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Keys, KathleenA search for community pedagogy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Art Education

Informed by community-based arts education, arts-based community development, and critical pedagogy, this research explores and articulates an evolving model of possibility for community pedagogy. Important and relevant for arts educators, arts administrators and other cultural workers, a community pedagogy utilizing the arts for social change offers entrances to reclamation of self, space and place leading to individual and/or communal agency and progressive social justice efforts.

Ethnographic methods such as participant/observation, portraiture of community-based arts workers, arts-based research methods, and narrative writing, were equally utilized to yield highly self-reflexive education data constructions resulting in significant implications for art education. The research journey culminated in a participatory visual art exhibition/installation entitled, A Search for Community Pedagogy: Collage Reclamations of Space and Self.

Artistic works created by the artist-educator-researcher-administrator including paintings, panels (visual journals) and mixed-media self-portraits developed visual metaphors which created understandings into relationships to pedagogical building blocks, assertion of voice, location as an activist, notions of community and even issues such as life and death. As the research progressed the artwork and narrative reflections served as signposts exposing new directions, clarifying emergent thinking and becoming part of data analysis.

Mirroring its exploration, community pedagogy is gradually presented in the research journey in the form of a collage. As an initial foundational layer, a base of a sincere and well functioning egalitarian community must exist, no matter what the teaching/learning setting. Next the educator/learner-cultural worker must commit to ideas of facilitative leadership and to empowering students/colleagues/communities. Additional layers include fostering an educative experience that demands decision-making, encourages freedom and facilitates self-expression. This creates a situation or experience of lived community – the essence of community pedagogy. Processes, evolutions, arts based research and manifestation of the exhibition/installation each reflected theories and performed practices of community pedagogy. Implications of community pedagogy for art education and the aforementioned sister fields are noted and the usefulness of arts-based research is discussed.

Committee:

Christine Ballengee Morris (Advisor); Vesta Daniel (Other); Patricia Stuhr (Other)

Subjects:

Education, Art

Keywords:

community; community pedagogy; community-based art education; arts-based community development; art education; arts for social change

GELTER, ADAM MEXPLORING THE SPECTRUM OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES: A TYPOLOGY OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT MODELS
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
This thesis examines models of community development in order to determine the areas in which they are most effective at impacting communities. Community development researchers and practitioners often ignore the wide range of possible approaches to community development by choosing to focus on a particular model. This thesis broadens the perspective of community development literature by focusing on the wide range of possible approaches and the specific aspects of community development in which each is most successful. To accomplish this task, five models are selected, organized based on levels of community participation, and examined in regard to their ability to impact communities based on a systematic evaluation framework. The result is a typology of ommunity development models that highlights the differences between different models of community development and identifies the aspects of community development to which each is uniquely well suited.

Committee:

Michael Romanos (Advisor)

Subjects:

Urban and Regional Planning

Keywords:

Community Development; Community Organizing; Community Development Corporations; Comprehensive Community Initiatives; Local Government; Business Leadership Coalitions

Krismer, Marianne ZwickAttibutes and Support Systems That Promote Resilience and Achievement for “At Promise” Community College Students
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Education : Educational Foundations
This qualitative study of five first generation community college students and four faculty who participated in high school to college bridge program(s) was undertaken in order to determine the attributes and personal and community support systems accessed by successful students. The students in the study all had significant academic and social barriers to their success. This study was grounded in resilience theory that is based upon 25 years of study, primarily on children, that suggests the nature of the human is to self-right, and with adequate support, the majority will be able to overcome adversity and achieve educational success. Interviews of students and faculty provided data that described the perceptions of attributes and support systems that promote resilience and achievement. Data was abstracted and coded for common themes for attributes, personal support systems and community support systems that foster resilience and achievement. There was significant agreement among the students and faculty in most categories, with individual stories illustrating how these successful students plan, overcome obstacles, and utilize resources to achieve success. Findings indicated that social competence, autonomy, goal setting, high expectations, teacher belief, identifying someone who cares and utilization of multiple individual and community support systems were key characteristics identified by these successful students and faculty who interact with “at-promise” students. The results of this study indicated that the personal attributes and support systems accessed by this young adult population are congruent with those accessed by successful children. Since this study is focused on achievement and resilience of a population that is typically identified as “at-risk”, it was determined to identify these students as “at-promise” promoting the positive concept that resilience is ordinary and achievable for the majority. Implications arising from this study include the need to provide intentional opportunities for students to develop their own attributes and identify and utilize support systems effectively. High school-to-college bridge programs were affirmed as being supportive of resilience and achievement. Bridge programs constructed to include caring, supportive teachers with high expectations; opportunities to develop social competence, autonomy, resources, and strategies to effectively re-right after failure will maximize success and provide connections for “at-promise” students.

Committee:

Dr. Mary Pitman (Advisor)

Keywords:

at-promise students; at-promise community college students; at-risk community college students,; resilience and community college students; achievement and community college students

Moore, Edward L.An Index of Biotic Integrity for Macroinvertebrates and Salamanders in Primary Headwater Habitat Streams in Ohio
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Natural Resources

The use of multimetric biological indices (e.g., IBI, ICI, MIwB) to assess aquatic communities is well established in Ohio. These indices provide a definitive numeric assessment of the stream biotic communities to judge against established biocriteria in state water quality standards. However, these assessment tools cannot be applied to the smallest headwater streams of watersheds. The Ohio EPA recognizes three different types of primary headwater habitat streams (PHWH) that have watershed area <2.56 km2 and deep pools < 40 cm. The Class III PHWH has the greatest diversity of taxa adapted to perennial cool-cold groundwater flow duration. The goal of this study was to develop indices of biotic integrity to be used as biomonitoring assessment tools for the Class III primary headwater habitat (PHWH) streams. Both macroinvertebrate assemblage and salamander community data were investigated to evaluate whether a known Class III PHWH stream was meeting performance standards as documented at least impacted PHWH watershed reference sites. Data were collected at both reference locations and range of impaired condition locations in two ecoregion areas of the state. An RDA analysis was done between invertebrate taxa and metrics (passive) and environmental variables. A distance matrix sorted metrics into hierarchical clusters. Final metrics were selected from clusters for ICI.

