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Musundi, Sela M.Teacher Caring: An Investigation of an All-Girl Secondary School in Western Kenya
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Curriculum and Instruction Cultural Studies (Education)

This qualitative case study focused on understanding how teachers and students at a girls-only secondary school in the western Province of Kenya described what they perceived to be caring teacher behavior. Further, the study also examined how students’ perceptions of teachers’ behaviors influenced their attitude towards education.

In line with the case study inquiry approach, the present study employed multiple data collection methods including in-depth individual face-to-face interviews, focus groups, participant observation, surveys and document analysis. A total of 36 girls and 10 teachers participated in the study. Girls were interviewed within a focus group setting while teachers were interviewed individually. To analyze the data, a voice-centered feminist relational method of analysis known as the Listening Guide was utilized.

The findings of the present study revealed that girls associated caring with teacher academic support, guidance, advice, responsiveness, empathy, understanding, and mothering. Teachers on the other hand, conceptualized caring as academic support, moral guidance, attentive listening, dialogue and humor, othermothering, friendship, attending to “at-risk” learners, and communally raising young responsible people. An important finding of this study is that both teachers and students projected a gendered view of caring. Male teachers viewed caring solely as a professional stance while female teachers viewed caring as both a professional and maternal stance. Similarly, girls assigned the role of academic support to male teachers and the role of nurturance to female teachers.

Committee:

Jaylynne Hutchinson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Teacher caring in Kenya; student perceptions of caring; gendered views of caring in teaching

Smith, Carnel LorenzoLASTING LEGACIES: THE EFFECTS OF NATURAL MENTORS IN THE LIVES OF AT-RISK AFRICAN-AMERICAN MALE ADOLESCENTS
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand how natural mentoring helps at-risk African-American male adolescents avoid high-risk behaviors. Natural mentors are people with whom mentees have natural relationships outside of their immediate family, such as community members, teachers, ministers, extended family members and coaches. The participants were two current and two former at-risk African-American male adolescents who were either currently living in, or formerly lived in, high-risk environments. Participants had experience with a natural mentor-mentee relationship and were interested in talking about their experience. The present study’s mentoring relationships consisted of three male-to-male relationships and one male-to-female relationship. Several characteristics of natural mentoring impacted the mentees in this study. Mentees related examples of mentors’ caring behavior, understanding, comfortable conversations, unconditional support, and commitment to the relationship. When natural mentors display these characteristics in relationships with at-risk African-American male adolescents, the mentees voluntarily assist in changing their attitudes and behaviors and enhance their chances of living more meaningful and productive lives. Concept of a Natural Mentor and Effects of Natural Mentoring relationships were the two themes that emerged from the interviews of participants. The Concept of a Natural Mentor revealed that natural mentors are people who naturally assist in others’ times of need. The concept of being a natural mentor is wrapped up in commitment and selflessness. Natural mentors’ commitment focuses on their relationships with at-risk African-American male adolescents, their willingness to allow mentees to make mistakes without judging them, and the flexibility given to mentees to make their own decisions. The second theme to emerge was the Effects of Natural Mentoring relationships. Natural mentoring relationships allow mentees to adapt concepts and ideals that allow them to successfully mature into productive adults. Natural mentoring builds resiliency in mentees and helps them avoid at-risk behavior and overcome the fear of failure. Mentees who are successful have natural mentors in their lives that help them with emotional support and encourage them to learn adult behaviors and responsibilities while developing social skills. Among the leadership lessons taught and learned were servant-leadership, character building, meaning making, and the transferability of natural mentoring to formal mentoring relationships. More research is encouraged on the nature of caring relationships and the ethic of care among men, the continuity of natural mentoring relationships across generations, and resiliency and the fear of failure among at-risk adolescents.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor)

Keywords:

Natural mentoring; Mentoring; Caring; Ethic of care; Men and caring; At risk; African American; Adolescence; Servant leadership; Character building; Meaning making; Phenomenology; Resiliency; Fear of failure; Leadership

