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Mhlauli, Mavis B.Social Studies Teachers Perceptions and Practices of Educating Citizens in a Democracy in Upper Classes in Primary Schools in Botswana
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Teaching and Learning
The purpose of this study was to explore the social studies teachers conceptualizations, experiences and practices of developing citizens in primary schools in Botswana. The study was qualitative and employed naturalistic inquiry paradigm. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observations and document analysis.The study adopted a grounded theory to data analysis by using the constant comparative data analysis technique for theory generation. The findings from this study reflect a gloomy picture on citizenship education as perceived, interpreted and enacted within primary shools investigated leading to the conclusion that citizenship education remains an illusion rather than a reality.

Committee:

Merry Merryfield, Dr (Advisor); Binaya Subedi, PhD (Committee Member); Antoinette Errante, PhD (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

African Studies; Education Policy; Gender; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Citizenship education; post colonial theory; naturalistic inquiry; global citizenship; transformative knowledge;democracy; social studies; curriculum

Shadley, Anna BardesThe Third Gate: Naturalization Legislation in Central and Eastern Europe
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Political Science

Through citizenship laws, a state defines its population and identifies who belongs and who does not. This notion is intuitive, but how does a state decide who gets to be a member? Moreover, citizenship requirements vary dramatically around the globe. Thus, the central question of my study is this: why is it easier to become a citizen in some countries than in others?

Because the current understanding of citizenship issues is based primarily on analyses of the established democracies of the West, I expand the scope of these studies by investigating these issues in the post-communist Central and Eastern Europe. Many of these states are newly independent, allowing me to capture issues of citizenship at a founding moment for emerging democracies. They are addressing questions of nationhood and constitution-building for the first time in decades. Once limited to places of transit migration, these states are now destinations for immigrants. Ethnic tensions, democratization, economic incentives, and newfound mobility are feeding into migratory patterns. Yet the postcommunist states are simply not accustomed to being terminuses for migration. Given their history and their present political and economic situations, they are poorly equipped to deal with these new demands. I construct an analytical framework that remedies the lack of theoretical agenda in previous works on citizenship policy and law. My framework is composed of two differing perspectives on the central dynamics of naturalization legislating, one focusing on domestic factors and the other on international ones. My analysis of these approaches is informed by normative understandings of what membership should look like in liberal democracies.

My research combines cross-national analysis of data from 27 countries in Eastern and Central Europe with in-depth qualitative case studies of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. I single out these two countries for deeper research because they do not always follow the theoretical predictions. The multi-method approach I use enables me to first gain an understanding of the general patterns of the region before delving into an in-depth examination of particular cases.

Committee:

Goldie Shabad, Ph.D. (Advisor); Anthony Mughan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Neblo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

naturalization; naturalization law; citizenship; citizenship legislation; postcommunism; Eastern Europe; Central Europe

Bilger, Kristie A.The Women's Army Corps and Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service: A Fashioning of American Womanhood and Citizenship
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, History

The focus of the study was to theorize and answer the question of why existing fashion theory in the U.S., as well as abroad, has not tackled the question of American womanhood and citizenship as evidenced in the images of the WACs and WAVES during WWII. Thorough examination of original source materials from pamphlets, recruiting booklets, memoirs, magazine articles, books, case studies,editorials, letters, photos and scrapbooks, a study of fashion has shown historical connections between existing gender systems, social orders, and political ideologies in WWII America. The present study focused on how women's relationships to fashion transformed the evaluation of women's roles and status during WWII and what clothing and adornment meant concerning women in the armed forces. The research also examined the concept of the new woman, and explored how the U.S. government successfully constructed a female appearance that satisfied both public and private concerns.

The ways in which women's roles and status changed during WWII was the result of the government promoting visual identity that typified traditional gender ideology and feelings of national belonging as women contributed to an American victory in the armed forces. An evaluation of fashion was important to see how life in WWII America changed in ways that no other sources of material culture could show. The use of original research material and its application contributes to and builds upon existing scholarship on WWII as well the development of the WACs (Women's Army Corps) and WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). Not only is cultural and social history examined through the creation of WAC and WAVE uniforms but the social conditions, the political power shifts, as well as how the civilian population and female military personnel viewed themselves.

Research shows design changes in uniforms of the WACs and WAVES by a number of interested parties successfully reconciled the initial discord which arose between female recruitment needs and the opinions and perceptions of the public, male recruits, and participant families. Resolving misconceptions regarding the roles and expectations of women during WWII between what was considered acceptable and the changing roles of women and gender in American fashion culture was key to the eventual success of having women assisting the war effort. The roles of women and gender in WWII America alongside American fashion culture were considered within the social, economic, political and cultural implications of the creation of the WACs and WAVES in the 20th century. The military and the families of those women enlisting fulfilled their wartime duty, yet remained feminine and acceptable both in the public and private cultural and social spheres, through the careful fashioning of American women serving their country in WAC and WAVE uniforms.