A PHWH Invertebrate Commmunity Index was developed that scored consistently and documented range of quality conditions among sample sites. All PHWH Class IIII reference sites scored > 70% to 100%. Range of impaired condition sites scored from < 10% to under 60%. Reference sites contained 3-5 salamander species at 7 of 10 sites. A Salamander Community Quality Index was developed that responded to environmental disturbances, and a wide range of quality was expressed between reference sites and the range of condition sites. Positive common associations of salamander species diversity were wide riparian corridors (range of 235-750 m), low percent silt and muck (range of 0-5%), and a mean forest cover of 56.4%.

The two developed indices, the PHWH Invertebrate Community Index and the Salamander Community Quality Index, were combined to form a Primary Headwater Community Quality Index (PHWH CQI). The use of both invertebrate and vertebrate response indicators to determine the biotic integrity of primary headwater streams is consistent with current Ohio EPA approach for larger streams where both the fish IBI and macroinvertebrate ICI are utilized. The Primary Headwater Community Quality Index can be applied to determine aquatic life use attainment as required by the Clean Water Act, preservation, mitigation, restorability, long-term land use development for watershed planning, and for establishing biocriteria for primary headwater streams wherever Class III type biological communities are documented to be present.

Committee:

Robert Gates, Dr. (Advisor); Lance Williams, Dr. (Committee Member); Charles Goebel, Dr. (Committee Member); Robert Davic, Dr. (Committee Member); Richard Moore, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science

Keywords:

Index of Biotic Integrity; Invertebrate Community Index; Salamander Community Quality Index; Primary Headwater Habitat Invertebrate Community Index; PHWH Community Quality Index

Cummings, Lindy“A promising little society”: Kinship and Community Among the White Water Shakers 1824-1850
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, History
This study examines the relationship between biological kin and Shaker community at the White Water Shaker village, tracing the transformation of natural kinship ties into a religious community designed to replace the biological family with a spiritual family. The role of the family in Shaker faith remains one of the hidden aspects of establishing what Jonathan Andelson calls an “intentional community.” While becoming a Shaker was constituted upon the premise of rejecting one’s biological kin, the Shakers continued to rely upon natural kinship connections for leadership and membership among the various communities. The end result was the fragmentation of kin and the emphasis on building new, fictive kin networks based on the Shaker model from the older eastern communities that used the language and structure of biological family to bind its members to one another. The role of the family opens new avenues of exploration into the process of Shaker community formation and persistence.

Committee:

Dr. Mary Frederickson, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Carla Gardina Pestana, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Andrew R. L. Cayton, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Families and Family Life; Religious History

Keywords:

White Water Shaker Village; White Water, history of; White Water Shakers; Shakers; community; family; kinship; religious community; intentional community; early Ohio;

Crowell, Cheryl D.Asset Mapping as a Tool in Economic Development and Community Revitalization: A Case Study of New Richmond, Ohio
BUP/MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
Asset Mapping utilizes the concepts of physical capital, human capital, and social capital, as a holistic way of evaluation for revitalization and economic development. Challenges exist within most communities and focusing on only one aspect of development and/or revitalization separate from the others is not beneficial in the long run for sustainable planning and more often than not causes a disconnection between residents, organizations, and local/regional institutions. Asset Mapping encourages cooperation between the components of a community that make it work, or not, and examines the structures of process. A capacity building initiative, Asset Mapping focuses on positive resources instead of needs and problems, encouraging momentum towards networking that can build a strong foundation connecting social and institutional dichotomy. Asset Mapping makes it easier to deal with community negatives by identifying and accentuating the positive resources which can be utilized efficiently and directly to resolve challenges and issues.

Committee:

Mahyar Arefi, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rainer Vom Hofe, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Jan Hillard, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joyce Malek, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Kennedy (Advisor)

Subjects:

Area planning & Business Community; Social Research; Urban Planning; development

Keywords:

Asset Mapping; Community Revitalization; Economic Development; Capacity Building; Community Development; Human Capital; Social Capital; Physical Capital; Environmental Capital; Asset Based Community Building; Asset-based;

Caye, MicheaFormative Research and Community Resilience: A Case of Under Addressed Youth Problem Gambling
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

The overarching research topic for this study is the issue of effectively engaging and informing community and government decision makers about health issues that can negatively impact a community's resilience. The question guiding this study is how can formative research engage and inform community and government decision makers about the under addressed issue of youth problem gambling (YPG) in Windham County, Vermont? The study has two aims: 1) to develop a formative research conceptual framework and evaluate its effectiveness in addressing the public health issue of youth problem gambling, and 2) to use the formative research methodology to develop a better understanding of Windham County community dynamics relative to the public health issue of youth problem gambling.

As defined in this study, formative research is the first stage of a health intervention initiative through which the dimensions, dynamics, stakeholders and general community awareness and understanding about a health challenge are established (Gittelsohn, J. Steckler, A. and Johnson, C. 2006; Valente, 2002). Research methods included interviews based upon snowball sampling, focus groups, journaling, relevant document review and informal conversations. Interview analysis was based upon Computer Aided Thematic Analysis (CATA) and developed within the framework provided by Greenhalgh et al's (2005) five-step qualitative research protocol. The study's conclusions, as well as informing next steps for approaching the under addressed issue of youth problem gambling in Windham County, Vermont, establish the broad applicability of formative research as a methodological approach for addressing all public health concerns whether the health risk is socio-economic, political, environmental and/or spiritual in origin.

