretz, BBC Online, and The New York Times
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Journalism (Communication)
This thesis pertains to media coverage of Israel/Palestine, with emphasis on The New York Times, Israeli publication Haaretz, and BBC Online’s coverage of the conflict in Gaza during the Summer of 2014. The thesis quantitatively delves into the material being studied, utilizing measures of bias, as well as indicators of peace journalism to accomplish the objective of thoroughly analyzing the 351 news stories sampled from the three publications at hand. The study employs eleven variables, six pertaining to news bias and five operationalized indicators of peace journalism. The thesis will argue that peace journalism is a partial yet powerful remedy for biased coverage. Although it is considered to be a form of advocacy journalism, it can, when translated onto the pages of conventional news outlets, shed objective light on even the direst and most intractable shades of conflict. The study found that The New York Times and BBC Online favored Palestinians in headlines and photographs, likely due to the dramatic devastation wrought upon Gaza. Haaretz was found to be more evenhanded, likely due to its market of Israelis and Jews throughout the world. BBC Online and Haaretz both relied heavily on official (military and government) sources, while The New York Times relied on experts. Measures of peace journalism were varied among the variables being analyzed.

Committee:

Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Bernhard Debatin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jatin Srivastava, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

Peace Journalism; War Journalism; Press Nationalism; Media Ethics; Cosmopolitanism; Cosmopolitan Journalism; Media Coverage of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict; Operation Protective Edge; Media Coverage of Gaza Strip; Media coverage of 2014 war in Gaza

DeLozier, Gregory StevenFeature Location using Unit Test Coverage in an Agile Development Environment
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
The research investigates an effective, practical method for locating where software features are actually implemented in source code. The method is specifically aimed at software developed in agile process environments. Locating features in code is critical for almost all software maintenance and evolution activities. For example, given a bug report one must find where the relevant source code is located within the system. This becomes a very difficult task when the software systems contain millions of lines of code. In the method of software reconnaissance, features are located by comparing a code coverage trace of a test invoking the feature of interest with a masking trace that omits invoking the feature. The masking trace is used to hide the parts of the trace not relevant to the feature. In an agile project, invoking tests are integral components and always developed for each release, but masking tests are rarely, if ever, developed. This limits the usefulness of the reconnaissance method. In this dissertation, the agile artifact properties are modeled to determine if the necessary masking tests can be reliably created from combining unit tests written at other times in the agile process. An experiment was conducted to determine if masking tests can be created in this manner, and if the resulting locations identified can be used to significantly improve the performance of professional programmers in tasks involving locating feature implementations in real-world software projects. Using professional software developers as experimental participants, significant improvements in time of feature location, confidence in location, and accuracy of feature location were found over traditional text search when participants used locations derived from this method as a starting point for feature location tasks.

Committee:

Jonathan Maletic, PhD (Committee Chair); Gwenn Volkert, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Walker, PhD (Committee Member); Denise Bedford, PhD (Committee Member); Eugene Gartland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

software;feature location;unit tests;agile;extreme programming;code coverage;test coverage

Saffore, Lateef YusefWhat Factors Influence Medicare Reimbursement Payments for Healthcare Providers that Admit Diabetic Patients?
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2011, Public Administration

In the 1959 article written by Charles Lindblom, entitled, “The Science of Muddling Through”, Lindblom argued that in general, people make decisions in relatively small increments rather than in big leaps (Birkland, 2001). The rational comprehensive method of decision making is referred to as the root method because decisions start from the “root” of the [tree] issue (Birkland, 2001). Lindblom describes incrementalism as the [tree] branch of an issue because it builds on prior knowledge about an issue (Birkland, 2001). The history of the Medicare program, focuses on program implementation reform in reference to coverage and reimbursement. In this study, incrementalism was used the academic approach to build on the Medicare program reform from the perspective of program implementation reform for coverage, and the reimbursement in the diabetes diagnosis related group at the healthcare provider level. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that contribute to Medicare reimbursement payment variations among healthcare providers that treat the diabetic diagnosis related group (DRG). The current regulatory policy practices of the Medicare program where examined for causes in Medicare reimbursement payments variation. In consideration of the type of regulations (i.e. quality, quantity, price and indirect control) used by government agencies, a rulemaking framework was used to recommend alternative policies (i.e. precise, flexible and Pareto Optimum).

The study did not suggest that all variation in Medicare reimbursement payments were due to the aforementioned factors. Nor did the study settle on the idea that variation in Medicare reimbursement payments is unexplained or intentionally created for the benefit of some healthcare providers (i.e. rural or urban healthcare providers). Solving all problems in the entire Medicare program is a big leap, therefore this was not the objective of this study. Therefore, findings in this study suggest that a research approach involving an incremental examination of the Medicare contractor LCDs and National Medicare PPS’s impact on all DRGs (i.e. leukemia, transplantation, cardiovascular disease etc.,) to address issues in the clinical specialty practice is a novel approach for healthcare reform for the Medicare program.