Tufts, Winfield F.High People-High Mission: The Power of Caring Leadership as Experienced in the Air Force
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2018, Leadership and Change
On the surface, caring and the military appear to be opposites. The stereotypical image of the military giving and obeying orders does not conjure up images of leaders caring for their subordinates. In reality, caring for subordinates and caring for the mission could help leaders form stronger relationships with subordinates, because subordinates may have confidence that their leaders will not recklessly send them into harm’s way. Subordinates may develop confidence in their leaders based on their leaders’ care during non-combat environments. Yet, empirical studies of caring in the military are sparse. This study investigates how Air Force retirees characterize “great bosses” care for them and care for the mission. A mixed method study of 12 qualitative interviews with Air Force retirees, followed by a quantitative survey study of 226 Air Force retirees revealed that caring actions cluster into four themes: Caring for Subordinates Personally, Caring for Subordinates Professionally, Caring for the Mission with a Focus on Mission Execution, and Caring for the Mission with a Focus on Empowering the Unit. This study also examined how these subordinates responded to those bosses that cared for them through Stronger Job Performance and Stronger Relationship with the Boss. The dissertation findings operationalize caring, demonstrate correlations between caring actions and self-reported increases in performance and boss-subordinate relationship quality, and detail actions that an authentic, caring leader can take to pursue the flourishing of subordinates and mission success simultaneously. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohiolink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Committee:

Laura Roberts, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Davis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Military Studies

Keywords:

Air Force; bosses; mixed methods; leadership; care; caring; caring leadership; military culture; military leadership; servant leadership; virtuous leadership

Bashford, CarolInside the black box of discharge planning: Key factors for success in three high performing small hospitals
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2015, Gerontology
The prevalence of avoidable rehospitalization of older adults following their care transition is an indicator of poor quality of care and leads to significant unnecessary expense. While there have been well-established national models to describe ”the what” of the discharge planning process, there have been few studies that closely examine the “how” or the ways in which hospitals actually implement discharge planning. We know that even with this knowledge (the `what”) provided by the national models, avoidable rehospitalizations occur. This dissertation study provides an in-depth exploration of the discharge planning process (DPP) for older adults and the multiple factors contributing to the low rehospitalization rates in three small (<200 beds) acute care hospitals in Ohio. The purpose of this study was to describe in rich detail the DPP for hospitalized older adults transitioning to home. In other words, to examine what’s inside the “black box” of discharge planning. Small hospitals were selected because they have fewer resources than large hospitals yet have similar quality performance standards by regulatory agencies. Overall, findings revealed that the most important elements of the DPP included a culture of caring within the hospital that made use of gerontology communication skills, interdisciplinary collaboration and mechanisms for post discharge care coordination beyond what the national models describe. Findings also revealed that the use of the electronic health record (EHR) supported initiation of the DPP and multidisciplinary development of the discharge instructions. Implications for advocates of older adults such as the nurses and discharge planners in the hospitals and those in the community on engaging older adults in planning for their care transition, administrators for patient services, hospital informatics specialists and EHR vendors are considered.

Committee:

Kate de Medeiros (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Gerontology; Health Care

Keywords:

discharge planning, care transition, gerontology, older adults, electronic health record, EHR, culture of caring, small hospitals

Moffat, Mary I.Certified Case Managers’ Lived Experiences in Hospital Networks: A Phenomenological Inquiry
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to understand the shared lived experience of registered nurses certified in case management (RN-CCM) employed in hospital networks. For this project, the phenomena of problem-solving conflicts are generally defined as the experience of work-related conflicts, meaning- making given to phenomena, and strategies to reconcile unsatisfying outcomes as advocate. Phenomenology theory is most applicable because the lived experience can contribute to the depth and breadth of understanding of ethical and practical conflicts occurring in health care delivery. Participants were interviewed about their work and self- care interests. In the context of health care, a relationship emerged between outstanding conflict themes and problem-solving skills. Ethical principles established in codes of conduct contribute to perceptions of dilemmas leading to conflicts: benevolence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. Personal attributes of empathy and emotional intelligence contribute in collaboration skills. Self-care actions change lives by reducing internalized responses to conflict and reinforce personal identify and values. The meaning-making of certification is placed in the self-care theme because it is experienced as a validation of professional expertise, networking, and accruing required CEUs. Three conflict themes emerged in the interviews: change, task-relation, and caring. Of these three themes, conflict of caring presents a unique and meaningful engagement for RN-CCMs in complex health-care systems today. The data informs the reader on the perception and experience of conflicts and self-care for seasoned RN-CCM and may be of interest for further study about experiences and coping skills of those who collaborate on patient care within healthcare networks.