Committee:

James Jordan, PhD (Committee Chair); Tania Schusler, PhD (Committee Member); Bradley Olson, PhD (Committee Member); Darrell Wheeler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Communication; Cultural Resources Management; Educational Sociology; Environmental Education; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Health; Health Education; Health Science

Keywords:

community resilience; formative research; community capacity building; youth problem gambling; rural health, participatory action research; health narratives; narrative inquiry; National Expert Panel on Community Health Promotion,; LIburd; Navarro

Van Ausdall, AndreaEXAMINING PROCESS AND PROGRESS IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING CINCINNATI COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTERS
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
Recently educators and planners have focused on the benefits of community participation in the creation of a new or renovated school facilities that include components available for use by the wider community. These community schools can act as a hub for neighborhood activity, offering amenities such as family support centers, after-school programs, and health and mental health services. This study examines the role of community engagement in planning educational facilities, specifically the case studies of two Cincinnati Public Schools, Riverview East Academy in Columbia Tusculum and Washington Park Elementary in Over-the-Rhine. The schools utilized similar approaches but reveal very different results. Conclusions include that one process does not fit all schools, that planners must be aware of and work with the dynamics of the community culture and politics, and that although the process is viable as a planning tool it may not always lead to the desired outcomes.

Committee:

Thomas Wagner (Advisor)

Keywords:

community learning centers; community schools; Cincinnati Public Schools; community engagement; Riverview East Academy; Washington Park Elementary; educational planning

York, Kathie J.The Community Health Workers' Role in the Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin Program in the Morogoro Rural District of Tanzania
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Nursing: Nursing - Doctoral Program

Between two and four million people in Tanzania, 5% to 10% of the population, are at risk of contracting a parasitic disease known as onchocerciasis. Prolonged exposure to the parasite that causes onchocerciasis can lead to unrelenting itching, chronic skin changes, and visual impairment or complete blindness. A community-based treatment program for the control of onchocerciasis called Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) has made significant gains in the prevention and treatment of onchocerciasis. External funding of the program through World Bank and WHO will end in 2015, at which time the sustainability of the treatment effects will be fully dependent upon national, regional, and local support. In looking for ways to boost treatment coverage in CDTI areas, the CHW is a human resource with the potential to create change within the community.

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore the community-perceived factors related to the sustainability of the CDTI program for onchocerciasis in southwest Tanzania and to evaluate the role of the community health worker (CHW) as a contributing factor to community participation in the program.

Methods: A mixed methods multi-level triangulation design was used to collect data from several sources in two villages in the Morogoro Rural District of Tanzania. Surveys and focus groups with community members, as well as semi-structured interviews with community-directed distributors (CDDs) of ivermectin (the medication to treat onchocerciasis) and local CHWs were used to address the research questions. In Tandai, 180 villagers participated in the survey and 15 in the focus groups. Individual interviews were conducted with two CDDs and one CHW. In Kizinga, 277 villagers participated in the survey and 27 in the focus groups. Individual interviews were conducted with three CDDs and two CHWs.

Results: Eighty six percent of participants who took the medication in Tandai and 96% in Kizinga did so for prevention/treatment. Final categories that emerged regarding not taking the treatment were lack of knowledge and CDDs needed more training and education. The community health worker in Tandai acted as a CDD and participated in the CDTI program. There was no role related to the medication program for the CHWs in Kizinga. There was an absence of an established collaborative relationship between the CDDs and CHWs in the two villages participating in this project and no direct relationship found between the CHW as part of the CDTI program and sustainability of the program.

Conclusion: Sustaining programs without supporting the growth of the CDDs and reinforcing the education of the communities could lead to decreased numbers of those treated for onchocerciasis and an increase in the public health threat. This research uncovered an opportunity for the CHW to take an active role in supporting and sustaining the CDTI program and contributing to the improvement of the lives of the people affected by this disease.

Committee:

Devon Berry, PhD (Committee Chair); James Boex, PhD,MBA (Committee Member); Donna Shambley-Ebron, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Health

Keywords:

Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin;onchocerciasis;community-directed distributors;community health workers;sustainability

Xie, QuanYouthful Users' Participation in Facebook Brand Communities: Motivations, Activities, and Outcomes
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Mass Communication (Communication)
The current study examines Facebook users’ motivations, activities, and outcomes for their participation/engagement on Facebook brand community pages with a mixed methods research design of in-depth interviews and a paper-based survey. As a result, this study found that users were not very much connected to the Facebook brand communities of which they were a part. Users tended not to consider themselves as dedicated members and generally showed a passive interest in these brand pages. They also participated inactively and did not commit heavily to these pages. In contrast, most users recognized Facebook as a suitable (or enjoyable) space for communication and social interaction with friends, but did not perceive a brand as a real “friend” on Facebook. Thus, Facebook is not a hospitable place for maintaining online brand communities because Facebook brand pages manifest a weaker form of community compared to what traditional online brand communities embody. Nevertheless, some user engagement (or participation) still happens on Facebook brand pages. Users were found to perform four types of activities when participating: contributing to brand communities, endorsing brand communities, consuming brand posts, and consuming user posts. Additionally, users were effectively driven to participate by Socially-oriented Motivation, Brand-oriented Motivation, Self-oriented Motivation, Hedonic Motivation, Utilitarian Motivation, and Friends’ Recommendation Motivation. Moreover, some significant linear relationships have been observed among users’ participation motivations, activities, and outcomes, which provided a foundation for understanding their passive participation in Facebook brand communities and for optimizing Facebook marketing strategy in the future.

