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Malone, MaryLaurenDeception Dynamics: Identifying Patterns of Social Coordination during Truthful and Dishonest Conversation
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Arts and Sciences: Psychology
Deception and its detection are prevalent phenomena in almost all forms of social interaction. For some, lying is a relatively harmless part of maintaining relationships with friends and colleagues; for others, lie detection is a serious matter of public safety and security. However, weak theoretical and empirical support for the dominant perspective in deception research has prompted an appeal for a novel approach. As such, the current investigation presents an original experimental approach that is chiefly concerned with the contextually relevant interpersonal coordination dynamics of socially situated individuals at multiple levels of an interaction. Motivated by the dynamical systems framework for understanding behavior, the present study was developed in consideration of specific limitations within current efforts to understand deception. First, where existing research has largely ignored the social quality of an inherently social event by focusing on individuals rather than social units, the current study treats deception as a multi-scale phenomenon that emerges, fundamentally, between interacting individuals. Secondly, this project foregoes the traditional methodology of subjectively coding discrete, individual behaviors, focusing instead on techniques that capture the flexible, adaptive, and dynamic nature of social interaction. A fundamental hypothesis was that the coordination dynamics of co-actors would be influenced by the deceptive nature of an interaction. If the behavioral dynamics of deception differ from those of honesty, this difference may provide a basis for lie discrimination. To test this prediction, a set of experiments were performed to assess the dynamic structure of social coordination that occurs between co-actors. During a series of deception tasks, paired individuals conversed with the aim of lying undetected or detecting deception. Dynamic social coordination patterns were then assessed with respect to the ability of co-actors to detect deception. Results support the central prediction that the effect of deception on social coordination reflects corresponding differences in task performance. That is, the behavioral dynamics of truthful interactions were characterized by more robust patterns of coordination and stability than movement during deceptive interactions. Following the assumptions within a coordination dynamics framework, these results suggest that the coupled nature of an interaction is disrupted during deception, and moreover, that this disruption may provide a means through which liars can be identified. Indeed, task performance was better (i.e., more accurate, higher confidence) for interactions that embodied characteristic patterns of movement — the behavioral dynamics of high-performing pairs exhibited less stability and coordination when one of the individuals was lying, while the behavior of low performers did not. Such a relationship between lie-discrimination ability and coordination suggests that people are sensitive to information specifying deception. These findings provide seminal evidence of an observable behavioral process that reliably differentiates truthful and deceptive interactions: social coordination dynamics. As such, the research presented here provides valuable insight into how future work should approach the concept of deception, both theoretically and methodologically, representing a point of interest not only for many different fields in the behavioral and social sciences, but also for those concerned with law enforcement, business, politics, judicial processes, and national security.

Committee:

Michael Richardson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rachel Kallen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Riley, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Interpersonal behavior;Deception;Lie detection;Coordination dynamics;Complex systems;Social interaction

Muljono, DarwinThe Relevance of Emergence in Human-centered Design
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Design
This thesis proposes and explores a participatory design approach in the development of bottom-up, self-organizing systems. Such systems would have emergent phenomena. The theory of emergence covers a wide range of disciplines, from the study of consciousness, to behavior and ecology. Despite these variances, the theory of emergence follows an underlying principle: a distinct and new high-level property, such as behavior or function, emerges from the self-organizing aggregation and interaction of the lower-level components. This research explores the theory of emergence using actors that are not artificial agents, namely human beings. As the design disciplines have gone through different permutations over the past three decades from “designing for people to designing with people,” there is an opportunity for the theory of emergence to intersect with design when the focus shifts to designing “by people” (Sanders and Stappers, 2014). This thesis covers different exploratory studies from observational research to participatory design sessions, which eventually led to the main case study. The main case study focused on generative co-design research sessions that consisted of five groups of three participants. The participants of each group collaborated to build a system from the bottom-up by coming up with specific rules for an ideal experience. Then, the participants negotiated the specificity of those rules and the relationships of those rules to eventually emerge into a complex system. The discussions and negotiations of the participants acted as the catalyst for the interactions of the low-level components (the rules) that self-organized into a high-level system. This thesis makes a distinction between user-centeredness which focuses on the external behaviors of people, and human-centeredness which focuses on the internal aspects of people (otherwise recognized as the distinction between human factors and human agents). By looking at the internal aspects of people, such as intentions and creativity, this research attempts to study the fundamental conditions that allow not only a system to emerge from the group interactions of the individuals, but also allows the flexibility for the people to negotiate with each other in the open and incomplete systems.