Committee:

Beth Griech-Polelle, Dr. (Advisor); Susan Voso-Lab, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Charter (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; Gender; History; Textile Research; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC;Women's Auxillary Corps; WAVE; Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service; women's military uniforms; American Womanhood; citizenship; military uniforms;apparel history;female citizenship

Camara, SambaSufism and Politics among Senegalese Immigrants in Columbus, Ohio: Ndigel and the Voting Preferences of a Transnational Community
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, African Studies (International Studies)
The electoral ndigel is a voting command issued by some Senegalese Sufi leaders to their followers in support of one political party or another. Since 1946, this phenomenon has exemplified the religious leaders’ influence on the electoral outcomes. In the last decades, however, the electoral ndigel seems to have declined in influence, especially among the Senegalese voters in the diaspora who can partake in Senegalese elections through `distance-voting programs.’ By analyzing the electoral preferences of Senegalese citizens in Columbus, Ohio, this study argues that the decline of the electoral ndigel in this particular locality is based on the diasporic voters’ acquisition of a greater political awareness, achievement of financial independence and exposure to a politically more secular American culture. The study is structured in five chapters. Chapter 1 provides a historical background on the evolution of the religion-politics nexus in Senegal. It discusses different phases of Islamic militancy and explains how the state-tarixa relationship has evolved overtime. Chapter 2 examines how deterritorialization of Senegalese Sufi taalibes in general has contributed to the globalization of Senegalese tarixas in different ways. Chapter 3 discusses the methodology of research and data collection. Chapter 4 focuses on the case study, Columbus (Ohio), and discusses the translation of that globalization into `long-distance’ political participation. It also investigates how Senegalese immigrants integrate Columbus, Ohio in different modes. More importantly, the chapter also discusses different transnational factors which cause the Senegalese expatriate voters to opt for a more ndigel-free voting. Finally, chapter 5 presents a set of remarks and recommendations about the participation of Columbus Senegalese in the distance-voting programs.

Committee:

Brandon Kendhammer, Ph. D (Committee Chair); Loren Lybarger, Ph. D (Committee Member); Steve Howard, Ph. D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; African Studies; Black Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Divinity; Ethnic Studies; Islamic Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Philosophy; Political Science; Regional Studies; Religion; Religious Congregations; Spirituality; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Theology

Keywords:

Political Islam in Senegal; Senegalese immigrants in Columbus, Ohio; Religion and Politics; Migration and citizenship; Sufism and Politics; transnational Sufism; Voting command; Democracy in Senegal; deterritorialization; hybridized citizenship; Ndigel

Duty, Lisa MarieChanging Teachers’ Conceptualizations of Teaching for Citizenship in a Globalized World
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Teaching and Learning

This study contributed to the broader scholarly discussion on global citizenship education by examining and documenting an inquiry into three secondary social studies teachers’ changing conceptualizations of teaching for citizenship in a globalized world. The study theorized that 1) Teachers change their conceptualizations of teaching for citizenship by shifting or recreating their identities and 2) Teachers’ identities are locations of agency for global citizenship and global citizenship education.

While thinking about, reflecting on, or constructing new understandings of the concept of citizen and teaching for citizenship in a globalized world was important to changing teachers’ conceptualizations, it was insufficient. Each teacher had a concept of what it means to be a citizen—an identity as a citizen—and this helped to define their understandings of teaching for citizenship. As the teachers are citizens themselves, change in their conceptualizations had ramifications for them personally. The findings indicate that teachers must fundamentally practice new forms of being and relating to others. The study concluded that teachers' identities are locations for making choices about who we are, how we want to relate to others, and what kind of world we want to live in.

Committee:

Merry Merryfield (Committee Chair); Steve Miller (Committee Member); Cynthia Tyson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Multicultural Education; Political Science; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Global citizenship education; world citizenship; cosmopolitanism; globalization; participatory action research; identity; teaching and learning

Siracuse, Kimberly S.Engendered & Endangered: A Phenomenological Study of the Lives of Twelve Female Social Studies Teachers
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2011, College of Education
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lives of twelve female social studies teachers. Specifically, through a phenomenological approach, the lived experiences, personal thoughts and professional journeys of the twelve participants were examined in order to identify those experiences that are unique to being a female social studies teacher. The themes that emerged were: (a) treatment of participants as a result of gender; (b) the role of the Catholic Church and Catholic schools in the lives of the participants; (c) the appeal of social studies education to the participants; (d) the benefits and contributions of female social studies teachers; (e) the participants' journeys in to the field of social studies education; (f) the lack of representation of females in social studies education; (g) the devaluing of social studies education; (h) the importance of social studies education; (i) the characteristics of a successful female social studies teacher; and (j) the coachification effect in social studies education.