Committee:

Drew McDaniel (Committee Chair); Greg Newton (Committee Member); Hong Cheng (Committee Member); Catherine Axinn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Facebook brand page; Facebook brand community; brand community; online brand community; social media marketing; Facebook marketing; Facebook usage; consumer engagement; motivation; youthful users; college students

Shepherd, Kathleen KayThe Influence of the College Environment on Community College Remedial Mathematics Instructors' Use of Best Practices in Remedial Mathematics
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Higher Education
An estimated 41% of the more than 11 million students who attend a community college need remediation, with remedial mathematics the most common course students need. The literature pertaining to best practices for student success in remedial mathematics abounds, yet, there is little evidence of the factors that influence instructor use of these best practices in the classroom. This study evaluated results of a 29-item survey of American Mathematical Association of Two Year Colleges’ members on the influence of instructor demographics, faculty development, institutional policies and procedures, and student support services on instructor use of best practices in teaching remedial mathematics. Developmental Theory served as the study’s theoretical framework, while the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education and the Input-Environment-Output Model served as conceptual frameworks. Analysis revealed nine significant predictors of overall use of best practices, four of which were influenced by instructor demographics, three by institutional policies and procedures, and two by professional development. This study may inform policymakers and administrators alike as they scrutinize the delivery of remedial mathematics courses.

Committee:

Ronald Opp, PhD (Committee Chair); Debra Harmening, PhD (Committee Member); William Weber, EdD (Committee Member); Grace Yackee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Mathematics Education

Keywords:

community college remedial mathematics; community college developmental mathematics; best practices community college teaching; developmental theory

Smith, Katherine K.A Phenomenological Study of Aesthetic Experience Within an Arts Council's Events and Programs: Finding Joy, Expression, Connection, and Public Good in the Arts
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2016, Educational Leadership
City Township made a township-level decision to utilize arts events and programming to create community formation within its public. A non-profit entity entitled the Arts Planning Council was established to harness the aesthetic experience within the arts and to address the deep state cuts to the township budget. My aim was to understand the formation of a community based arts education program, how it contributes to the meaning and creation of community, how human connection is created through existential aesthetic experience, and how it can lend a feeling of communitas (V. Turner, 1969) among township members. Through the interpretive discourse and the methodology of hermeneutical phenomenology, I analyzed how the Arts Planning Council made meaning of the aesthetic experiences that occurred in their arts events and programming that result in community creation. For two years, I functioned as a participatory observer and conducted formal and informal interviews with Arts Planning Council board members, township trustees, and township administrators. I applied horizontalization (Moustakas, 1994) to cluster significant statements from their accounts into consistent themes of understanding. Using the emerging themes of the arts as joy, the arts as expression, the arts as connection, and the arts as a public good as generative guides for writing, I divided the study into sections that elaborate on the phenomenon of the aesthetic experiences within the arts events and programming and how those experiences lead to community creation. I concluded that the members of the Arts Planning Council and township trustees understand the receptive joy, expression, and connection derived from the liminal experience of the arts creation and participation. The resulting feeling of spontaneous communitas lends a desire to continue communitas into a normative state. Ultimately, desire engenders a joint aim to deliver the arts as an irreducible, social good. This idea interrupts the discourse that arts education should only occur in schools and makes the responsibility for educating the public one held by all township members. The result is an ecology of education built within the revitalized community of City Township.

Committee:

Kathleen Knight-Abowitz, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art Education; Arts Management; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

community based art education; community of practice; aesthetics; community; arts council; communitas; public good; joy; expression; connection; ecology of education

Alston, Harry L.Urban League of Central Carolinas – Civil Rights Organizations in a New Era: An Action Research Study of One Organization’s Pursuit of New Strategies
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Leadership and Change
What leadership approaches and operational strategies should traditional civil rights organizations, like the Urban League, undertake to in this post-civil rights era? Specifically at the local level, what expectations must the Urban League of Central Carolinas satisfy to reassert its leadership in Charlotte? In recent years, an increasing array of social enterprises across different sectors has emerged to address failures in civil society. Civil rights organizations have long served a niche in the battle for an equitable society. However, the role of civil rights organizations in community revitalization has been diffuse and subject to fundraising constraints. I undertook this action research study to assist the Urban League of Central Carolinas in developing earned-income strategies based upon their assessment of market needs, resources and socio-political realities. The pursuit of such strategies will enable the agency to create new partnerships, renewed community engagement and greater financial sustainability. This study demonstrated the recurring nature of strategy development and execution. Interestingly, both external and internal environmental factors surfaced the following lessons: (1) Civil rights organizations remain relevant. There remains an important role for the ULCC (traditional civil rights organizations) in ameliorating the conditions of social and economic inequality; (2) Leadership by the ULCC must be fluid, vigorously asserted and continuously exercised. In addition, capacity building, engaged leadership and strategic alliances are necessary steps; (3) The depth and breadth of problems such as poverty, homelessness, and educational failures require comprehensive solutions, collaborative efforts and shared leadership; (4) Social enterprise strategies require organizational change and generative governance; and (5) Action Research practitioners must be alert to organizational readiness. Undertaking A/R efforts asks us to pay keen attention to team development and team process as key elements of one's methodologies. This study contributes to the field of community development and social change by broadening our understanding of the ways in which community-based organizations and their leaders evolve in response to economic and social influences. Such an understanding may enable us to improve organizational practice and improve local policy decisions. The electronic version of this dissertation is available in the open-access OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Alan Guskin, PhD (Committee Member); James Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Bennett, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black Studies; Economics; Entrepreneurship; Management; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Organizational Behavior; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Action research; Engaged scholarship; African Americans; Black leadership; Civil rights organizations; Community-based organizations; Community economic development; Community development; Nonprofit management; Shared leadership; Social enterprise

