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Bettaieb, Luc AlexandreA Deep Learning Approach To Coarse Robot Localization
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis explores the use of deep learning for robot localization with applications in re-localizing a mislocalized robot. Seed values for a localization algorithm are assigned based on the interpretation of images. A deep neural network was trained on images acquired in and associated with named regions. In application, the neural net was used to recognize a region based on camera input. By recognizing regions from the camera, the robot can be localized grossly, and subsequently refined with existing techniques. Explorations into different deep neural network topologies and solver types are discussed. A process for gathering training data, training the classifier, and deployment through a robot operating system (ROS) package is provided.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor); Murat Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Gregory Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

robotics; localization; deep learning; neural networks; machine learning; state estimation; robots; robot; robot operating system; ROS; AMCL; monte carlo localization; particle filter; ConvNets; convolutional neural networks

Sathyan, AnoopIntelligent Machine Learning Approaches for Aerospace Applications
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Engineering and Applied Science: Aerospace Engineering
Machine Learning is a type of artificial intelligence that provides machines or networks the ability to learn from data without the need to explicitly program them. There are different kinds of machine learning techniques. This thesis discusses the applications of two of these approaches: Genetic Fuzzy Logic and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) is a powerful tool that can be used for a wide variety of applications. FLS is a universal approximator that reduces the need for complex mathematics and replaces it with expert knowledge of the system to produce an input-output mapping using If-Then rules. The expert knowledge of a system can help in obtaining the parameters for small-scale FLSs, but for larger networks we will need to use sophisticated approaches that can automatically train the network to meet the design requirements. This is where Genetic Algorithms (GA) and EVE come into the picture. Both GA and EVE can tune the FLS parameters to minimize a cost function that is designed to meet the requirements of the specific problem. EVE is an artificial intelligence developed by Psibernetix that is trained to tune large scale FLSs. The parameters of an FLS can include the membership functions and rulebase of the inherent Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs). The main issue with using the GFS is that the number of parameters in a FIS increase exponentially with the number of inputs thus making it increasingly harder to tune them. To reduce this issue, the FLSs discussed in this thesis consist of 2-input-1-output FISs in cascade (Chapter 4) or as a layer of parallel FISs (Chapter 7). We have obtained extremely good results using GFS for different applications at a reduced computational cost compared to other algorithms that are commonly used to solve the corresponding problems. In this thesis, GFSs have been designed for controlling an inverted double pendulum, a task allocation problem of clustering targets amongst a set of UAVs, a fire detection problem and the aircraft conflict resolution problem. During the last decade, CNNs have become increasingly popular in the domain of image and speech processing. CNNs have a lot more parameters compared to GFSs that are tuned using the back-propagation algorithm. CNNs typically have hundreds of thousands or maybe millions of parameters that are tuned using common cost functions such as integral squared error, softmax loss etc. Chapter 5 discusses a classification problem to classify images as humans or not and Chapter 6 discusses a regression task using CNN for producing an approximate near-optimal route for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) which is regarded as one of the most complicated decision making problem. Both the GFS and CNN are used to develop intelligent systems specific to the application providing them computational efficiency, robustness in the face of uncertainties and scalability.

Committee:

Kelly Cohen, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Raj Bhatnagar, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Franck Cazaurang, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas C. Ernest, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Manish Kumar, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Materials

Keywords:

Genetic fuzzy logic;Convolutional neural networks;Fire detection;Aircraft conflict resolution;Multiple traveling salesman problem;Dynamic systems

Shakeel, AmlaanService robot for the visually impaired: Providing navigational assistance using Deep Learning
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Computational Science and Engineering
Assistive technology helps improve the day to day activities for people with disabilities. One of the methods utilized by assistive technologists employs the use of robots. These are called service robots. This thesis explores the idea of a service robot for the visually impaired to assist with navigation and is inspired by the use of guide dogs. The focus of this thesis is to develop a robot to achieve autonomous indoor navigation using computer vision to identify image based goals in an unfamiliar environment. The method presented in this thesis utilizes a deep learning framework, called Faster R-CNN, to train a computer to classify and localize exit signs in real time. A proof of concept is presented using NVIDIA Jetson, and TurtleBot, a robot kit, which runs a robot software development framework Robot Operating System (ROS). The model is trained successfully using Faster R-CNN and is validated. The model is used for real-time object classification on the prototype robot.

Committee:

Yamuna Rajasekhar (Advisor); John Femiani (Committee Member); Donald Ucci (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

Assistive technology; Deep learning; Robotics; Indoor navigation; Computer vision; Robot Operating System; ROS; Caffe; Faster R-CNN; Convolutional Neural Networks; CNN; Microsoft Kinect; Service robots; visually impaired; mobility; depth perception

Pech, Thomas JoelA Deep-Learning Approach to Evaluating the Navigability of Off-Road Terrain from 3-D Imaging
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Computer and Information Sciences
This work investigates a strategy for evaluating the navigability of terrain from 3-D imaging. Labeled training data was automatically generated by running a simulation of a mobile robot nai¨vely exploring a virtual world. During this exploration, sections of terrain were perceived through simulated depth imaging and saved with labels of safe or unsafe, depending on the outcome of the robot's experience driving through the perceived regions. This labeled data was used to train a deep convolutional neural network. Once trained, the network was able to evaluate the safety of perceived regions. The trained network was shown to be effective in achieving safe, autonomous driving through novel, challenging, unmapped terrain.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor); Cenk Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Michael Lewicki (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Mobile robots, Autonomous Navigation, Machine Learning, Artificial Neural Networks, Terrain, Simulation, Training Data, Data Generation, Labeling, Classifiers, Convolutional Neural Networks, Point Clouds, Perception, Prediction, Artificial Intelligence

Ghayoumi, MehdiFACIAL EXPRESSION ANALYSIS USING DEEP LEARNING WITH PARTIAL INTEGRATION TO OTHER MODALITIES TO DETECT EMOTION
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
Analysis of human emotion is very important as the field of social robotics where a new generation of humanoids and other smart devices will interact with humans. Emotional expression is a universal language for interaction with humans. Understanding human emotions is a necessary and important step for human-computer interaction. Human emotion is expressed as a complex combination of facial expressions, speech (including silence) and gestures postures, various limb-motions, gaze, and blinking. Multiple research models have been developed for limited facial expression analysis, speech based emotion analysis, limited models for gesture analysis and their limited integration. However, such analysis is limited to single frame analysis time-efficiency, limited handling of occlusion, notion of colors in facial expression analysis, lack of exploitation of symmetry, lack of dynamic change in assigning weight between the modalities based upon environmental requirement and six basic emotions. This research develops a convolutional neural network based deep learning model that recognizes human facial expressions exploiting a combination of symmetrical representation to handle occlusion; a unified model based upon transforming facial muscle motion to geometric feature points; fusion of multiple modalities and fast hashing techniques for real-time emotion recognition. It also proposes a new model for recognition of mixed-emotion in real-time.

Committee:

Arvind K. Bansal (Advisor); Javed I. Khan (Committee Member); Cheng Chang Lu (Committee Member); Stephen B. Fountain (Committee Member); William E. Merriman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Computer Science; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Human Computer Interaction, Emotion, Facial Expression, Deep Learning, Convolutional Neural Networks, Social Robots