Committee:

Ginger Weade, PhD (Committee Chair); Adah Ward-Randolph, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Medical Ethics; Nursing

Keywords:

certified nurse case managers; hospital case management; ethical conflict; empathy; self care; emotional intelligence; conflict of caring; qualitative research, phenomenology

Dafoe, KendraCaring in a Flipped Mathematics Classroom
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Curriculum and Instruction
The purpose of this qualitative research was to use a case study methodology to explore how the flipped mathematics classroom enables teachers to develop a caring relationship with their student’s in order to foster students’ cognitive, emotional and behavioral engagement. There has been very little research on the affective domain of a flipped classroom. Understanding how teachers create and maintain a caring relationship with students in a flipped classroom is vital to understanding the learning that occurs in this setting. It was also imperative to understand a student’s perspective to validate whether or not a caring relationship exists. Data were collected from two teachers and six students through interviews, journals, and descriptive field notes from classroom observations. Five categories emerged from the data that contain the results of this study: (a) teachers’ perceptions of creating a relationship in a flipped mathematics classroom, (b) teachers creating and maintaining relationships in a flipped mathematics classroom, (c) students’ view of the teacher-student relationship in a flipped mathematics classroom, (d) teachers’ view of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement in a flipped mathematics classroom, (e) students’ view of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement in a flipped mathematics classroom.

Committee:

Leigh Chiarelott, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Debra Johanning, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Judy Lambert, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Templin, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Caring, Flipped Classroom, Mathematics

Martinez, Barbara AnnMEXICAN ORIGIN FAMILY PERSPECTIVES OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2005, Secondary Education
This ethnographic study looks at how the culture of the Mexican origin family influences its viewpoint and definition of parental involvement. The investigation explores the parents’ sense of caring about their secondary children’s education. This inquiry also focuses on what the family considers educational success and failure as well as a description of their educational goals for their children. Research shows that teachers have very specific notions about what parental involvement should look like. Teachers may fail to recognize their own perception of parental involvement. If they also are unaware how Mexican origin parents are involved, they may conclude that these parents do not care about their children’s education. Six Mexican origin families were interviewed in regard to their perception and definition of involvement with their secondary school age children’s education. The findings revealed that Mexican origin parents perceived themselves as involved or as having contributed to their children’s education, but not necessarily in the same way as mainstream parents. These parents’ style of involvement in their children’s education did not match the parental involvement expectations held by mainstream teachers. Parents reported that they cared deeply about their children’s education. These parents’ educational goals for their children were mostly value based, with a focus on the family, community and appropriate behavior.

Committee:

Susan Colville-Hall (Advisor)

Keywords:

Hispanic; Mexican; Parental involvement; Caring; Secondary

Hatten, Adriennie YvetteCOMMON FACTORS THAT AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS ATTRIBUTE TO THEIR GRADUATION FROM A PREDOMINANTLY AFRICAN AMERICAN MIDWESTERN SCHOOL DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2011, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
This qualitative research study examines the reflections of African American adults on their high school journey to graduation in the late 20th Century from one Midwestern public school district where African- American students represented the majority of the student body. The particular emphasis of this study was to identify common factors that the participants perceive as critical to their own high school graduation, as the measure of academic success and lifelong learning. This dissertation addresses two research questions through the methodology of narrative inquiry: 1) what are the experiences of the African American adults who were educated in the same predominately African American Midwestern public school district, over a 20-year period? And 2) what factors do African American adults who successfully graduated from high school perceive as critical to their academic success and lifelong learning? The findings suggest that for these participants, full community support, and expectations set by adults in the community and school supported their success. Positive caring adults, solid peer relationships, and engaged school staff were also identified as critical to their high school graduation.

Committee:

Anne Galletta, Ph.D (Committee Chair); James Carl, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Justin Perry, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; African Americans; Black Studies; Education Policy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Positive Caring Adults;Communalism; African American student; Academic Success; socialization