Committee:

Jane Piirto, PhD (Committee Chair); Ann Shelly, PhD (Committee Member); Alinde Moore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender Studies; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Roman Catholicism; citizenship education; women in social studies education; devaluing of social studies; coachification effect; liberal feminism; gender based treatment of social studies teachers; student success in social studies education

Haney, Charlotte AnneIMPERILED FEMININITY: RECONFIGURING GENDER IN A CONTEXT OF HEIGHTENED VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, Anthropology
This dissertation clarifies the manner in which violence against women is implicated in the re-constitution of gender in Chihuahua. Using data collected with a mixed methods, multi-staged protocol, this dissertation investigates how the routine threat of gender violence and the common presence of gender violence in women’s lives impacts the manner in which they reconfigure gender in the rapidly changing environment of Northern Mexico. This dissertation is intended as a contribution to Medical Anthropology in general, but specifically to the Anthropology of Violence and to Gender and Health Studies in its focus on gendered violence. This dissertation also contributes to the refinement of theory and methodology in Medical Anthropology. The implications of this research call for further research into the role of routinized terror in cultural reproduction and transformation as well as a renewed emphasis on embodied threat as a common aspect of the operation of power though societies.

Committee:

Atwood Gaines (Committee Chair); Eileen Anderson-Fye (Committee Member); Vanessa Hildebrand (Committee Member); Mary Erdmans (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; Gender Studies; Latin American Studies; Legal Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Gender Violence; Embodiment; Biological Citizenship; Cultural Reproduction)

Choi, MoonsunDevelopment of a Scale to Measure Digital Citizenship among Young Adults for Democratic Citizenship Education
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, EDU Teaching and Learning
The purpose of this study is to develop a theory-based digital citizenship scale building on calibrated and inclusive components of digital citizenship. Although understanding what informed and engaged citizens mean in the current digitalized and networked society is important in social studies education, there is a dearth of research on a well-developed measurement scale to evaluate the degree of digital citizenship among young adults. This study included a multi-step scale development effort designed to measure young adults’ perception and behavior with regard to digital citizenship. The study had three phases to create a reliable, valid instrument to measure young adults’ perceptions of digital citizenship: 1) Phase One included a concept analysis of digital citizenship for initial item generation and content validity of the scale. Thirty articles, six white papers, four book chapters and seventeen blogs/websites were coded and analyzed, 2) Phase Two involved continuous revision of initial items through expert review, providing evidence of face validity and content validity for scale items, and 3) Phase Three consisted of final administration for assessment of digital citizenship, along with correlation studies with Internet self- efficacy and Internet anxiety scales for construct validity. This study addressed the core elements of digital citizenship and how these elements changed over the last decade using a concept analysis methodology. Four categories for defining digital citizenship were identified: Ethics, Media and Information Literacy, Participation/Engagement, and Critical Resistance. Using a total of 508 respondents, a 26-item five-factor model was extracted from Exploratory Factor Analysis, which was cross-validated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Technical Skills, Local/Global Awareness, Networking Agency, Internet Political Activism, and Critical Perspectives. The digital citizenship scale presented in this study had respectable reliability and construct validity, evidenced by the significant relationships with Internet self-efficacy and Internet anxiety. From the development of the scale, the researcher developed a general definition of digital citizenship as abilities, thinking, and action regarding the Internet use, which allows people to understand, navigate, engage in, and transform self, community, society, and the world. As a first attempt to create more advanced and theory-based digital citizenship scale items, this study will help to better understand individuals’ sense of digital citizenship as members of online communities participating in everyday life on local, national, and global levels. These comprehensive, inter-related, and multidimensional elements of digital citizenship can play a significant role in developing ultimate goals of citizenship education while supporting underlying themes for social studies teacher education in the information age.

Committee:

Dean Cristol (Committee Chair); Michael Glassman (Committee Member); Binaya Subedi (Committee Member); Tracey Stuckey-Mickell (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Digital citizenship, Social studies education, Scale development, Concept analysis, Civic Education

Horan, Kristin ACounterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and their relationship to work stressors: The role of physical activity
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
Previous research has demonstrated relationships between work stressors and the outcome variables of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The present study examines physical activity as a potential moderator of these relationships. This study also examines mood and energy as underlying mechanisms of the proposed moderation effect. To test this relationship, 294 firefighters completed a survey measuring work stressors, physical activity, CWB, and OCB. 54 firefighters participated in a six-week follow-up survey. Main effect and moderation analyses were performed using hierarchical linear regression. Results revealed that various work stressors, including interpersonal conflict, organizational constraints and procedural injustice, were positively related to CWB. Interpersonal conflict, workload, organizational constraints, and procedural injustice were positively related to OCB. Physical activity moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict and CWB and the relationship between workload and OCB. Energy and mood did not account for these relationships. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

Committee:

Steve Jex (Advisor); Russell Matthews (Committee Member); Dara Musher-Eizenman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

work stressors; counterproductive work behavior; organizational citizenship behavior; physical activity

