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Conley, Brandon WMinore(m) Pretium: Morphosyntactic Considerations for the Omission of Word-final -m in Non-elite Latin Texts
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
This research examines the circumstances of the omission of the letter m in word-final position in non-elite Latin texts, and proposes a morphosyntactic pattern to explain omission. Word-final m was not pronounced in non-elite Latin of the imperial period, and the letter is frequently absent in phonetically spelled texts, particularly as a grapheme. However, a number of texts remain in which the letter is both written and included. The authors of such texts demonstrate awareness that the letter should be written in final position (despite the lack of pronunciation), yet under certain circumstances they still choose to omit it. The paper suggests that the circumstances of the letter’s omission and inclusion are pattern-based, and that authors are more likely to omit the letter in two morphosyntactic environments (which are not independent from one another). Firstly, omission takes place more often following the vowels a and e than after u. Inflected words ending in a or e were common to the non-elite Latin morphological system, whereas words ending in u were not. Omitting final -m after u would have thus produced a word which did not end in an acceptable word-final grapheme. Secondly, omission is more likely in prepositional phrases, and nominal phrases in which another grapheme marking the same function is present. Both types of phrase contain another form which marks the syntax, rendering the presence of the grapheme less valuable; the prepositions themselves govern their phrases, while the presence of at least one grapheme appears to sufficiently identify the syntactic role of the entire phrase. The greater willingness to omit after a and e continues to be operative within the phrases. Several types of non-elite texts are examined for their patterns of omission and inclusion of final -m, including business contracts, personal letters, graffiti, and votive offerings. The texts range from the first century BCE to the fourth century CE, with wide geographic distribution from locations such as Britain, Egypt, Italy, and Turkey.

Committee:

Jennifer Larson, PhD. (Committee Chair); Brian Harvey, PhD (Committee Member); Radd Ehrman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Languages; Classical Studies

Keywords:

Latin; Non-elite Latin; Non-literary Latin; Latin Linguistics; Classics; Latin Morphology; Latin Phonology; Latin Syntax; Vulgar Latin

NEWHARD, JAMES MICHAEL LLOYDASPECTS OF LOCAL BRONZE AGE ECONOMIES: CHIPPED STONE ACQUISITION AND PRODUCTION STRATEGIES IN THE ARGOLID, GREECE
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Arts and Sciences : Classics
This study investigates the regional acquisition, production, and distribution patterns of chipped stone in the Bronze Age Argolid. Specific focus was placed on the discovery of lithic resources which would have provided usable cherts to the Argive settlements. A chert resource near the village of Ayia Eleni appears to have been used by a number of prehistoric communities. Quantities of local chert from these settlements indicate that the northeastern section of the Argolid (Mycenae, Midea, and Tzoungiza) used more quantities of the material than other Argive sites. A model of embedded procurement, encapsulated within pastoral transhumance, is suggested as the method by which the stone was transported from the primary source to the Argive settlements. This interpretation indicates that economic activities were occurring outside the control of the palatial centers, further supporting the theory that the palatial component of the Mycenaean economy was more limited in scope than is often thought.

Committee:

DR. GISELA WALBERG (Advisor)

Keywords:

lithic analysis; archaeology; aegean prehistory; classics

WILLIAMS, ERIN L.ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN ELIS. A DIACHRONIC STUDY OF THE ALPHEIOS RIVER VALLEY WITH A CATALOGUE OF MATERIAL FROM JEROME SPERLING'S 1939 SURVEY
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Arts and Sciences : Classics
In 1939, Jerome Sperling conducted an extensive, non-systematic archaeological survey of the province of Elis, in the north west Peloponnese. He published a preliminary report of his findings in 1942. Despite intentions to the contrary, Sperling never returned to finish his survey. In the spring of 2000, the material that he collected in 1939 was donated to the Classics Study Collection of the University of Cincinnati. This thesis focuses on the material from sites within and near the Alpheios river valley in the heart of Elis. Within the thesis, there is a catalogue of the artifacts from the sites within this defined study area. These artifacts range in date from the Early Helladic period through post-Roman periods. In order to understand this material within the archaeological landscape of Elis, this thesis also includes a historiography of archaeological investigation in Elis, with an emphasis on the Alpheios river valley. An increase in our knowledge of the archaeology of Elis and the surrounding areas since Sperling's day permitted new conclusions to be drawn from the analysis of the material concerning settlement patterns in that part of Greece.