Vann, Mary LouiseUsing Volunteers to Increase Capacity: An Evaluation of Over-the-Rhine Community Housing
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
There is little dispute that volunteers affect the capacity of Community Development Corporations that they serve. What is not clear is the type of work performed that contributes to the effectiveness of the nonprofit where service is rendered. To better understand the degree that volunteers can impact a nonprofit's capacity, this project takes an objective view of Over-the-Rhine Community Housing, a grassroots Community Development Corporation, situated in Over-the-Rhine an inner-city neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Committee:

David Varady, PhD (Committee Chair); David Edelman, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Lenear (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Community; Sociology; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Over-the-Rhine Community Housing; OTRCH; Over-the-Rhine; OTR; community development corporations; community development; volunteers; volunteer labor; volunteers in nonprofits

McLaughlin, Sean M.The Effects of Community Building Programs on Student Neighborhoods Adjoining the Urban University Campus
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
Student neighborhoods near urban university campuses are unique neighborhood settings. Social problems resulting from thousands of college aged students living in dense enclaves in neighborhoods near university campuses are numerous. Rioting, high crime, negative neighbor relations and poor living conditions are examples of the many problems of the student neighborhood. As universities develop and implement strategies to address the challenges of the campus proximal student neighborhood, research must guide those practices. This study examines the effects of a specific community building program sponsored by a large mid-western research university located in a large metropolitan setting on social outcomes in the densely populated student neighborhood adjacent to its campus. The community building program is designed by Student Life staff to strengthen social ties and community in the student neighborhood. Social disorganization theory and sociological approaches to the study of neighborhoods are used to theorize important exogenous and intervening independent variables relevant to the student neighborhood context. These independent variables include demographic structures such as race, gender, age and socioeconomic status along with intervening structures such as friendship density, network associations (university versus neighborhood) and participation in university sponsored programs to build community. Dependent variables include social ties, sense of community, perceptions of informal social control and neighborhood satisfaction. Regression analysis is used to determine the extent to which participation in university community building programs predicts the outcome variables. The study concludes that participation in university sponsored programs has effects on social ties and perception of informal social control in the student neighborhood. Gender and race were found to negatively predict social ties formation. The study also concludes that living in neighborhoods where community building programs take place, regardless of the amount of an individual’s participation, predicts sense of community. Neighborhood satisfaction is not predicted by demographic variables or participation in the university sponsored community building program. Results also indicate that when a student identifies as a resident of specific street, or as a member of the community at-large, they tend to have greater sense of community. The discussion offers propositions for higher education administrators who are tasked with creating policy and practical interventions aimed at addressing the unique challenges with which these neighborhoods confront the institution.

Committee:

Ada Demb, EdD (Advisor); Helen Marks, PhD (Committee Member); Lenard Baird, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

student neighborhood; higher education; town-gown; neighborhood; co-resident neighborhood; sense of community; neighborhood intervention; community building program; community building

Bhatta, Deen BCOMMUNITY APPROACHES TO NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: SACRED AND NON-SACRED LANDSCAPES IN NEPAL
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2003, Environmental Sciences
This study examines the different kinds of management approaches practiced by local people in far-western Nepal for the management and conservation of two kinds of forests, sacred groves and community forests. It reveals the role of traditional religious beliefs, property rights, and the central government, as well as the importance of traditional ecological knowledge and local participation in management and conservation of the natural resources. In Nepal, the ties of local people with the forest are strong and inseparable. Forest management is an important part of the local livelihood strategies. Local forest management is based on either religious and cultural or utilitarian components of the local community. Management of the sacred grove is integrated with the religious and cultural aspects, whereas the management of the community forest is associated with the utility aspects. Overall, the management strategies applied depend on the needs of the local people.

Committee:

Adolph Greenberg (Advisor)

Keywords:

Community-based Natural Resources Management; Sacred grove; Bathyau Patal; Community Forestry; Bashulinga Community; Forest Management and Conservation in Nepal

Cerdera, Pablo MiguelHealing and Belonging: Community Based Art and Community Formation in West Oakland
BA, Oberlin College, 2015, Comparative American Studies
Community Based Art is a model of art making which centers community and interpersonal interaction. Through an in depth case study of Brett Cook's West Oakland based project "Reflections of Healing" this thesis attempts to understand how community is both reflected and constructed in Community Based Art, as well as the political, social, and aesthetic consequences of this construction. Of particular interest are the relationships between art, community, race, class, gentrification, and self-determination. Ultimately, this thesis finds that through an ambivalent and sometimes messy process of collaboration, Reflections of Healing constructs a hopeful and positive image of community that prefigures a better world. This image does not come from nothing, but is built from a long history of organizing, activism, and community formation in Oakland, reflecting the importance of the creation of counter-hegemonic images of community, even while remaining open and inclusive for all. Although Cook intentional chooses not to face many social and political issues head on, the community constituted in the project carries with it the potential to make radical political change, and reflects the radical history of West Oakland, most significantly the history of the Black Panther Party (BPP). Cook's emphasis on healing reflects the deep traumas, both historical and contemporary, faced by many Oakland residents, particularly long term Black and Latinx residents, while remaining positive about the future. While it is not without room for critique in terms of the relationship to and definition of community, Reflections of Healing proves to be deeply meaningful for some of the participants and residents, and creates possibilities for community self-definition.