Committee:

Raymond Cox, Dr. (Advisor); RaJade Berry-James, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Larry Keller, Dr. (Committee Member); Namkyung Oh, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephanie Woods, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Public Administration; Public Policy

Keywords:

Medicare program; Medicare contractors; National Medicare PPS; local coverage decisions; LCDs; national coverage decisions; diabetes diagnosis related group; healthcare reform; wage index; continuum codes; patient access; privatization; incrementalism

Zheng, ZizhanSparse Deployment of Large Scale Wireless Networks for Mobile Targets
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Computer Science and Engineering

Deploying wireless networks at large scale is challenging. Despite various effort made in the design of coverage schemes and deployment algorithms with static targets in mind, how to deploy a wireless network to achieve a desired quality of service for mobile targets moving in a large region without incurring prohibitive cost largely remains open. To address this issue, this dissertation proposes Sparse Coverage, a deployment scheme that provides guaranteed service to mobile targets while trading off service quality with cost in a deterministic way.

The first part of this dissertation discusses two sparse coverage models for deploying WiFi access points (APs) along a city-wide road network to provide data service to mobile vehicles. The first model, called Alpha Coverage, ensures that a vehicle moving through a path of length α is guaranteed to have a contact with some AP. This is the first partial coverage model (in contrast to the more expensive full coverage model) that provides a performance guarantee to disconnection-tolerant mobile users. We show that under this general definition, even to verify whether a given deployment provides Alpha Coverage is co-NPC. Thus, we propose two practical metrics as approximations, and design efficient approximation algorithms for each of them. The concept of Alpha Coverage is then extended by taking connectivity into account. To characterize the performance of a roadside WiFi network more accurately, we propose the second sparse coverage model, called Contact Opportunity, which measures the fraction of distance or time that a mobile user is in contact with some AP. We present an efficient deployment method that maximizes the worst-case contact opportunity under a budget constraint by exploiting submodular optimization techniques. We further extend this notion to the more intuitive metric -- average throughput -- by taking various uncertainties involved in the system into account.

The second part of this dissertation studies sparse deployment techniques for placing sensor nodes in a large 2-d region for tracking movements. We propose a sparse coverage model called Trap Coverage, which provides a bound on the largest gap that a mobile target, e.g., an intruder or a dynamic event, is missed by any sensor node. In contrast to the current probabilistic partial coverage models, this is the first 2-d coverage model that can trade off the quality of tracking with network lifetime in a deterministic way. For an arbitrarily deployed sensor network, we propose efficient algorithms for determining the level of Trap Coverage even if the sensing regions have non-convex or uncertain boundaries. We then discuss a roadmap assisted geographic routing protocol to support efficient pairwise routing in large sensor networks with holes, which embodies a novel hole approximation technique and makes desired tradeoff between route-stretch and control overhead.

Committee:

Prasun Sinha (Advisor); Ness Shroff (Committee Member); Yusu Wang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Wireless networks; sensor networks; coverage; sparse coverage; approximation algorithms

Gandharva, KumarStudy of Effect of Coverage and Purity on Quality of Learned Rules
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Rule based algorithms have emerged as a highly effective classification technique with a wide range of applications in the field of medicine, financial data analysis and business marketing to name a few. These classifiers work with real world data and are used to make predictions based on high purity rules developed using pattern mining algorithms. There are a number of aspects that differentiate rule learning algorithms from each other. One way to differentiate them is based on re-use of training instances in rule induction. Existing rule based techniques either do not allow sharing of training instances, discovering too few patterns or allow unlimited sharing of training instances, generating an explosive number of patterns. Recent rule induction algorithms which focus on controlling instance re-use, fail to draw a relation between performance of the classifier and extent of instance re-use. In this work, we propose a novel approach to generate high purity rules by restricting how many times an instance can be utilized while mining frequent patterns. In order to avoid generating an explosive number of rules, we introduce a parameter known as Coverage Limit, to allow control over contribution of each instance in the data towards rule generation. We study the effect of varying the Coverage Limit and Rule Purity in order to achieve best classification accuracy. In addition to this we also propose a Weighted Voting technique which allows multiple rules to collectively predict the label of an unseen instance. A detailed analysis of results on several datasets confirms that the proposed method performs better at classification than many existing techniques.