Committee:

Dr. Gisela Walberg (Advisor)

Subjects:

Anthropology, Archaeology

Keywords:

Alpheios river valley; Classics Study Collection; Elis

Dunkle, Iris JamahlShaking the Burning Birch Tree: Amy Lowell’s Sapphic Modernism
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, English
This dissertation examines Amy Lowell’s poetry, her use of allusion especially pertaining to her expression of Sapphic Modernism, and her significant contribution to a new, lyric tradition rooted in America. In this study, I define Sapphic Modernism as poetry that is written in a style similar to Sappho’s, and which alludes to and refigures the ideas, images, and motifs of Sappho’s work and of other poets in modern ways to gain new poetic perspective. By alluding to Sappho’s images and motifs, and internalizing Sappho’s poetic craft, Lowell empowered her lyric gift and shaped her expression of modernism. Lowell’s Sapphic Modernism activates the female body as a landscape of desire where the beloved is both a subject and object and elevates the act of writing about love into an epiphanic experience. As a woman and as a lesbian, she inherited a fragmented tradition that called upon her to reclaim what had not yet been publically spoken. Lesbian eroticism, the depiction of female desire and a gynocentric approach to literary history and form lay at the heart of this act of reclamation. Like Sappho, Lowell challenges and re-writes her poetic predecessors in order to create poetry that is inclusive of her unique experience as a woman and a lesbian. Lowell’s modernism celebrated the aesthetics of her own daily life while encouraging inclusivity within the poetic tradition in which she was writing. By close reading of Lowell’s poetry, looking at how she engaged her predecessors, and studying how her work influenced the poets who have written after her, this study illuminates the deep impact her work has had on subsequent generations of poets affected by her work. Lowell’s Sapphic Modernism created a revisionary call and response between the poetic voices of the past and the poets of the future, creating a foundational vision of an American/world poetry that is constantly challenging and refashioning its borders. If we shake the burning birch tree of Lowell’s invention, we can find, almost a century later, the falling fruit of multiple generations flourishing in the work of poets male and female, gay, bisexual and straight.

Committee:

Judith Oster, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Mary Grimm (Committee Member); Gary Stonum, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Martin Helzle, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Classical Studies; Comparative Literature; Gender; Literature; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Amy Lowell; Sappho; Sapphic Modernism; American Literature; Lyric poetry; Classics; allusion; poetry; feminist studies;

Fechik, Jennifer RInteraction in the Symposion: An Experiential Approach to Attic Black-Figured Eye Cups
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Art/Art History
Archaic Greek ceramic kylixes with painted eye motifs are commonly known as eye cups, and date to 535-500 BCE. Due to the strikingly noticeable eye motifs on their outer surfaces, these cups are traditionally analyzed almost exclusively by interpreting their painted imagery. Such an approach does not, however, yield a complete understanding of the ways these objects functioned, appeared, and influenced the all-male drinking parties of the Archaic Greek symposion. This paper presents a new evaluation of eye cups by utilizing an experiential approach to reconstruct ancient experiences with these objects. Utilizing viewer response theory, affect theory, and object agency theory, three case studies focusing on the interactions between the ancient user and object are explored. The first eye cup features naval imagery on the exterior and a Gorgon on the interior; in this case, the eye cup compelled the user to take on a heroic role to lead in a naval battle and also conquer the Gorgon. The second eye cup features various mythological figures on the exterior with also a Gorgon on the interior. In this case study, the represented figures are generic mythological beings and allow the viewer(s) an open interpretation so that the cup could become an active participant in performance by possessing the characteristics of a theatrical mask. The eye cup analyzed in the final case study references sexual connotations on the exterior, with a plain interior. Creating a complete reconstruction of the interaction in the third case study finds a cyclical connection between object and the original context, the symposion, as well as creating levels of power based on the object one drank from. Through this experiential approach, I have found that eye cups were multi-functional contributors to the ancient Greek symposion and these ancient interactions are still accessible to modern scholars.