Committee:

Wendy Kozol, Professor (Advisor); Pablo Mitchel, Professor (Committee Member); Janet Fiskio, Professor (Committee Member); Shelley Lee, Professor (Other)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; American History; American Studies; Art Criticism; Art History; Black Studies

Keywords:

Art;Community;Community Based Art;Social Practice;Race;Class;Gentrification;California;Oakland;West Oakland;Black Panther Party;Aesthetics;Social Justice;Social Change; Community Formation;Politics of Aesthetics;Black Art;Latinx Studies

Duman, AliEffects of Contingent Factors on Community Policing Activities: A Critical Analysis of Adopting a Certain Policing Model
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science
In parallel with the apparent ineffectiveness of the police agencies against rising crime rates, community policing emerged as an alternative to traditional policing starting in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Popularity of community policing spread nationwide when President Clinton signed the "Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994" on September 13, 1994. Community policing has not only attracted the police departments but also has drawn the attention of scholars and main body of existing literature has generally focused on the effect of community policing on its dependents such as police officers, police departments, and communities. This approach is one-sided and fails to reflect the other side of the coin. Can community policing be dependent upon other factors? Is there any variation across police agencies nationwide in their implementation of community policing? If any, what are the determinants of this variance? Using contingency theory which assumes that philosophy and structure of an organization are influenced by a variety of internal and external dynamics, it is mainly hypothesized that community policing is contingent upon a set of individual, departmental, and societal factors. Overall, the findings of analyses suggest that internal contingencies (both individual and structural) play a relatively more significant role than external contingencies (societal and environmental) in police departments’ decisions with implementing community policing strategies.

Committee:

Nawal Ammar (Advisor)

Keywords:

POLICING; COMMUNITY POLICING; Police; COMMUNITY; Crime; POLICING ACTIVITIES; COMMUNITY POLICING ACTIVITIES

Appleman, Ashley R.POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT OF MILLENNIALS ON A SMALL COLLEGE CAMPUS
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2010, Educational Leadership
The purpose of this study was to assess whether one private, residential campus had created an atmosphere and culture that encouraged political involvement and civic engagement. This ethnographic study consisted of observational findings, content analysis of institutional documents, and three focus groups composed of residential students who attended Midwestern College. Five central themes were indentified as meaningful influences on Millennial students' levels of political involvement and civic engagement: (a) Campus Connection with the Community, (b) Family-like Campus Atmosphere, (c) Emphasis on Community Service, (d) Awareness of Local, National and Global Issues, and (e) Foundational Quaker Values. These themes were integrated into varied aspects of campus life, developing a campus climate that positively influenced students' levels of civic engagement and political awareness. It was found that the core Quaker values were the foundation for students' levels of political involvement and civic engagement, as well as the other four themes.

Committee:

Lawrence Mrozek, MA (Committee Co-Chair); Charles Ryan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Rick Danals, PhD (Committee Member); Suzanne Franco, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

civic engagement; political involvement; community service; Millennials; small private college; Quaker; awareness; community; campus climate

Tirado, Sandra M.Effects Of Turning Frequency, Pile Size And Season On Physical, Chemical And Biological Properties During Composting Of Dairy Manure/Sawdust (Dm+S)
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2008, Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Composting offers the potential to significantly reduce problems associated with manure management including odors, pathogens, ground water pollution, and utilization costs. Two variables that directly affect on-farm composting costs are windrow size and windrow turning frequency. However the size of a windrow is limited by the depth of penetration of oxygen and high temperatures as well as available equipment. In this study three full scale compost sets were set-up at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Developing Center (OARDC) compost pad to evaluate the effects of turning frequency, pile size and seasonal variability on physical (temperature, oxygen, bulk density, moisture and weigh loss), chemical (volatile solid loss, pH, Carbon and Nitrogen concentrations) and biological (plant growth bioassays and microbial community structure) parameters during dairy manure/sawdust composting (DM+S). Based on these data the operational costs for producing and transporting compost were estimated and compared to those for liquid manure and fertilizer.

The three treatments consisted of a set of windrows (A) which were turned using a self propelled and tractor drawn windrow turner every three days for a total of 32 turns during 16 weeks, a second set (B) that was turned once every ten days and a third set (C) consisting of much larger piles turned that was also turned every ten days with a loader. All three sets were composted in both winter and summer for 120 days.

The hypotheses of the study was that; turning frequency, pile size and season do not significantly affect compost process parameters or the final chemical, physical or biological properties of cured composts.

Results showed that neither physical chemical nor biological properties of the final cured composts were significantly affected by turning frequency, season or pile size (p > 0.05). During composting, he the surface area, oxygen concentrations and Total nitrogen losses were significantly affected by pile size (p < 0.05). Turning frequency affected (p < 0.05) mass losses, bulk density and total nitrogen losses. The seasonal effects on composting during the process were primarily related to moisture (p < 0.05), mostly due to ambient temperatures which affects water holding capacity of air. Despite these process differences, the final cured composts from all treatments and seasons had similar properties (p > 0.5).

Plant growth bioassays showed a high emergence percentage (> 80%). The fertilized cucumber plants grown in composts from the various treatments in summer had higher shoot dry weights than peat controls (≥ 100%) except for day 30 in pile C (89%). The unfertilized cucumbers plants showed an increase of shoot dry weight at the end of the composting process (day 120) except for windrow A in summer. However the bioassay tests were inconclusive.

Microbial Community analysis, based on Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (T-RFLP), showed that management differences (turning frequency, pile size and season) did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) microbial community structure. Clustering, pairwise comparison, principal component analysis (PCA) and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to determine the similarities and differences between microbial communities in the different treatments. In each treatment a different subset of TRFs were present suggesting that different classes of organisms predominate during different stages of composting.. However, one terminal restriction fragment H371 contributed significantly (p < 0.1) to the observed variation as a function of compost age.