Allen, L. Clare V.Caring for All Creatures Great and Small: A Qualitative Analysis of Senior Veterinary Students' Career Choices
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, EDU Policy and Leadership
Professional veterinary medical education in the United States is facing several major challenges at the beginning of the 21st Century. The role of the modern veterinarian has shifted significantly, since the origin of the profession, from supporting the use of horses and agricultural livestock, to a focus on the human-animal bond. Recently there has been much discussion in the profession about a further shift towards the need for veterinarians in less traditional, “One Health” areas of practice, in collaboration with other health professionals. In the meantime, the demographics of the profession have undergone a profound shift, from a male-dominated profession in the 1970’s, when women made up only 6% of new graduates, to a newly feminized profession with women now making up over 80% of new graduates. Currently these graduates tend to choose careers in species-specific, usually small animal, private practice, with an increasing number entering specialist training programs after graduation. However, those career aspirations appear to be a mismatch for the projected veterinary careers of the future. In the current context of greater accountability in higher education, through outcomes assessment, it is important, therefore, for educators to understand how veterinary students make career choices, in order to inform practice to prepare graduates better for future career opportunities in the profession. This research examines how veterinary students make career decisions, through the narratives that they construct about their career pathways. Data was collected from twenty men and women who are senior veterinary students at a veterinary college at a large, Midwestern, state university, using semi-structured interviews. The data was coded and analyzed, using an interpretivist methodology, in order to examine students’ career narratives. Particular attention was paid to the influence of gender on students’ career choices. Results of the study provided important insight into the typical career pathways of veterinary students, and the influences on the career choices that they made once in the profession. Three main career pathways to choosing veterinary medicine emerged from the participants’ narratives. Furthermore, there was evidence of the strong influence of socialization, both external and internal to the profession, on students’ perceptions, terminology and preferences with regards to veterinary medical careers. These findings should lead to greater insight into how to recruit and train veterinary students, and sets the groundwork for future research. This study is the first phase of a larger mixed methods research project whose purpose is to develop a theoretical framework for veterinary career choice across a larger population. The next step will be to use the results of this study to develop and validate a survey questionnaire that can be disseminated to veterinary students nationally.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Committee Chair); Susan Jones (Advisor); Linda Lord (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education; Veterinary Services

Keywords:

veterinary; education; career; caring; qualitative; gender; feminist; professional; feminization

Allen, Susan RothAn Ethnonursing Study of the Cultural Meanings and Practices of Clinical Nurse Council Leaders in Shared Governance
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Nursing: Nursing - Doctoral Program
Shared governance models have been implemented in health care organizations throughout the world over the past three decades. Moving from a vertical governance structure to a shared leadership organizational model requires significant changes in the culture of an organization, and in the behaviors, beliefs and values of its members. The purpose of this study was to discover, describe and systematically analyze the expressions, meanings, lifeways, beliefs, and values of selected clinical nurse shared governance council leaders in a pediatric health care organization. The aims of this study were to: 1) gain new knowledge from the participants through interviews, focus group sessions and field work that may prepare nurses as leaders; 2) discover barriers that may exist in the development of the caring lifeways that are needed to prepare nurses as leaders; and 3) analyze how caring relationships develop to promote nursing leadership. Ethnonursing research methods (Leininger, 1997) were used to discover previously unknown knowledge about the participants' experiences. The findings illustrated how caring relationships assisted clinical nurse council leaders to discover leadership within themselves, find their own voice, give voice to other nurses, accept personal and professional accountability for nursing practice, and advocate for patients and families. Caring leadership practices were all levels of nurses equally sharing their beliefs and values about nursing practice. However, the values and beliefs that nurses experienced in a hierarchical organizational culture could sometimes be in opposition to a nursing culture with the values and beliefs of shared governance. Mutuality in shared governance was clinical nurse council leaders engaged in equitable, reciprocal communication with managers to share leadership and decision making about nursing practice, and grow professionally to become nursing leaders.

Committee:

Edith Morris, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Marilyn Ray, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Denise Gormley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rebecca Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nursing

Keywords:

nursing leadership;shared governance;ethnonursing research;clinical nurse council leaders;mutuality;caring leadership

Waterman, Anna M.A case study of caring in nursing education
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Educational Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this case study was to describe a curriculum that teaches caring in the formal, overt curriculum, that is, where caring has been explicitly operationalized in the content and learning experiences of students. Faculty and student perceptions regarding ways of teaching and learning caring were explored and the lived experiences of the students within the caring curriculum described. The focus of this study was to describe how students learn caring during their nursing education. This qualitative case study described one college of nursing in their efforts to teach caring within the context of nursing. The curricular documents were reviewed and a document analysis was done to explain how caring was threaded throughout the formal written curriculum. Caring was threaded throughout the curriculum and was made manifest in every nursing course. Interviews were conducted with 22 faculty and 20 students to describe how the faculty teach caring and how the students learn caring in this curriculum. The research participants were students and faculty involved with the three years of required nursing courses. The teaching of caring in this curriculum was based on Watson’s caring theory and the carative factors. Faculty provided a supportive, caring learning environment and used both classroom and clinical teaching strategies to teach caring within the context of nursing. Faculty and students link caring with holism, critical thinking, and the nursing process. Students explain how they learn caring theory first in the classroom and then learn how to implement caring behaviors and the carative factors in their clinical practice. The students’ ability to articulate caring in the role of the nurse increased with each year of study. Students and faculty in this curriculum believed that the role modeling of caring was significant in the teaching and learning of caring. Giving voice to the caring in the overt curriculum was important for the students as they learned, discussed and reflected on their caring experiences.