Committee:

Raj Bhatnagar, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Yizong Cheng, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence

Keywords:

Rule coverage limit;Control Instance re-use;Multiple coverage;Control rule purity;Rule based classification;Classification using multiple rules

Hargis, Jared D.Through "Foreign" Eyes: The Guardian's Coverage of the Virginia Tech Massacre
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Journalism (Communication)
This thesis presents a textual analysis and a descriptive content analysis of how the British newspaper The Guardian covered the Virginia Tech school shootings that took place on 16 April 2007. Analysis of the first eight days of coverage, totaling 61 articles, added to the existing research on media coverage of school shootings by understanding how the media lens of an influential British newspaper viewed the “gun culture” of the United States. The results of this study indicate that The Guardian's coverage suggests that the “gun culture” of the United States may be directly responsible for the Virginia Tech school shootings, and that the newspaper and its readers (via their feedback) have constructed a collective argument that such events are inevitable when guns are so readily accessible as they are in the United States.

Committee:

Bill Reader (Committee Chair); Carson Wagner, PhD (Committee Member); Cary Frith (Committee Member); Anne Cooper-Chen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism

Keywords:

Virginia Tech; The Guardian; coverage of school shooting; Cho Seung-Hui; gun control; media coverage

Tian, YiAZT, Safe Sex, and a "Widow's" Story: A Content Analysis of Aids Coverage in The Advocate, 1981-2006
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Journalism (Communication)
While studies of mainstream media's AIDS coverage are adequate, an extensive literature review revealed few studies that empirically examined the AIDS coverage in the gay press. The primary significance of this study lies in the fact that it is the first content analysis to examine the AIDS coverage in a prominent U.S. gay publication, for a 26-year study period from 1981 to 2006. After analyzing 417 stories on AIDS from The Advocate, this study found a dramatic drop both in number and length of The Advocate's AIDS stories in the late 1990s and 2000s. Medical and health care, personal, and gay culture were the most frequently covered topics. While personal coverage remained steady throughout the years, medical and health care coverage declined sharply in the late 1990s and 2000s, and gay culture received increasing coverage across time. Unlike in the mainstream media, celebrities did not generate much AIDS coverage in the gay magazine. This study also found AIDS and gay activists as the dominant sources in the gay publication's AIDS coverage, followed by medical and scientific sources, and unaffiliated individuals. The Advocate generally embraced safe sex with a limited number of exceptions. It did not downplay or deny the threat HIV posed to the gay community.

Committee:

Joseph Bernt (Advisor)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

AIDS; AIDS coverage; gay publication; gay activists; The Advocate; safe sex

Martin, Erin BEnvironmental Coverage in Weekly Newspapers of Appalachian Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

This project examines how editors at weekly newspapers in Appalachian Ohio approach covering environmental issues. A survey assessed how serious editors perceived 20 environmental issues to be in their communities and also inquired about how easy they believed writing about such issues would be, how often they have done so, and what internal and external pressures they felt might make covering the environment more difficult. A yearlong content analysis of 10 newspapers verified their reliance upon official sources and found that environmental news was 6.5 percent of total news. Personal interviews with those editors gave insight to their work challenges and indicated strong routinization and third-person effect against governmental influence of editorial content. While editors said their newspapers roles were important in informing readers on environmental issues, the study found their ability to do so and past performance were poor.

Committee:

Daniel Riffe (Advisor)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

Environmental Journalism; Environmental Coverage; Weekly Newspapers; Appalachian Ohio

Meeker, JonathonMedia Coverage of Music Education: How One Local Newspaper Reports on Music in the Public Schools
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Music

The present study investigated how a local newspaper in a large Midwestern city reported on music education in relation to the economy, politics, and advocacy. Eight years were selected from a 20 year time period. Three targeted years covered times of economic prosperity, three more covered economic decline, and two were during times of political change that had a direct effect on music education. All articles from each of these years were examined for any mention of school music programs

Articles were collected and coded from the Columbus Dispatch. Articles were identified using broad search terms from the news database NewsBank. A total of 1,454 articles were coded. The results showed that the Dispatch has remained consistent on the number of articles that feature music programs when economics or politics are not being reported. Economic issues varied the greatest from year to year, with the economic low years resulting in more articles. The most recent economic decline resulted in more economic news regarding music education than all other studied years combined. Federal policy received virtually no mention in relation to music education. The majority of political news dealt with tax issues or local politics regarding curriculum and personnel. Articles that featured music programs as the main theme of the news story were generally positive. Over all, the Dispatch supported the public notion that music education is important but plagued by bad economic news.