The Restriction Fragment (TRF) sizes obtained in the different treatments were compared to fragment sizes predicted by in silico amplification and digestion (RDP v.9.0) to characterize the microbial community in the composts. TRFs fragments sizes were also compared to a clone library of 263 sequences from composted dairy manure. Representative TRFs (61, 93, 99, 159, 167, 205, 215, 227, 365, 373, 437 and 481) in the compost samples were consistent with the predicted TRFs of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria.

The main factor affecting total compost production operational cost was the cost of the bulking agent. Operational costs for frequently turned windrow were higher ($109/Mg) compared to the infrequently turned windrow ($95/Mg), and the infrequently turned piles ($93/Mg). These differences are due to the time that is needed to turn and the equipment fuel costs. Thus, infrequent turning (every ten days) with larger windrow sizes reduced the operating costs associated with unseparated dairy manure composting compared to more frequently turning windrows. It is recommended for the farmers to use a turning frequency of ten days and piles with a surface to volume ratio of 0.9-1.2 m2/m3 to minimize operational costs. If composting is performed in temperate climates there is a need to consider the moisture content at the beginning of the process to prevent moisture irregularities during the process.

Committee:

Frederick Michel, PhD (Advisor); Harold Keener, PhD (Committee Member); Brian McSpadden Gardener, PhD (Committee Member); Warren Dick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Engineering

Keywords:

composting, composting; wastes; dairy manure sawdust; microbial community; management practices; operational costs; turning frequency, dairy manure sawdust, microbial community, management practices, operational costs, turning frequency

Klingensmith, James MeadeReinventing Britain: British National Identity and the European Economic Community, 1967-1975
BA, Oberlin College, 2012, History

The project of European integration has always threatened traditional conceptions of national identity and sovereignty in member states of the European Community (EC), later the European Union. This is especially true in Great Britain, which has had an ambivalent relationship with the rest of Europe. This thesis presents a comparative analysis of two key moments in Britain's relationship with Europe, and thus two key moments for British national identity: the 1967 debate over British membership in the European Community, and the 1975 public referendum over remaining in the Community in which Britons voted to remain inside the EC by a majority of 67.2%.

For both moments, it looks at the role that Prime Minister Harold Wilson played in the debates using Parliamentary records and declassified Cabinet papers, as well as the public discourse as seen in letters to the editors of regional British newspapers.

In 1967, Britons were largely opposed to EC membership; in 1975 they voted in its favor. This shift can be attributed to a change in how Britons viewed their history. Under the leadership of Harold Wilson, Britons marshaled a new narrative of their history - particularly of their role in World War II - that shifted British national identity closer toward Europe. This shift was not permanent, but the point is that it never could be. National identity itself is impermanent. Though it can have constant pillars, it is ultimately the product of the specific historical narratives to which a nation subscribes. Different stories of the past imply different results for the future. Thus, by aligning behind a new historical narrative, Britons were able to shape their nation's behavior.

Committee:

Leonard V. Smith, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Great Britain; United Kingdom; national identity; Britons; European Community; European Economic Community; EEC; European Union; EU; public opinion; Harold Wilson

Cabaniss, Amy DyerMessage Matters: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Increase Household Hazardous Waste Program Participation
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
Removing household hazardous waste (HHW) from the municipal solid waste stream is important to protect health, safety and the environment. Communities across the U.S. separate HHW from regular trash for disposal with hazardous waste, however nationally, participation rates are low with only five to ten percent of households estimated to participate in any given collection. This two-part study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understand individuals’ beliefs and attitudes toward HHW collections, and to develop a print message intervention to increase participation. In Study 1, respondents (N = 983) completed a survey administered to homeowners in the Connecticut River Estuary region. Correlational and regression mediation analyses showed that the TPB significantly predicted self-reported attendance at an HHW collection. Despite wide use of the TPB in studies designed to predict intention and behavior, application in behavior change interventions is not common. Thus in Study 2, an experiment was conducted in which the sample comprised of survey respondents and non-respondents (N = 2,409) was randomly assigned to receive one of the following intervention print message treatments: (1) only factual information about the HHW collections; (2) factual information plus positive attitudes toward HHW collection participation; (3) factual and normative messages about HHW participation; and (4) factual, attitudinal and normative messages. The control condition was single-family households in the region that received neither the survey nor treatment. Results of the experiment were mixed. The information-only card showed a 15% participation rate while the card that provided information and appealed to both attitudes and norms, showed a 22.5% participation rate, compared to the control group with 8.7% participation. Two conditions hypothesized to show significant increases in participation, an information and attitude message card and an information and normative message card did not significantly differ from the control. The results of this research imply that direct-mailed print messages with program information and appeals to both attitudes and norms can be an effective tool for motivating HHW collection participation

Committee:

Thomas Webler, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Tremblay, Ph.D. (Committee Member); P.Wesley Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Communication; Conservation; Environmental Health; Environmental Studies; Experiments; Marketing; Social Psychology

Keywords:

survey; experiment; Theory of Planned Behavior; communications messages; community-based social marketing; community; household hazardous waste; HHW; environmental behavior