Chang, Christopher SRelationships of Organizational Justice and Organizational Constraints With Performance: A Meta-Analysis
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
The purpose of the current study was to meta-analytically examine the relationships of organizational justice and organizational constraints with three performance criteria: task performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). A meta-analysis of 106 studies (n = 35699) revealed that task performance and OCB were positively related to all forms of organizational justice, but only task performance was negatively related to organizational constraints. On the other hand, CWB was negatively related to all forms of organizational justice and positively related to organizational constraints. Furthermore, different dimensions of organizational justice had differential relationships with performance criteria. Procedural and interactional justice had a weaker positive association with task performance compared to OCB. Procedural justice had a stronger positive relationship with OCB-O than OCB-I. With regard to the differential relationship between organizational constraints and performance, organizational constraints had a stronger negative relationship with task performance than OCB. Another significant finding was that negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between organizational constraints and CWB. The relationship between organizational justice with self-rated versus other-rated OCB was not significantly stronger for self-rated versus other rated OCB. Lastly, an unexpected finding was that organizational constraints had a stronger relationship with self-rated CWB than other-rated CWB. The study’s implications for research and practice are discussed, and directions for future research are provided.

Committee:

Steve Jex (Advisor); Michael Zickar (Committee Member); Mary Hare (Committee Member); Gregory Rich (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

meta-analysis; organizational justice; procedural justice; distributive justice; interactional justice; organizational constraints; task performance; OCB; organizational citizenship behavior; CWB; counterproductive work behavior; negative emotions

Hurst, Theresa CharlotteConstruction of Good Citizens and the Public School System:Democratic American Style, Communist Style, and Nazi Germany Style
Bachelor of Science in Education, Miami University, 2005, School of Education and Allied Professions - Integrated English Language Arts
I approached the writing of this thesis after wondering if our government encourages the development of good citizens in the public school system like the Nazi and communist governments did. The thesis itself evolved into a brief study of how each of the three governments went about educating its school children in the ways of being a good citizen. I found that all three did indeed employ instructional methods, which inculcate preferred values in children. However, there are some differences in the methods and the extremes the totalitarian governments were willing to go to as opposed to the democratic one. While I explored these avenues, I also considered what was expected of me, as a teacher, and whether I was willing to be part of a system that imbeds values based on the survival of a political ideology. The opinions I formed surprised me.

Committee:

Donald Daiker (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Sociology of

Keywords:

citizenship; education; Public Schools

Kulbaga, Theresa A.Trans/national subjects: genre, gender, and geopolitics in contemporary American autobiography
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, English
This dissertation is situated at the intersection of 20th-century American literary and cultural studies, particularly contemporary formulations that urge a comparativist, hemispheric, or transnational approach to American literatures and cultures. Taking up this critical conversation through a study of genre, namely autobiography, I argue for a comparative and transnational approach to ethnic women's life narratives. Scholars of autobiography have examined how the genre, in its construction of the autobiographical subject as model citizen, participates in the project of U.S. citizenship and nation-building. What is less recognized is how ethnic and immigrant women autobiographers have pushed the borders of the genre and, by extension, have challenged the fantasy of the representative citizen-subject in the U.S. I argue that a number of contemporary autobiographers are rewriting the genre in order to represent the transnational subject—that is, the subject who does not identify with a single nation-state or whose national identity is inseparable from global social and economic contexts. These writers, I argue, use genre as a rhetorical strategy in order to redefine identity, citizenship, and rights through a global or transnational lens.

Committee:

Wendy Hesford (Advisor)

Keywords:

autobiography; transnational; american studies; american literature; women; gender; gender studies; women's studies; ethnicity; ethnic studies; race; geopolitics; globalization; genre; life narrative; life writing; documentary film; citizenship

Curry, Brett W.The courts, congress, and the politics of federal jurisdiction
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Political Science
Although the institutional relationship between the federal courts and Congress has been the subject of substantial empirical research, scholars know relatively little about the specific role that jurisdiction plays in structuring that relationship. Most prior scholarship has focused on ways in which Congress has attempted to use its influence over court structure and judicial personnel to impact the federal courts. However, Congress’s ability to expand or limit the types of cases eligible for federal court review has received much less attention. By analyzing congressional efforts to limit federal jurisdiction in two major areas of law, this dissertation sheds light on jurisdiction’s role in the relationship between these governmental branches and, more generally, the degree of autonomy from congressional oversight that the federal judiciary possesses. The dissertation’s assessment of this jurisdictional activity begins with a technical area of federal statutory jurisdiction known as diversity jurisdiction. There, I examine the impact that judicial outcomes, court caseloads, and group involvement have played in motivating congressional attempts to limit diversity jurisdiction’s scope. I conclude that, while administrative caseload factors have accounted for much of Congress’s jurisdictional activity in this area of statutory law, dissatisfaction with federal court outcomes has also contributed to Congress’s jurisdictional activity in a more limited way. The dissertation then moves to an analysis of congressional attempts to curtail federal jurisdiction over certain areas of constitutional law. I assess the impact of judicial outcomes, public opinion, Congress’s ideological preferences, and several related factors on the intensity with which legislators have sought to exclude certain constitutional claims from the purview of the federal courts since the 1950s. The results of these analyses indicate that the tenor of federal judicial outcomes, the preferences of the general public, and the likelihood of judicial reversal all relate to the intensity with which members of Congress pursue this jurisdiction- or court-stripping legislation. Taken together, the dissertation’s results suggest that jurisdictional politics may be more critical to the relationship between the federal courts and Congress than most scholars have acknowledged. At a minimum, the dissertation’s results intimate that separation-of-powers models of the courts and Congress cannot be complete without an acknowledgement of jurisdiction’s potential importance to the relationship between these two institutions.