Committee:

Patricia Flowers, PhD (Advisor); Daryl Kinney, PhD (Committee Member); Russel Mikkelson, DMA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Journalism; Music Education

Keywords:

news media; music education; local news coverage

Sabo, Jason D.National Print and Electronic News Coverage of Self Management Behaviors and Efficacy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
This study addressed the question: “How do news media portray the self-management behaviors for type 2 diabetes mellitus?” Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of death in the U.S. Disease rates are increasing despite the potential for preventing and delaying disease progression via lifestyle intervention and self-management. This chronic disease has reached epidemic proportions in terms of both diagnosed cases and financial costs. Guided by Witte’s (1992) extended parallel processing model, the study implemented a quantitative content analysis of self-management and efficacy messages in national print and electronic news coverage of type 2 diabetes mellitus from 2009 to 2011. Of 666 stories referencing diabetes in that time frame, 14 % (n = 96) discussed self-management. Findings suggest that news stories rarely address self-management behaviors for type 2 diabetes mellitus; the little coverage that does occur does not meet its health-related potential to influence adaptive behavior change for primary and secondary prevention. Less than one third of analyzed stories referenced multiple (three or more) self-management behaviors related to primary and secondary prevention and only one news story explicitly used self-management terminology. Results suggest that self-management for type 2 diabetes has yet to become a newsworthy topic and saliency on the public agenda. Additionally, by failing to address both response efficacy and self-efficacy, stories on diabetes self-management may not effectively motivate relevant health knowledge acquisition and/or health behavior change. Communication processes and trends in news messages on self-management and prevention in type 2 diabetes are discussed.

Committee:

Rebecca J. W. Cline, PhD (Advisor); Jeffrey T. Child, PhD (Committee Member); Catherine E. Goodall, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Health Education; Mass Media; Public Health; Public Health Education

Keywords:

type 2 diabetes; self-mangagement; chronic disease; content analysis; news coverage

Ransom, James AnthonyThe Role of Agency in Community Health Outcomes: Local Health Departments and Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
Organizational culture is defined as a system of shared meaning held by members of an organization that distinguishes it from other organizations. How organizational culture is experienced in the public sector, particularly local health departments (LHDs), is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LHD organizational culture impacts childhood immunization coverage rates. I used a modified organizational culture survey tool, the Organizational Management Survey, to quantify organizational culture and determine whether an LHD's organizational culture helps explain variations in childhood immunization coverage rates. In addition, qualitative data from an earlier study of LHD immunization staff were used to enhance the quantitative results. I used factor analysis and hierarchical regression analyses to explore organizational and demographic factors associated with variations in community childhood immunization coverage rates. The factors included organizational culture, organizational leadership, type of LHD, agency size, jurisdiction type, and participation in an immunization coalition. Among the LHD immunization programs in the study sample, organizational culture and type of LHD were significant predictors of immunization rate variation. This two-item model explained 6% of the variation in vaccination coverage levels among the respondents. The other variables did not contribute significantly. This study identified key issues for better understanding how organizational culture functions in LHDs. This research provides information on the impact that organizational culture has on work method and outcomes. Some specific changes can take place or be implemented once this is understood. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, PhD (Committee Member); Mitchell Kusy, PhD (Committee Chair); Angela Snyder, PhD, MPH (Other)

Subjects:

Health; Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Public Health

Keywords:

Immunization Coverage, Local Health Departments, Organizational Culture, Organizational Leadership, Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis, SPSS, Organizational Management Survey, Public Health

Naik, AshwiniMining Gene Regulatory Motifs Using the Concept of Sequence Coverage
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
Transcription factors bind to specific sequence elements present in the promoter regions of co-expressed genes and regulate their expression. Genes expressed in an identical manner may have the same transcription factors binding to them, the binding sites being similar with a probable difference of one or two nucleotides. Therefore, a direct inference is that similar sequence elements are present in all the co-expressed genes, with a moderate to high occurrence frequency. These elements are termed motifs. The bioinformatics society currently has a number of effective de-novo motif discovery tools that endeavor to find these motifs through a search for over-represented patterns in gene promoter sequences. Any significant binding sites found through the search procedure will help understand the mechanisms of gene regulation. One significant drawback of current tools is the volume of candidate motifs reported, often numbering in the hundreds or greater, which may result in impractical lab verification in terms of time and resources. This paper presents three methods for solving the problem, namely Random Method, Greedy Method and Hill climbing Method, which substantially reduce the list of candidate motifs to those showing greatest potential.