Committee:

Stephanie Langin-Hooper, PhD (Advisor); Andrew Hershberger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Art History; Classical Studies; Fine Arts; History

Keywords:

symposion; symposium; art; art history; greek; ancient art; interaction; experiential; affect; agency; object agency; ceramics; pottery; classics

Richards, JohnThucydides in the Circle of Philip Melanchthon
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Greek and Latin
This dissertation studies the reception of the Greek historian Thucydides (c. 460-395 B.C.) by Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg and theological right hand man to Martin Luther, as well as by a number of Melanchthon’s students and friends. I begin by examining the work on Thucydides done by Melanchthon himself, which primarily comes from an unpublished manuscript now in Hamburg, Germany, Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Cod. Philol. 166, dated to the 1550s. As it stands, this manuscript claims a unique and important status as one of the oldest – if not the oldest – examples in existence of lectures delivered on Thucydides in the Latin West. I will also analyze the 1565 commentary on Thucydides by Melanchthon’s close professional friend, Joachim Camerarius, and the 1569 commentary and translation of Thucydides by one of Melanchthon’s students, Vitus Winsemius. Studying the popularity of Thucydides during the resurgence of Greek studies in the Renaissance proves to be an endeavor with many blank spaces. Evidence of commentaries on Thucydides from the Italian Quattrocento, where Thucydides was first reintroduced in the West, is very limited. Thanks however to Marianne Pade’s article on Thucydides in the Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum, we can now see that Thucydides enjoyed considerable popularity across the Alps among certain Humanist members of the early German Protestant Reformation. Despite Pade’s work, however, little detailed research has been done on the reception of Thucydides (or most Classical authors) in German Protestant Humanism. This dissertation aims to examine in detail part of this largely unexplored but very important area of Thucydidean reception. The works that I study in this dissertation represent, therefore, the first evidence for a systematic commentary and teaching tradition in the Latin West on Thucydides since antiquity. In this examination we face the obvious conundrum of devout religious reformers dealing with one of the most blatantly atheistic writers in antiquity, yet we find Melanchthon and his proteges willingly projecting themselves onto Thucydides’ text. At certain points also these writers eagerly compare the fragmented society of Greek cities in the Peloponnesian War to an analogous world in Protestant Germany. It is impressive, moreover, to realize that these early commentaries arose from such a closely connected community of scholars. All three scholars, however, ultimately approach Thucydides differently. Melanchthon primarily understands Thucydides as an historian of societal collapse, one mirroring the disintegrating – indeed, apocalyptic – world that he saw around him in Europe. Camerarius’ commentary avoids any such moralizing and gives a philological and stylistic commentary that serves as an introduction for students to the idiosyncrasies of Thucydidean Greek. Winsemius’ commentary, while clearly taking a considerable amount of material from Melanchthon, acts predominantly as a rhetorical commentary. Taken together, the analysis of these lectures, commentaries, and translations gives a snapshot of the status of Thucydidean scholarship both at its beginning in early modern Western Europe and in the dynamic and disruptive context of the early Protestant Reformation

Committee:

Frank Coulson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Benjamin Acosta-Hughes, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anthony Kaldellis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies; European History

Keywords:

classics; classical reception; protestant reformation; humanism; Thucydides; Melanchthon; Renaissance; Camerarius; Winsemius; Chytraeus

Flores, Samuel OrtencioThe Roles of Solon in Plato’s Dialogues
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Greek and Latin
This dissertation is a study of Plato’s use and adaptation of an earlier model and tradition of wisdom based on the thought and legacy of the sixth-century archon, legislator, and poet Solon. Solon is cited and/or quoted thirty-four times in Plato’s dialogues, and alluded to many more times. My study shows that these references and allusions have deeper meaning when contextualized within the reception of Solon in the classical period. For Plato, Solon is a rhetorically powerful figure in advancing the relatively new practice of philosophy in Athens. While Solon himself did not adequately establish justice in the city, his legacy provided a model upon which Platonic philosophy could improve. Chapter One surveys the passing references to Solon in the dialogues as an introduction to my chapters on the dialogues in which Solon is a very prominent figure, Timaeus-Critias, Republic, and Laws. Chapter Two examines Critias’ use of his ancestor Solon to establish his own philosophic credentials. Chapter Three suggests that Socrates re-appropriates the aims and themes of Solon’s political poetry for Socratic philosophy. Chapter Four suggests that Solon provides a legislative model which Plato reconstructs in the Laws for the philosopher to supplant the role of legislator in Greek thought. The Athenian Stranger orients legislation towards virtue. I conclude that figure of Solon provides a basis for Plato to redirect the aims of politics towards philosophy and cultivation of virtue in the soul.