Committee:

Beverly Gordon (Advisor)

Keywords:

Case Study; Caring; curriculum; and nursing education

Lybarger, Joseph EDo Actions Really Speak Louder Than Words?: Investigating the Effects of Nonverbal Immediacy and Verbally Aggressive Messages on Perceptions of a Managers Perceived Level of Credibility, Caring, and Communicator Style
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2014, Communication
The purpose of this study was stated within a single hypothesis and aimed to further our understanding of the destructive nature and consequences of verbally aggressive behaviors, and additionally sought to create a better understanding of the positive benefits, and constructive nature of nonverbal immediacy behaviors. These behaviors were investigated in order to better understand their role in the creating of both positive and negative perceptions regarding superior-subordinate communication. More specifically, this study sought to explore how a manager’s use of verbal aggression and nonverbal immediacy impact perceptions of that manager’s source credibility: competence (intelligence /practical wisdom), character (trustworthiness), caring (goodwill); and the relaxed, friendly, and attentive affirming dimensions of communicator style.Through the use of video stimuli and a quasi-experiment, the results indicated that When verbally aggressive messages were viewed within the video conditions, those aggressive behaviors consistently impacted perceptions of the dependent variables negatively. When nonverbal immediacy behaviors were viewed within the video conditions, those behaviors consistently impacted perceptions of the dependent variables positively. Main effects as well as interaction effects for the dependent variables are discussed in detail within the results section, along with limitations and suggestions for future research in the discussion.

Committee:

Andrew Rancer, Dr. (Committee Chair); Yang (Young) Lin, Dr. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Graham, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Verbal Aggression, Nonverbal Immediacy, Source Credibility, Competence, Character, Caring, Affirming Communicator Style, Relaxed, Friendly, Attentive, Superior, Subordinate, Management, Organization

McConnell, Marcella KaySECONDARY MATHEMATICS PRESERVICE TEACHERS' BEGINNING STORY
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of this study was to determine how four preservice secondary mathematics teachers' experiences in learning how to teach shaped their development as teachers of low-achieving students. This narrative inquiry focused on their expectations, efficacy, mathematical myths beliefs, mathematical knowledge for teaching, and ability to have a caring relationship with their students. Two sources of practice based belief development (high school experiences and helping others) were identified as affecting the participants' stories. From these experiences as students, they developed the tendency to teach the way they wanted to be taught. As a positive implication, the participants learned to communicate mathematics in multiple ways. Conversely, three of them indicated a deficit model approach where they othered low-achieving students because they were not like them and were perceived as needing to be fixed. Furthermore, the deficit model approach seemed to impede the formation of caring relationships and the development of classrooms focused on problem solving. These results help identify the importance of Knowledge of Content and Students (KCS) in teaching low-achieving students well. Additionally, the participants appeared to need cognitive conflict such as classroom management issues before they realized they had false efficacy and lacked sufficient KCS. The study also gives some insight that caring relationships are diverse, evolving, and difficult to investigate. Most importantly, the results identified possible issues that preservice teachers should be aware of and pay attention to if they are going to develop into effective teachers of low-achieving students.

Committee:

Joanne Caniglia (Committee Co-Chair); James Henderson (Committee Co-Chair); Michael Mikusa (Committee Member); David Dees (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Inservice Training; Mathematics Education; Secondary Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

preservice secondary mathematics teachers; low-achieving students; narrative inquiry; expectations; efficacy; mathematical myths beliefs; mathematical knowledge for teaching; caring; equity