Committee:

Paul Nini (Advisor); Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders (Committee Member); Marianna Klochko (Committee Member); Michael Kellner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Sociology

Keywords:

emergence; complex; systems; participatory; design; co-design; human-centered; bottom-up;

SUBRAMANIAN, VINODSOCRATES: Self-Organized Corridor Routing and Adaptive Transmission in Extended Sensor Networks
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Engineering : Electrical Engineering
Large-scale sensor networks (LSSN's) are formed when very large numbers of miniaturized sensor nodes with wireless communication capability are deployed randomly over an extended region, e.g., scattered from the air or embedded in material. Systems such as smart matter, smart paint and smart dust imply the existence of LSSN's, but they can also be used in applications involving large geographical regions such as environmental monitoring or disaster relief. Our contention is that, given their scale and random structure, LSSN's should be treated as complex systems rather than as standard wireless networks. Approaches from wireless networks typically have difficulty scaling up to large numbers of nodes, especially when the nodes have limited capabilities and are deployed over a region much larger than their communication range. We explore how a system comprising of very large number of randomly distributed sensor nodes can organize itself to communicate information. To keep the system realistic, we assume that nodes in our system are unreliable, have limited energy resources and have minimal on-board computational capabilities. Our focus is on the efficient routing of messages in such a system, specifically on the network algorithms aspect, rather than on issues such as hardware, signal processing and communication. The goal is to develop a system that scales effectively and is robust to node failures. The approach we propose is to limit the usage of bandwidth and energy while tapping the inherent parallelism of simple flooding to achieve robustness. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to simple flooding algorithms.

Committee:

Dr. Ali A. Minai (Advisor)

Keywords:

sensor networks; wireless networks; complex systems; adaptation; large scale networks

Deshpande, AdityaRobot Swarm Based On Ant Foraging Hypothesis With Adaptive Levy Flights
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Engineering and Applied Science: Mechanical Engineering
Design of robot swarms inspired by self-organization in social insect groups is currently an active research area with a diverse portfolio of potential applications. This thesis is focused on the development of control laws for swarm of robots inspired by ant foraging. Particularly, this work presents control laws for efficient area coverage by a robot swarm in a 2D spatial domain, inspired by the unique dynamical characteristics of ant foraging. The novel idea pursued in the effort is that dynamic, adaptive switching between Brownian motion and Levy flight in the stochastic component of the search increases the efficiency of the search and area coverage. The study is motivated by behaviors of certain biological studies who exhibit searching patterns modeled using Levy flight. Influence of different pheromone (the virtual chemotactic agent that drives the foraging) threshold values for switching between Levy flights and Brownian motion is studied using two performance metrics - area coverage and visit entropy. The results highlight the advantages of the switching strategy for the control framework, particularly in cases when the object of the search is scarce in quantity or getting depleted in real-time.

Committee:

Manish Kumar, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Ali Minai, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Thompson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering; Mechanics

Keywords:

Complex Systems;Multi-robot Systems;Swarm;Ant Foraging;Levy Flight;Robotics

Fern, Lisa C.A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Industrial and Systems Engineering
This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order to improve the the methodology for defining technology requirements for regulators in the future. The biggest shortcoming of the presented research program was the absence of the explicit definition, generation and analysis of potential human-automation architectures. Failure to execute this step in the research process resulted in less efficient evaluation of the candidate prototypes technologies in addition to a lack of exploration of different approaches to human-automation cooperation. Defining potential human-automation architectures a priori also allows regulators to develop scenarios that will stress the performance boundaries of the technology during the evaluation phase. The importance of adding this step of generating and evaluating candidate human-automation architectures prior to formal empirical evaluation is discussed. This document concludes with a look at both the importance of, and the challenges facing, the inclusion of examining human-automation coordination issues as part of the safety assurance activities of new technologies.

Committee:

David Woods (Advisor); Philip Smith (Committee Member); Jozef Raadschelders (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Engineering; Experiments; Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

human machine interface; human-automation interaction; human-machine coordination; complex systems; UAS; automation

Dyck, Loren R.Resonance and Dissonance in Professional Helping Relationships at the Dyadic Level: Determining the Influence of Positive and Negative Emotional Attractors on Effective Physician-Patient Communication
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Organizational Behavior
This research is a qualitative and quantitative study based on an archival examination of the relationships between the demonstration of behavioral affect as represented by positive and negative emotional attractors (PEA and NEA) and medical student effectiveness in a clinical diagnostic intervention, namely, the Clinical Skills Exam (CSE). The research question is “Does a medical student’s overall positive versus negative emotional tone influence his or her effectiveness in a clinical diagnostic encounter with a standardized patient (SP)?” The study analyzed 116 videotaped CSE encounters between medical students from the Class of 2009 at a medical school in a major mid-western university and SPs. A codebook of themes was developed from a sample of encounters between the Class of 2008 medical students and SPs which was used to code the behavior of the Class of 2009 medical students during the encounters. The associations among PEA and NEA themes and medical student effectiveness as measured by SP scores of the encounters, Faculty scores of notes written by medical students immediately after the encounters, and differential diagnosis scores were determined using moderated multiple regression (MMR) analysis. Medical student MCAT scores were examined as a possible moderator of the associations. MMR analyses found a significant positive association (p<.05) between PEA and the SP scores; near significant positive association (p<.10) between PEA and the Faculty scores of student notes; significant positive association (p<.05) between NEA and the Faculty scores of student notes; and a significant negative association (p<.05) between MCAT scores and the SP scores. A near significant positive moderating effect (p<.10) of MCAT scores on the association between PEA and the Faculty scores of student notes was also found.