Committee:

Lonnie Welch, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Bioinformatics; Computer Science

Keywords:

Sequence Coverage; Motif Discovery; Set Cover; Mining; Greedy Method

Kumar, AshwaniOptimizing Parameters for High-quality Metagenomic Assembly
Master of Science, Miami University, 2015, Microbiology
De novo assembly of metagenomic sequence data presents us with various computational challenges in assembling short DNA fragments into larger sequences. An efficient assembly process is limited by computational memory requirements and run time of assembly programs. My thesis describes a method to find the number of reads and subsequence length (k) that provide an informative and good quality assembly, reducing the need for trial and error in the assembly process. The indicators for an informative assembly are the number of contigs, the size of contigs, N50 and the number of unused reads. I used contour maps to study the correlation between independent variables (the number of reads and length of k) and dependent variables (the number of contig, the contig size, N50 and the number of unused reads). I used a generalized additive model to fit the assembly results for different dependent variables and find a model that describes the correlation between dependent and independent variables.

Committee:

Iddo Friedberg (Advisor)

Subjects:

Microbiology

Keywords:

Medium complexity metagenomes, Debruijn graph, Metagenomic coverage, Number of reads, k-mer, Contig length distribution, Contour maps, Generalized additive model

Vukasovich, Christian A.The Media is the Weapon: The Enduring Power of Balkan War (Mis)Coverage
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Media and Communication
This dissertation carries out a multi-level analysis of how media reports establish durable narratives of war in both journalism and scholarship, illustrating a multi-dimensional process of the weaponization of media. It draws on a case study of NATO’s attack on Yugoslavia in 1999, examining both news coverage and scholarly accounts, and with reference to relevant historical, institutional, economic and political contexts. The author conducts a grounded theory analysis of 1058 news articles appearing in the Associated Press, New York Times, and The Times (of London) surrounding the pivotal events of NATO’s military intervention in Kosovo. The ways in which these selected media represent the events and the relationship between their dominant narrative themes and the contexts in which the events occurred, is further examined, comparatively, by means of grounded theory analysis of how 4 major scholarly treatises craft an understanding of NATO intervention in Kosovo. Based on these analyses, this research argues that (a) media content foregrounds (and in various ways privileges) the frames, sources and narratives that correspond with the interests of NATO that drive military intervention and (b) these media narratives exercise a lingering influence on long-term conceptualizations of conflict and have the capacity to shape the contours of cultural memory for years to come. Emerging from this inquiry – which situates the interrelationships between media, power and military conflict within the context of political and economic environment – is the theory of a weaponization of media that moves beyond the scope of existing propaganda theories (and, in the context of propaganda, agenda-setting and framing theories) that explains to what end propaganda works and the ways in which the media system capacitates and enhances processes of propaganda.

Committee:

Oliver Boyd-Barrett (Committee Chair); Lynda Dixon (Committee Member); Lara Lengel (Committee Member); Scott Magelssen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Weaponization of Media; propaganda; NATO Intervention; Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Grounded Theory; war coverage; comparative media studies; mass media and war

MILLER, MARCIA F.HEALING TOUCH AND GUIDED IMAGERY AS COVERED BENEFITS IN HEALTH CARE: A SECONDARY ANALYSIS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Nursing : Nursing, Doctoral Program
Each year increasing numbers of Americans report the use of some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the implementation of a health benefits package including CAM therapies for employees of a small, self-insured manufacturing company. A secondary analysis guided by a decision-making theoretical framework was performed using data from the primary study, which examined the cost impact of adding two CAM therapies (Healing Touch and guided imagery) to the health care coverage for some employees of the company. The primary hypothesis of the study was that the insurance expenditures of employees who did not participate in CAM therapies would be significantly higher than participating employees one year after the intervention. Other hypotheses included a cost comparison of insurance expenditures over six years, employee satisfaction, and a decision to continue to receive CAM therapy following completion of the study. Data files included insurance expenditure payouts for all employees from 1995 to 2000 following termination of the study intervention and surveys completed by the study participants (N = 41) during the year of intervention. Overall statistical analysis did not support two research hypotheses that addressed the insurance expenditures in the four years prior to the study and in the year following the study. Mean expenditures for the non-participant group of employees continued to be significantly higher than for the study participants. An examination of employee satisfaction for the study participants revealed statistically significant support for the use of Healing Touch and guided imagery. Significant decreases in pain, stress and increase in emotional well-being (decreased anxiety and depression) were reported by the study participants following therapy. Findings in this study did not support the addition of CAM therapies to a health benefits package. However, the conclusions drawn do not negate the importance of continued research to understand the roles of energy healing, mind-body interventions and other CAM therapies in managing health-related conditions and to explore cost of CAM therapy to employers and employees.