Clinnin, Kaitlin MMoving from "Community as Teaching" to "Community as Learning": A New Framework for Community in Higher Education and Writing Studies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, English
Community is a concept with tremendous power in higher education and writing studies. For higher education institutions, community influences the purpose and method of education. Based on John Dewey’s work on the social nature of education and other histories of community-based education, higher education practitioners and theorists like Ernest Boyer and Vincent Tinto call for the university to embrace its identity as a community to better educate students. As a result of the “university as community” model, institutions have created curricular, co-curricular, and extracurricular programs like community-based education, living-learning communities, and community outreach to foster students’ sense of belonging to the institution. Furthermore, several studies have linked students’ sense of institutional community to increased student retention and graduation rates. Community is also a foundational concept in writing studies’ disciplinary scholarship and pedagogical practices. Based on social theories of writing, writing scholars and instructors implement collaborative pedagogical practices like peer review and class curriculum like writing across communities that simulate the community contexts of writing practices. Scholars also engage in community-based research into discursive communities, community engagement, and community literacies, among other forms. However, writing studies scholarship also complicates the idea of community, scholars like Joseph Harris argue that the focus on community obscures conflict or the power dynamics that are always present within groups. In spite of the critique presented by Harris, community is still present in the scholarship and pedagogical practice of writing studies ranging from conference themes, presentation titles and abstracts, research articles, teaching philosophies, and course syllabi. In spite of community’s omnipresence in higher education and writing studies, few studies critically examine the ideology of community and how this ideology manifests in institutional policies and pedagogical practices. Furthermore, the interactions among individual educators, disciplinary, and institutional ideologies of community also remains unexamined. For example, no studies examine how the disciplinary understanding of community in writing studies or institutional definitions and practices of community influence disciplinary scholarship or pedagogy. Three major assumptions inform community in higher education contexts: (1) institutional community is the result of administrative, curricular, and pedagogical actions, (2) students experience the institutional community as intended, and (3) community benefits student learning. I refer to these assumptions as the “community as teaching” framework. In practice, a “community as teaching” framework emphasizes the cultural and pedagogical practices that create community for instructors. Focusing on the teacher experience of community risks neglecting alternative community structures and community-building strategies that can enhance students’ learning. In this dissertation, I examine several sites in higher education and writing studies to reveal the “community as teaching” framework. Ultimately, I argue for higher education and writing studies practitioners to adopt a new framework of “community as learning.” A “community as learning” framework places student learning at the center of conversations about community in higher education settings.

Committee:

Kay Halasek (Committee Chair); Scott DeWitt (Committee Member); Beverly Moss (Committee Member); Cynthia L. Selfe (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Higher Education; Rhetoric

Keywords:

classroom community; community; composition; higher education; pedagogy; professional development; writing; writing studies

Alexander, Stephanie J. H.Views from the Summit: White Working Class Appalachian Males and Their Perceptions of Academic Success
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Cultural Studies (Education)
This research study explored how White working class Appalachian males who have completed, or who were within one term of completing a program of study at one of ten community and technical colleges in West Virginia perceived academic success. It examined their definitions of academic success, the perceptions they held regarding their own past and present academic successes, as well as their views regarding factors from their lived experience that they felt contributed to their program of study completion. Using qualitative methodology, data was collected through semi-structured interviews with eight participants. It was designed to reflect the tenets of Appreciative Inquiry. While reflecting the changes within White working class identity formation in response to the deindustrialization of the economy, the findings of this study present two contradictions with the research literature. The first is that these men were found to define academic success from a working class perspective. This demonstrated their adherence to working class cultural capital while successfully completing a postsecondary program of study. This implies they did not need to abandon their working class cultural capital in lieu of new cultural capital in order to be successful at the college level. Furthermore, the factors from their lived experience that participants named as contributing to their program of study completion were factors that have previously been identified in research literature as factors that commonly present as barriers to postsecondary success for working class students. However, the participants in this study indicated these factors presented as positive influences that assisted in facilitating their academic success. Additionally, the perceptions of past and present academic success held by participants were noted as those that 1) reflect the development of/presence of positive psychological capital within these individuals and 2) demonstrate the educational experiences of these men represent the working class identity in transition.

Committee:

Jaylynne Hutchinson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Michael Hess, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jerry Johnson, Ed.D (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Community Colleges; Education Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education

Keywords:

working class; academic success; community colleges; West Virginia community and technical college system; rural education; academic success and working class; higher education and working class; White working class men; West Virginia higher education

Faigin, David AdamCommunity-Based Theater and Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities: An Investigation of Individual and Group Development, Social Activism, and Community Integration
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Psychology/Clinical
The present study is a qualitative inquiry focused on understanding community-based theater involving people living with psychiatric disabilities through the narratives of the troupe members and directors. The study uses a grounded theory case study design to investigate The Stars of Light theater troupe in Rockford, Illinois. The research specifically explores the developmental processes of the troupe and its members, social activism, and critical characteristics of the theatrical form. The project addresses individual, setting/group, and community levels of analysis using semi-structured interviews, a focus group, and archival/performance data. Emergent themes were analyzed through a hierarchical coding process that ultimately generated 18 theoretical constructs across the three primary domains of interest (developmental processes, social activism, and characteristics of theater). Findings indicate that individual, setting, and organizational characteristics interact with one another in a variety of ways, including 1) troupe flexibility enhances sustainability and personal growth, 2)personal gains from involvement are carried forward into other life settings outside the troupe,and 3) troupe activities impact the wider community in several ways beyond direct audience contact. Results also revealed emergent constructs related to the identity development of consumer participants, setting dynamics and trajectories, and theater as a means of aiding in the recovery process. These constructs are discussed in relation to previous research and theory related to recovery, identity and serious mental illness (SMI), consumer-driven programs, and arts initiatives. Specific recommendations are presented for mental health settings, theater settings, and activist organizations; study limitations and suggestions for future inquiry are also discussed.

Committee:

Catherine Stein, PhD (Committee Chair); Kenneth Pargament, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Gillespie, PhD (Committee Member); Peterann Siehl, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health

Keywords:

psychiatric disabilities; SMI; community-based theater; community integration; grounded theory; qualitative research

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