Committee:

Lawrence Baum (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

Jurisdiction&160;&8211; United States; Judicial process&160;&8211; United States; Federal Jurisdiction&160;&8211; United States; Diversity of Citizenship; Diversity Jurisdiction; Court-Stripping; Jurisdiction-Stripping

Jotia, Agreement LathiTHE QUEST FOR DEEP DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION: SCHOOLS AS DEMOCRATIC SPACES IN THE POST – COLONIAL BOTSWANA
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2006, Educational Administration (Education)

This study investigates the extent to which the concept of democracy is taught and practiced in schools in the post-colonial Botswana taking into account Botswana educational philosophy of Education for Kagisano. The project also explores how Botswana’s education system has been affected by the colonial legacy, which apparently did not foster teaching about democratic participation. The research uses the qualitative research methods; interviewing, participant - observation and document analysis to solicit data on education and democracy. It uses the theoretical framework of deep democracy, which values the idea that students as citizens, should be allowed to realize their full potential through interconnectedness, which allows everyone to appreciate and respect the diverse hearts and minds. Students, educators, administrators and policymakers in Botswana were interviewed. The study reveals that there is work to be done in Botswana in order to ascertain that schools become spheres for democratic possibilities that can produce informed citizens who can be of service to their families, communities and the entire nation at large by advancing democratic aspirations. This study notes that it is through deep democratic practice that matters to do with participation, equity, gender imbalances, multiculturalism, social justice, power and empowerment can better be addressed in Botswana for the welfare of all. It brings different insights on politics of education and also uniquely adds to the literature of social sciences especially on African Cultural Studies, which is relatively a new field in Botswana, hence, the scarcity of its literature. The research also sets a departure point for other scholars to pursue further research in the field of educational politics.

Committee:

William Howard (Advisor)

Keywords:

Education for Kagisano; Deep Democracy; Democratic Education; Botswana's Citizenship Education; Corporal Punishment; SRC (Student Representative Council)

Wegwert, Joseph CharlesDemocracy Without Dialogue: A Civic Curriculum of “The Middle Class Promise” for Citizens of the Corporation
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2008, Educational Leadership

Using ethnographic methods and drawing on critical theoretical frameworks with some postmodernism insights, this project focuses on social studies classrooms and the larger context of the culture of a suburban, Midwestern high school. The central research question asks how the formal and informal curriculums of school and social studies classrooms serve to frame, communicate, socialize and perform the discursive, symbolic, ritualized, and conceptual constructs of citizenship. The data reviewed suggests the civic curriculum at Covington Woods High School (a pseudonym) aligns with and supports the imperatives of neo-liberal capitalism and the essential roles of middle-class professionals within corporatist institutions.

The data in this study surfaced from discussions, interviews and observations regarding the Pledge of Allegiance ritual, the larger civic lessons found in the social studies classrooms and common areas of CWHS, and themes that emerged from district and building meetings. These data pointed to a broader curriculum of the middle class promise – a curriculum with a distinctly middle class notion of compliance that acknowledges choice, promotes self-interest, reifies privilege, frames common sense, and offers success.

The curriculum of compliance embedded in this middle class promise offered success through an ideologically proscribed pedagogy where social studies teachers taught – and modeled – the importance of navigating the middle in a corporatized institution where rituals and discourses of distance shaped students’ encounters with the epistemological and ontological meanings and implications of citizenship in the American polity.

The corporatized curriculum of the middle class promise offers students lessons in citizenship in which citizens were revealed as individual agents operating from the same neo-liberal assumptions that frame the role of middle class professionals in the corporate culture and powerfully integrates the lessons of corporate life and civic life, offering compliance and passivity as normalized – and inevitable – avenues toward success.

The civic curriculum at CWHS is not a curriculum of citizenship in any democratic sense of the word; rather, it is a curriculum of membership: a curriculum steeped in the lessons of privilege, entitlement, moderation, and exclusion that define middle-class identity in American culture. The civic curriculum of membership communicated lessons of inclusion and exclusion that provided sanction for an institutional culture of intolerance.