Committee:

Dr. Marilyn Sommers (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Nursing

Keywords:

Healing Touch; Insurance Coverage; Cost Benefit; Health Care Benefits

BUCKLER, KEVIN G.AN EXAMINATION OF PRINT MEDIA ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES IN THE REPORTING OF HOMICIDE IN THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Education : Criminal Justice
This study examines media process in print media behavior in the reporting of homicide cases that occurred in 2001 that were investigated by the Houston Police Department. Content analysis was conducted using HPD press releases and news items published in the Houston Chronicle. Victim, offender, and circumstance information were obtained from the HPD. The study uses OLS and Logistical regression analysis to examine the effects of victim, offender, and social context measures on a variety of dependent measures, including whether a news item appeared in print, the number of news items that appeared in print, the number of words published, and media attention scores that combine measures of number of words, page placement, and the use of photographs with the news items. Additionally, news theme measures and information availability measures are examined to determine their effects on media outcome measures. The findings suggest victim traits such as female victims and multiple victims are the most important factors in predicting a variety of media outcomes. Robbery-related homicides, stranger homicides, homicides involving female suspects, those involving younger victims, and those involving minority suspects are also found to be important predictors for certain media outcome measures, but not for others. A domestic context and homicides emanating from arguments that escalated were found to decrease measures of intensity of coverage for certain models. Other models suggested that the use of a knife or cutting instrument in the homicide decreases intensity of coverage while assault-based homicides increase the intensity of coverage. Certain informational constraint measures were also found to be important predictors of media outcomes. News theme measures are significant predictors of intensity of media attention score. The implications of the findings are interpreted in the context of Barak’s (1994) “Newsmaking Criminology” framework. Suggestions for future research are provided.

Committee:

Dr. Lawrence Travis (Advisor)

Keywords:

Media; Media coverage; Print media; Newspapers; Homicide; Crime

Budianto, AriadneThe U.S. Newsmagazines Coverage of the “Asian Economic Tigers,” 1990-2000: A Content Analysis
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Journalism (Communication)

In the early 1990s, several nations emerged as the new Asia’s economic powerhouses: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. These nations, known as the “Asian economic tigers,” have always played an important role in serving the United States’ interests in the East Asia region.

Previous studies have shown that the way the United States sees other countries is most often reflected in its media. This study is a content analysis of how four leading American news magazines—Business Week, Newsweek, Time and U.S. News & World Report—portrayed these Asian “tigers,” from 1990 to 2000. Although there are many studies conducted to examine the other Asian economic giants (China and Japan), only limited attention has been given to examine American media coverage these new “tigers.” This research is designed to find out how these magazines cover these nations by examining: the number of stories written, the trends and patterns of coverage over time, the topics prevalent in this period, and the sources within the stories.

The results show that although the magazines have different preferences in covering each “tiger,” they were similar in determining what events are considered “important.” They agree that events related to “economy and business” are the “most important.” This research also found that overall the magazines employ sources from the “tiger” nations more than to sources from the United States or international institutions. A new power structure that defines information in American media is set by a new form of elite: the economic elites.

Committee:

Daniel Riffe (Advisor)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

COVERAGE; NEWSMAGAZINES; foreign; International News; Asia; TIGERS; U.S

Siff, Stephen I.Glossy Visions: Coverage of LSD in Popular Magazines, 1954-1968
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Mass Communication (Communication)
The subjective experience offered by the drug LSD was of intense interest to popular magazines for years before the drug entered widespread recreational use. While both were absent from coverage of other drugs, personal descriptions of drug experiences and visual illustrations of the drug's effects were commonplace in magazine coverage of LSD. A content analysis of popular magazine articles about LSD from the time of the drug's discovery until the year that possession of the drug became a federal crime demonstrated that much of the coverage was accepting of LSD use for the purpose of self-enrichment by individuals who were not ill. Often, intellectuals and celebrities represented drug users in magazine coverage. The use of LSD to create spiritual experiences was explained in many magazine articles, especially in Time, whose publisher, Henry Robinson Luce, advocated the drug to employees and professional acquaintances. Magazine coverage of LSD helped introduce the drug to the public and advanced public understanding of the “psychedelic” experience. The coverage, much of which preceded widespread availability of LSD, aided in the diffusion of the drug to the public at large.

Committee:

Joseph Bernt (Committee Chair); Harold Winter (Committee Member); Gregory Newton (Committee Member); Patrick Washburn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Journalism; Mass Media

Keywords:

LSD; Henry Robinson Luce; Clare Boothe Luce; magazine coverage; drugs; psychedelic

Lee, JungFraming and Xenophobia in the Media: A Content Analysis of the Illegal Immigration Debate in Time, Newsweek, and BusinessWeek, 2000-2009
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2010, Journalism (Communication)
This study examined how three major U.S. magazines, Time, Newsweek, and BusinessWeek covered news topic about illegal immigrants. A content analysis of 173 articles about illegal immigrants between 2000 and 2009 was conducted. Findings indicated that the three magazines portrayed illegal immigrants in a negative light in general. However, differences in the degree of negative framing were found among magazines. BusinessWeek held a more positive perspective toward illegal immigrants than Time and Newsweek did. In addition, the study attempted to establish a relationship between unemployment rates and the frequency of negative framing but failed to find statistical significance. Finally, in line with previous studies, the study found that officials were most favored by reporters. Possible reasons for the differences and the implications are discussed in detail.