Committee:

Dr. Richard Boyatzis, PhD (Committee Chair); Dr. Melvin Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Jamie Stoller, MD (Committee Member); Dr. Klara Papp, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Health Education; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

Positive and negative emotion; intentional change; complex systems; helping relationships; physician-patient communication; positive psychology

Massey, David“EXPERT” AND “NON-EXPERT” DECISION MAKING IN A PARTICIPATORY GAME SIMULATION: A FARMING SCENARIO IN ATHIENOU, CYPRUS
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Geography
The Greek-Cypriot village of Athienou, located in the UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus, lies at the front lines of a politically complex issue that divides the island of Cyprus. Developing an understanding of how Greek-Cypriot farmers’ agricultural decisions affects land use/cover change (LUCC) allows researchers to formulate models and assessment plans for future scenarios. Drawing from the Companion Modeling (ComMod) approach, this research uses ethnographic fieldwork to develop knowledge about Greek-Cypriot farming practices and the drivers of agricultural LUCC in Athienou through grounded theory. A conceptual model of the Athienou agricultural system is then built as a Role Playing Game (RPG). The RPG simulates the farming strategies and agricultural LUCC in Athienou in a scenario where the Turkish Occupied land to the north of the village becomes available for farming again. Two sets of participants, Greek-Cypriot farmers (“experts”) and undergraduate students (“non-experts”), then play the RPG. An examination of the outcomes from decision-making strategies of the “experts” and “non-experts” during the RPG scenario suggests a potential way to crowd-source information.

Committee:

Ola Ahlqvist, PhD (Advisor); Dan Sui, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Moritz, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Agent Based Modeling; Agriculture; Companion Modeling; Complex Systems; Crowdsourcing; Cyprus; Ecosystems; LUCC; Role Playing Games

Lamb, MauriceCharacteristics of Non-reductive Explanations in Complex Dynamical Systems Research
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Arts and Sciences: Philosophy
I argue that philosophical accounts of scientific explanation appear to agree that identification of constraints is a significant feature of scientific explanation. Moreover, scientific explanations are evaluated according to how well they facilitate human prediction, manipulation and understanding of a given phenomena. The constraints identified in an explanation may be due to the physical states and structures as they are observed, as in the speed of light or the mass of the coffee mug on the table. These are physical constraints. Constraints also depend on the choices and perspectives of the individuals or communities producing and consuming the explanation. These latter constraints I refer to as framing constraints. Framing constraints include the choice to observe a biological organism within a particular eco-system as well as the choice to explain in the context of the observable universe. Ultimately, both physical constraints and framing constraints are not distinctive categories but extremes on a continuum. Complex dynamical systems theory provides a framework for characterizing and understanding increases in system order in the context of certain constraints. Increases in system order entail increases in the observed correlations of spatial, temporal, or energetic features as represented by variations in a system’s degrees of freedom. I argue that these increases in correlation length provide a basis for identifying characteristic scales of a system of interest that are larger than the scale defined in terms of the system’s smallest components. In the context of scientific explanation, increases in order also result in the elimination of smallest scale degrees of freedom and their corresponding constraints. When the smallest scale degrees of freedom are eliminated from an explanation, the explanation is non-reductive. Given the proposed account of explanation in terms of constraints and insights regarding scale in terms of complex dynamical systems theory, I conclude that scientific explanations in the life and social sciences are sometimes non-reductive and multi-scale.

Committee:

Anthony Chemero, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jessica Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Polger, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Angela Potochinik, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Complex Systems;Explanation;Reduction;Non-reduction;Self-Organization;Philosophy of Science

Schwartz, Daniel H.Exploring Team Dynamics: The Evolution of Coordination in a Complex Command and Control Environment
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2008, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
The present study explores the dynamic and emergent behavior of two teams, separately working through a synthetic task environment representing a battle management command and control domain under two levels of organizational centralization. While the manipulation of centralization had minimal effects on overall performance, evidence suggested that the need to seek authorization for actions from a central authority was a source of frustration. Both teams adapted over time, changing patterns of coordination to better meet the task demands. The results are discussed in the context of the concepts of normal accidents, high reliability organizations, and self-organization in complex organizations. Specific parallels between sensemaking in organization and perceptual-motor coordination (i.e., collaborative structures and smart mechanisms) are discussed.

Committee:

John Flach, PhD (Committee Chair); Kevin Bennett, PhD (Committee Member); Scott Galster, PhD (Committee Member); W. Todd Nelson, PhD (Committee Member); Wayne Shebilske, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

Teams; Organizational Behavior; Sensemaking; Coordination; Complex Systems