Committee:

Richard Quantz, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Thomas Poetter, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dennis Carlson, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Knight Abowitz, PhD (Committee Member); James Shiveley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Curricula; Education; Educational Theory; History; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

citizenship; neoliberalism; curriculum; social studies; critical theory; ritual; middle class; schools; civic curricululum

Linder, Kathryn E.Narratives of Violence, Myths of Youth: American Youth Identity in Fictional Narratives of School Shootings
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Womens Studies
Throughout the 1990s in the United States, a series of suburban school shootings perpetrated by young, white males disrupted contemporary perceptions of American youth, often a population configured in terms of ideal whiteness. In conjunction with sensationalized media coverage of school shootings, various fictional portrayals of suburban youth violence also emerged throughout this period as what Henry Giroux has called “public pedagogy” that served to further influence national perceptions of youth. In this body of film, television and literary narratives, school violence is often related to other national concerns surrounding American youth identity such as deviant sexuality and teen pregnancy. While a good deal of scholarly attention has focused on popular representations of education and youth generally, little has been written about these specific fictionalizations of school shootings and what they signify. This dissertation offers a feminist, discursive analysis of these fictional narratives of suburban school violence and argues that rampage violence narratives are intricately connected to national anxieties regarding youth, citizenship, threats to white masculinity, and American identity. In order to illustrate the complexities of themes present across popular culture mediums, my research delves into the purpose of the narratives and what they signify about contemporary American youth identity. Thus, my dissertation will explore representations of youth violence from a variety of angles that prioritize intertextual connections. Specifically, I offer a comparative analysis of portrayals of urban versus suburban school violence, explore the creation of gay male shooters as protagonists, and analyze fictional female shooter characters and teen pregnancy storylines. As well, my dissertation examines the genre phenomenon of young adult novels portraying school violence in order to place these novels in dialogue with other “adult” narratives. Throughout my dissertation I explicate the ways in which school shooting narratives reflect and challenge political and academic debates that situate American youth as current and future citizens in the U.S.

Committee:

Linda Mizejewski, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Valerie Kinloch, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Rebecca Wanzo, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Education; Film Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Literature; Womens Studies

Keywords:

youth rights; rampage violence; film and literature; feminist analysis; youth citizenship; gender; race; whiteness; suburban youth violence; urban youth violence

Blevins, Dawn M.New Directions in Citizenship Education: Globalization, State Standards and an Ethical/Critical Social Studies Curriculum
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
This dissertation is a result of the study of the citizenship standards in the K-12 social studies standards documents of ten U.S. states. As a qualitative textual study, it considers the content of the standards in light of recent thinking in the field of citizenship studies. Through discourse analysis it examines the emergence of global citizenship discourse in the standards as well as other traditional and emergent citizenship discourses. It employs discourse mapping as an analytical tool for reading the vision of citizenship that is presented by the standards. A governmentality framework is used to understand how standardization works to limit citizenship possibilities for students. It draws upon Foucault’s notion of care of the self to conceptualize an ethical/critical social studies curriculum. This project is informed by postmodern theories of citizenship and imagines how these might be useful in creating a more robust and democratic citizenship education.

Committee:

Patti Lather, PhD (Advisor); Jan Nespor, PhD (Committee Member); Binaya Subedi, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

state standards; social studies education; citizenship education; governmentality; care of the self

Clark-Wiltz, MeredithRevising Constitutions: Race and Sex Discrimination in Jury Service, 1868-1979
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
This dissertation examines the relationship between the Reconstruction-era civil rights revolution and the rights revolution of the 1960s and 1970s by tracing the history of sex and race discrimination in jury service policy and the social activism it prompted. It argues that the federal government created a bifurcated policy that simultaneously condemned race discrimination and condoned sex discrimination during Reconstruction, and that initial policy had a controlling effect on the development of twentieth-century jury service campaigns. While dividing civil rights activists’ campaigns for defendants’ and jury rights from white feminists’ struggle for equal civic obligations, the policy also removed black women from the forefront of either campaign. Not until the 1960s did women of color emerge as central to both of these campaigns, focusing on equal civic membership and the achievement of equitable justice. Relying on activists’ papers, organizational records, and court cases, this project merges the legal and political narrative with a history of social to reveal the complex and mutually shaping relationship between policy and social activism. This dissertation reveals the distinctive, yet interwoven paths of white women, black women, and black men toward a more complete attainment of citizenship rights and more equitable access to justice.

Committee:

Paula Baker, PhD (Advisor); Susan M. Hartmann, PhD (Committee Member); David Stebenne, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; American History; Gender; History; Legal Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women's rights; civil rights; jury service; citizenship; League of Women Voters; NAACP; National Woman's Party; ACLU

Owens, Kevin JohnThe School and Society: Secondary School Social Studies Education from 1945-1970
BA, Oberlin College, 2013, History
This thesis explores the ways in which changes to citizenship are tied to changes in the secondary school social studies curriculum from 1945 through 1970. During this time, social and political changes forced alterations to the meaning of citizenship. Schools must inherently educate for the future, and are a good measure of what a society views as the values and skills most necessary for the future. As a central inculcator of common values, the social studies class reflected these changes more so than any other school subject.