Committee:

Cary Frith (Committee Chair); Hong Cheng (Committee Member); Ellen Gerl (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

Time; Newsweek; BusinessWeek; Illegal immigration--Press coverage; Content analysis (Communication)

Hua, LiyanShortest Path - Capacitated Maximum Covering Problems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Business Administration

I study the shortest path - capacitated maximum covering problem (SP-CMCLP). Current, ReVelle and Cohon (1985) first studied the un-capacitated version of this problem. The two objectives of the problem are the minimization of the path length from a predetermined starting node to a predetermined terminal node and the maximization of the total demand covered by the facilities located at the nodes in the path. They solved a special case in which a demand can be covered only if it is located on the path. I solve the general model. I also introduce facility capacity constraints, new algorithms and new demand coverage structures to this problem.

I decompose the problem into a k-shortest path problem (kSP) and a capacitated maximum covering problem (CMCLP). The k-shortest path problem is solved by a path deletion algorithm. The capacitated maximum covering problem is solved by various heuristics and meta-heuristics including lagrangian relaxation, two versions of Tabu search and a simulated annealing method.

To the knowledge of the author, the Tabu search and simulated annealing methods introduced are the first meta-heuristics developed for the capacitated maximum covering problem. In these meta-heuristics, I use four neighborhood structures. These are 1) one-interchange which exchanges an selected facility with an unselected facility, 2) client shift which shifts a satisfied demand from one selected facility to another selected facility, 3) demand swap (or demand reallocation) which swaps one (or more) assigned demand node (nodes) with one (or more) unassigned demand node (nodes) within the coverage distance of a selected facility site, 4) demand addition which adds one or more unassigned demand to a selected facility. I design an embedded meta-heuristic procedure which has inner loops of single neighborhoods and an outer loop of multiple alternate inner loops. I design a heuristic method and a penalty method for the demand allocation sub-problem in the embedded Tabu search. In the penalty method, I use surrogate relaxation and add a penalty term to the objective function for the violated capacity constraints. An embedded simulated annealing method with temperature vibration is also designed using heuristic demand allocation.

I solve a new version of the shortest path - capacitated maximum covering problem with tree coverage structure (SP-CMCLP-TREE). Demand is supplied by sub-paths on a minimum spanning tree constructed from an underlying network. A demand is counted as covered if the total arc length of a path from the demand to a facility site is within coverage distance and the demand can be satisfied only if all the intermediate demand nodes on the path are satisfied.

Computational results for networks selected from literature show the effectiveness of the heuristics. Tabu search performs the best in solution quality, while Lagrangian relaxation and simulated annealing generate solutions of satisfactory quality using less time. Different path-coverage structures are used based on the properties of the networks. Tree demand coverage structure works better than traditional coverage structure for large partial networks. The impact of different network parameters are also studied.

Committee:

John R. Current, PhD (Advisor); David A. Schilling, PhD (Committee Member); Keely L. Croxton, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Operations Research

Keywords:

Shortest Path; Capacitated Maximum Covering Problem; Decomposition; Tabu Search; Simulated Annealing; Path Coverage Structure; Tree

Buzzelli, NickThe Booster Beat: College Football Framing of Wins and Losses by Sportswriters and SB Nation Bloggers
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication
Because of the popularity of sports blogs that create content tailored to the fan perspective, sportswriters now have to compete with a multitude of online-only outlets for readers. These individualized blogs – many of which are owned by legitimate digital media organizations – provide fans the ability to read coverage through the lens of other like-minded individuals in a community dedicated to a specific team, whether at the professional or collegiate level. While the public still views sportswriters as working for a newspaper’s “toy department” for their tendency to produce overly positive fluff pieces about the team on their beat, they have generally remained objective in their reporting during this transitional news dissemination period. But since part of the job requires the ability to maintain professional relationships with sources, they are sometimes fearful of being too harsh of those they cover. Fan bloggers, on the other hand, are typically not credentialed media members, enabling them – in theory – to frame their articles any way they chose without fearing the same repercussions. Therefore, to examine the partiality of hometown newspapers and niche sports blogs, a textual analysis of college football game stories written by sportswriters and Sports Beat (SB) Nation bloggers was conducted. The results indicate that sportswriters and SB Nation bloggers portray opposing players, the hometown coach, and games that the hometown team won by a significant margin in a similar manner. However, it was also found that sportswriters are more critical in their coverage of losses. As a result, this finding suggests that the “toy department” moniker is not fully applicable to the sports journalism profession when it is compared to blogging.