Committee:

Bruce Heiden (Advisor); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member); Richard Fletcher (Committee Member); Greg Anderson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Classical Studies; Philosophy

Keywords:

Plato; Solon; ancient philosophy; classics

Myers, Elena KA Semiotic Analysis of Russian Literature in Modern Russian Film Adaptations (Case Studies of Boris Godunov and The Captain’s Daughter)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
Abstract The current study analyzes signs and signifiers that constitute the structural composition of Pushkin’s historical works Boris Godunov and The Captain’s Daughter and compare them with their Soviet and post-Soviet screen adaptations. I argue that the popularity of these literary works with filmmakers is based on their inexhaustible topicality for Russian society of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, and therefore reassessment of their film adaptations guides us towards developing a better understanding of the sociopolitical complexities in modern Russia. The analysis employs methods of semiotics of film, which is a relatively young science, but has already become one of the most promising fields in the theory of cinema. The research is based on the scholarship of such eminent theorists and semioticians as Metz, Bluestone, Barthes, Lotman, Bakhtin, and others. By performing semiotic analysis of Russian intermedial transpositions and Pushkin’s source texts, the study demonstrates the parallels between the historical periods and contemporary Russia.

Committee:

Brian Joseph (Advisor); Alexander Burry (Advisor)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Foreign Language; History; Literature; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Russian literature; Russian cinema; Russian film; Russian classics; Russian film adaptations; Russian literature of the nineteenth century; semiotics of film; semiotics of cinema; semiotics of literature; historical film; semiotics of film adaptations

Szabo, BobbieLove is a Cunning Weaver: Myths, Sexuality, and the Modern World
BA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
Love is a Cunning Weaver: Myths, Sexuality, and the Modern World explores the relationship between the modern and ancient worlds by analyzing the depiction of queer and female characters in Greco-Roman mythology. That relationship is illuminated and defined by the modern individual’s tendency to apply contemporaneous narratives to myths of the ancient world in order to understand them. The aforementioned queer and female characters are introduced in their original contexts based on the most popular written traditions of the myths in which they appear. They are then broken down through a series of interviews with current (or recently graduated) college students. Finally, the narrative established in the introduction of each chapter is subverted through a creative piece.

Committee:

Jennifer Larson (Advisor); Brian Harvey (Committee Member); Donald Palmer (Committee Member); Suzanne Holt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Gender Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Greco-Roman mythology; mythology; queer theory; feminist theory; creative writing; interviews; classics; womens studies; LGBT studies; gender; sexuality; modern world; ancient world

Gorton, LukeThrough the Grapevine: Tracing the Origins of Wine
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Greek and Latin
This study examines the question of the origins and spread of wine, both comprehensively and throughout a number of regions of the Near East and the Mediterranean. Besides the introduction and the conclusion, the study is divided into four major chapters, each of which examines evidence from different fields. The first of these chapters discusses the evidence which can be found in the tomes of classical (that is, Greco-Roman) literature, while the second chapter examines the testimony of the diverse literature of the ancient Near East. The third chapter provides an analysis of the linguistic evidence for the spread of wine, focusing particularly on the origins of the international word for wine which is present in a number of different languages (and language families) of antiquity. The fourth chapter gives a summary of the various types of material evidence relevant to wine and the vine in antiquity, including testimony from the fields of palaeobotany, archaeology, and wine chemistry. Finally, the concluding chapter provides a synthesis of the various data adduced in the previous chapters, weaving all of the evidence together into a cohesive account of the origins and the spread of wine. It is seen that each discipline has much to contribute to the question at hand, providing critical testimony which both illuminates our understanding of the origins and the spread of wine and allows us to better understand issues pertaining to each discipline.

Committee:

Carolina Lopez-Ruiz (Advisor); Brian Joseph (Committee Member); Sam Meier (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Classical Studies; Linguistics; Near Eastern Studies; Paleobotany

Keywords:

wine; origins; Classics; Near East; historical linguistics; Indo-European