Committee:

Shelley Lee (Advisor); Pablo Mitchell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education History; History

Keywords:

Education; educational history; social studies; secondary school; citizenship; curriculum; Cold War; Civil Rights Movement

Fedeczko, WioletaThe “Good” Citizen and Civic (In)Action: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Naturalization Process in the United States
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, English
This dissertation examines the rhetorics of the naturalization process to become a United States citizen. I examine documents related to naturalization and citizenship rhetorics, including government-produced and legally binding documents such as study guides, brochures, and pamphlets written by organizations like the Daughters of the American Revolution, all of which are distributed during naturalization proceedings. I also consider procedures such as literacy tests, security background checks, and the oath ceremony where an applicant for citizenship swears allegiance to the nation and its people. I explore key points in history during which the United States develops various agencies – the Immigration and Naturalization Agency, for example – that produce, distribute, and process texts to help applicants learn English, the history of the nation and its government, and the culture of “we the people.” Drawing on the theories of Benedict Anderson, Anthony Smith, Kenneth Burke, and Chaim Perelman, I examine the notion of “we the people” and argue that naturalization rhetorics align “good citizenship” with patriotic responsibility and minimize citizen-action of individuals. By considering the process by which individual (ethnic) ideas and values are both deemed dangerous, unwanted, and unpatriotic, and also as a national good that, through blending, defines the nation as one community of diverse ethnie, my analysis explains how this process of citizenship, as described in policies, documents, and practices, constructs a form of comradeship necessary for an immigrant nation to maintain abstract diversity under the ideal of “we the people.” By reflecting on the historical constructions of citizenship and literacy – as the language and civics tests were developed within federal departments like the Department of Commerce and Labor, Department of Justice, and finally the Department of Homeland Security – I also unpack the ways in which naturalization discourses construct literacy skills through promises of equality and political involvement amid the reality of civic (in)action, civil obedience, and complacency.

Committee:

Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson (Committee Chair); LuMing Mao (Committee Member); Michele Simmons (Committee Member); Mary Frederickson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Language; Literacy; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Rhetoric

Keywords:

citizenship; naturalization; immigration; rhetoric; civic action; literacy; literacy testing; nation; border; ethnicity; ethnie; we the people; nationality; English; language

Aslinger, Benjamin S.National Advertisers, the Advocate, and Queer Sexual Performance
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Mass Communication
This thesis examines how national advertisers work to frame gay subjectivity and queer sexual performance in the Advocate, the nation’s largest and most widely circulated gay and lesbian newsmagazine. Utilizing Judith Butler’s conceptions of performativity and the abject, I direct my attention to two examples of advertising discourse from Miller Lite that appeared frequently in the Advocate in 2002 and 2003. I argue that these advertisements evidence an ambivalence, representing queer sexuality while reifying gay male marginality and delimiting the number of ways in which queerness can be performed. I conclude by arguing for a more nuanced understanding of same-sex desire and the importance of body politics for queer, feminist, and ethnic/racial civil rights struggles while asking how gay men might be nominated as complete sexual and political citizens.

Committee:

Lisa McLaughlin (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

queer; GLBT; sexual citizenship; advertising; performativity

Butler, Tamara T.Sweetgrass and Saltwater: Reclaiming the Classroom for the Preservation of South Carolina Gullah-Geechee Culture
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, African-American and African Studies
The South Carolina Sea Islands are often the center for historical African retentions and slave resistance studies; however, this research seeks to demonstrate the area’s importance as a site for the study of cultural resurrection and reclamation. The intent of this thesis is to evaluate the modes by which contemporaries are resurrecting Gullah-Geechee as an identity that is perpetuated through consumer culture, a marketing strategy, and indigenous lifestyle. In this research, I explore the formation and role of Gullah-Geechee identity within and beyond African American Sea Island communities. Through an analysis of historical documents and contemporary issues, this project explores how Gullah-Geechee people and culture function in public spaces, such as locally-owned businesses, historical sites and contemporary classrooms. I suggest that by incorporating literacy and literary practices into the History classroom, students, teachers and community members can collectively develop appropriate methods for marketing and preserving Gullah-Geechee cultures.

Committee:

Walter Rucker, PhD (Committee Chair); Leslie Alexander, PhD (Committee Member); Valerie Kinloch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black History; Curricula; Education; History; Literacy; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Gullah; Geechee; Community Literacy; Penn School; Citizenship Schools

Tanaka, AkiQuestions of Identity for a Nigerian-Born Japanese Man in Kabukichyo, Tokyo
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, African Studies (International Studies)

The objective of this thesis is to examine the subculture and identity concerns of Nigerian-born naturalized citizens in Kabukichyo, Tokyo, through the life experiences of one man. The subculture in question is found in a unique business district of Tokyo in Japan known for its entertainment facilities and hostess/host industry which was established not only by Japanese-born nationals but also by diverse migrants. Nigerian men started to become involved in this industry in the 1960s, and they have maintained their involvement by owning clubs or working as "hosts." They are often considered to be temporary migrants; however, they have committed themselves by marrying Japanese women and being naturalized. Beyond a doubt, they have shaped a unique subculture in Kabukichyo. Nigerian men have a tendency to create a rather homogenized space in their work by associating with other African men. However, central to work for the clubs are activities aimed at "street catching," or the recruitment of Japanese hostesses and customers of both sexes. Therefore, a transnational communication has emerged out of Nigerians' culturally specific business style.