Committee:

Jeff Fruit, M.A. (Advisor); Danielle Coombs, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Haridakis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

sports journalism; sports bloggings; SB Nation; framing; college football; game coverage; textual analysis; NCAA; toy department; BIRGing; CORFing; social identity

Choudhary, Pankaj KASSESSMENT OF AGREEMENT AND SELECTION OF THE BEST INSTRUMENT IN METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2002, Statistics
We consider three problems that arise in studies comparing two or more methods that measure a continuous variable of interest. First is the basic problem of how to assess the degree of agreement between two methods (or instruments). If there is sufficient agreement between them, one can use them interchangeably or prefer the one that is cheaper or is easier to use. We employ tests of hypotheses to assess if the data have evidence for satisfactory agreement. In particular, we consider three formulations of satisfactory agreement and provide tests for the associated hypotheses. The formulations are: (i) both the mean and the standard deviation of the difference of measurements from the two instruments are close to zero; (ii) the means of the two measurements are close, their standard deviations are close, and their correlation is high; and (iii) a large proportion of the difference lies in an interval close to zero. In all the cases, the thresholds determining closeness are supplied by the investigator. The first two formulations give additional information regarding the nature and extent of disagreement when the data do not have evidence for satisfactory agreement. For the last formulation, we discuss both the parametric and nonparametric tests. Comparison of two instruments with a gold standard is the focus of the other two problems. We first consider how to select the instrument that agrees most with a gold standard in terms of mean squared deviation. This instrument is designated as the best one. For this selection problem, we present two large sample single-stage procedures and a two-stage procedure using the multiple comparisons with the best approach. Questions like which parameterization works well for the comparison and what sample sizes are adequate are answered using asymptotic theory and simulation. For the last problem, we determine, through a hypotheses test, whether the best instrument agrees sufficiently well with the gold standard before proceeding to its selection. We describe a two-stage procedure for this purpose and study its properties using the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic and simulation.

Committee:

Haikady Nagaraja (Advisor)

Subjects:

Statistics

Keywords:

Concordance correlation; Coverage probability; Hypotheses test; Intersection-union test; Limits of agreement; Multiple comparisons with the best; Selection of the best; Tolerance interval; Two-stage procedure

Papachristou, CharalamposConstructing confidence regions for the locations of putative trait loci using data from affected sib-pair designs
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Statistics

As more and more dense, yet cost-effective, genetic maps become increasingly available, the focus of linkage analysis is shifting from testing for linkage signals to sufficiently localizing putative disease loci before fine mapping begins. Currently, there exists only a limited number of methods that provide confidence regions for the locations of trait loci. Among them is the confidence set inference (CSI) procedure based on the mean IBD sharing statistic for data from affected sib-pair studies described by Lin (2002) that deduces such regions with known lower bound on their coverage. Although this method has many attractive features, including avoidance of multiplicity adjustment for the number of markers scanned, its formulation poses some restrictions that limit its usefulness on practical applications. First, it assumes that all markers are 100% polymorphic, so that the IBD state at each of them is inferred unequivocally, an assumption rarely met in reality. Second, when the genetic map available is sparse, it tends to produce intervals that overcover the trait locus. Finally, its application requires knowledge of the IBD sharing distribution at the trait locus by an affected sib-pair. These probabilities are estimated using population disease characteristics that can be obtained through epidemiological studies with reasonable accuracy. However, there is a number of issues that renders this method of estimating the IBD distribution impractical.

We propose several extensions that address some of the limitations of the CSI approach. First, we extend it to accommodate markers with incomplete polymorphism, thereby increasing its practical value. Next, we modify it so that it tests each location on the genome for its possibility to be the trait locus. This way, we obtain regions with known exact coverage probability, rather than placing a lower bound on it. Finally, a two-step application of the CSI approach promises to avoid using population disease characteristics, circumventing the issues associated with them. Through extensive simulations, theoretical results, and applications to real data we demonstrate that the new CSI versions are indeed effective tools for localizing genes, with increased capability, when compared to currently employed approaches.

Committee:

Shili Lin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Linkage Analysis; Confidence Intervals; Confidence regions; Putative Trait Genes; Coverage Probability; Confidence Level; Genetic Markers; SNPs; Microsatellite

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