In the first part of this thesis, I describe the general characteristics and background of Nigerian men and their subculture in Kabukichyo. In the second part of this thesis, I examine a personal narrative of Mr. Omo, a Nigerian owner of a hostess/host club in Kabukichyo. This narrative provides a case study of identity formation in the Nigerian subculture of Kabukichyo. Mr. Omo describes his Africaness and Japaneseness in ways that can be considered to be transnational or postnational. His presentation reveals both his self-identification and his perspective about his family and co-workers in Japan. This work also shows that businesses in the hostess/host industry are some of the limited ways in which Nigerian men find economic opportunities in Tokyo. Despite their postnational identity characteristics, their appreciation of Japanese people and opportunities to live in Japan, Nigerian-born men still face personal challenges of belonging and acceptance by people in the country in which they now live.

Committee:

Diane Ciekawy, PhD (Advisor); Steve Howard, PhD (Committee Member); Francis Godwyll, PhD (Committee Member); Ghirmai Negash, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Cultural Anthropology; Developmental Psychology; Gender; Geography; International Relations; Personal Relationships; Personality

Keywords:

Nigeria; Japan; Tokyo; Nigerians; migrants; immigrants; diaspora; brain drain; homogeneity, identity; citizenship, personality; postnational; transnational; individual; self; community; life history; narratives; sexuality; international; global

Bondy, Jennifer M.Latina youths talk back on "citizenship" and being "Latina:" A feminist transnational cultural studies analysis
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2011, Educational Leadership

This dissertation is a feminist transnational cultural studies analysis of the discursive and material conditions of middle-class Latina youths’ identity and citizenship formations. It is part of a growing body of scholarship in the fields of educational research and girlhood studies that explores citizenship as a White cultural formation which influences the lives of racialized girls. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of feminist transnationalism and cultural citizenship, this dissertation analyzes interviews, participant produced cultural productions, and U.S. visas and citizenship to explore the dual processes of how middle-class Latina youths who live in South Florida are made into and engage in self-making practices of “citizenship” and being “Latina.”

There are four emergent themes in this study: (i) neoliberalism as the dominant discourse through which Latina youths are made into “American citizens;” (ii) stereotypical images and discourses on the “chonga,” “immigrant,” and “essential” identity as ways that Latina youths are made into “Latinas;” (iii) flexible citizenship and dissenting citizenship as Latina youths’ self-making strategies of citizenship; and, (iv) education and cultural pride as Latina youths’ self-making strategies of being “Latina.” Findings indicate that while middle-class Latina youths’ in South Florida are cognizant of dominant discourses on American citizenship and popular culture representations of young Latina women, they are also, and not necessarily in unproblematic ways, co-discursive participants in the construction of images of American citizenship and Latinas.

Committee:

Lisa Weems, PhD (Committee Chair); Sally Lloyd, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz, PhD (Committee Member); Richard Quantz, PhD (Committee Member); Yu-Fang Cho, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Latina youths; citizenship; feminist transnationalism; immigration

Reading, JessicaInitiating and sustaining social projects in a college environment
Bachelor of Science in Business, Miami University, 2009, School of Business Administration - Human Resource Management
Students interested in engaging with communities beyond the University may perceive four years as a lengthy time, but it is relatively short in the growth of a community. I personally faced the challenge of leaving a community of which I have become a part through the partnerships I have developed in Hamilton, Ohio, with a coalition of Latino business owners and how to sustain the partnership post-graduation. The question in this thesis is how do students, in a generation that is driven to create and make lasting social change to our society, attempt to impact the community of which they are part for a short amount of time? When it comes to civic responsibility, community engagement, social entrepreneurship, mutual learning, and community-based learning, students face the challenge of establishing and growing a University-community partnership that may lead to future projects or may help to sustain a current one. This thesis discusses the concept of university-community partnerships through my research: experiential learning of two specific partnerships in which I have been included: La Voz and Partners for Change. These partnerships are discussed through a comparative analysis of their successes and limitations. Because the projects cannot be evaluated solely on quantitative data, personal narratives illustrate the impact the partnerships have had on both university students as well as the Butler County community. Through these experiences, this paper argues a new framework of sustainability metaphorically represented as living entities that are nurtured, yet self-sustaining, much like the lifecycle of a tree. Just like trees, University-community partnerships too have roots that provide a foundation; elements that help care for the tree and the nutrients to sustain them. This study investigates University-community partnerships and explores a model that provides a way of understanding how to successfully create, build, and sustain a partnership and initiative that outlasts the existence of the members that created it.

Committee:

Shelly Jarrett Bromberg, Dr. (Advisor); Marguerite Shaffer, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Rebecca Luzadis, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Business Education; Education; Higher Education; Management; Social Work

Keywords:

social change; college; sustainability; community engagement; civic leadership; citizenship; partnerships; university; community

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