Bartlett, Randall KenyonAt the Heart of the Classroom: Teachers' Experience of the Suffering and Success of Students for Whom They Care
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
The core of teaching is the relationship of care between the student and the teacher. A community can be created in the classroom that honors and respects the inherent worth of each individual and through such mutual respect students and teachers can experience success. The suffering and the successes that teachers experience are central to the way they care for their students. There is currently a great deal of focus on education and schooling in the United States and generally this focus ignores the necessity and vitality of the relationship of care. Teachers must daily support and care for students who have great struggles and great triumphs. In my dissertation, I will explore the nature of the experience of these teachers as they work with students who experience suffering and success. I will identify the themes of their experience using a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology based on the work of Max Van Manen. This dissertation is essentially a philosophical examination of the nature of teachers’ care for students and how they manifest the experience of suffering and success of those students. Therefore it is a deeply phenomenological work, bound not by the empirical, but by the life- worlds of the participants and of the author. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny (Committee Chair); Al Guskin (Committee Member); Jon Wergin (Committee Member); Heesoon Bai (Other)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Elementary Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Teaching; Caring; Urban Schools; Phenomenology; Classroom Community; Suffering; Teacher; Lived-Experience; Education; K-12; School Reform; Phronesis;

Sommer, Lisa StephanieProblems Reported by Daughters in the First Year of Caring for Parents with Stroke: A Secondary Data Analysis
Master of Science (MS), University of Toledo, 2014, College of Nursing
Purpose, Background/Significance. Women provide most of the unpaid care to family members within the home throughout the post-stroke recovery and rehabilitation process. Transitioning from the role of adult daughter to caregiver for a parent who recently had a stroke can be very stressful and unsettling. The purpose of this descriptive secondary data analysis is to examine problems reported by adult daughters in the first year of caring for a parent with a stroke. Theoretical / Conceptual Framework. Guided by Friedemann’s framework of systemic organization, this analysis explores the problems encountered in the caring experience specific to daughters caring for parents. These women are driven by the desire for health and well-being, or congruence, whereas incongruence or poor health can be the result of problems in caring. Method. With IRB approval, data from a randomized controlled trial were collected from 73 adult caregivers in Ohio and Michigan to examine the experience of caring for someone with stroke. Open-ended questions were included in bimonthly telephone interviews asking the participants to recall their experience of caring in the past two weeks. For this secondary data analysis and with continued IRB approval, problems reported by only the adult daughters (n=13) were analyzed during two time periods (0-6 and 7-12 months) using Colaizzi’s rigorous method of content analysis. Results. Three major themes emerged. The first theme of witnessing a parent’s condition centered on the adult daughter recognizing changes in her parents’ health condition and behavior and supporting them to retain what they had (Friedemann’s process dimension of system maintenance). This theme was consistently apparent throughout 12-months of caring. The second theme, balancing the challenges of the caregiver role, dealt with the struggles and adaption necessary for her new lifestyle as a caregiver (system maintenance and individuation). This theme was noticeable throughout the entire year, but more evident in the second 6-months. The final theme, feeling physically, emotionally, and mentally drained, involved problems associated with the overall exhaustion experienced by adult daughters (system maintenance). This theme was seen throughout the 1-year period, but more visible in the first 6-months of caring. Conclusions. The findings provide specific, theory-based themes of the adult daughters’ problems during that year of caring that could lead to incongruence in their lives. The information gleaned may offer nurses and other healthcare providers a clearer picture of the problems these daughters experience, leading to more targeted interventions, increased support, and ultimately improved overall health/congruence for daughters.

Committee:

Linda Pierce (Committee Chair); Steiner Victoria (Committee Member); Gies Cheryl (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nursing

Keywords:

Problems; Stroke; Caring; Caregiver; Caregiver burden; Daughters; Adult daughters

Walters, Gwendolyn MaePerceived Caring of Instructors Among Online Doctoral Nursing Students
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Higher Education
The concept of caring has been integral to the practice of nursing and nursing education since the early teachings of Florence Nightingale. Significant changes in both the practice and the need for educating increasing numbers of advanced-degree nurses have resulted in an increase in online doctoral-level nursing programs. This internet¬based survey used the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire and a set of demographic questions to investigate the perceived caring of instructors among self-selected online doctoral nursing students attending one of the AACN 210 institutions. The relationship between attributed caring and intention to drop a course was also studied. Attributed levels of caring were found to be similar to those reported for other categories of nursing students; this held across different types of programs and full- or part-time enrollment status. Students who had not thought about dropping out of an online course were found to have significantly higher levels of attributed caring than those who had. A discriminant function analysis indicated that a decision to drop out of a course is likely to be based on factors in addition the attributed level of caring by an instructor for their students. It remains to be determined how caring, as a motivational variable, is related to academic and or clinical performance among students taking such courses even though it was found that an instructor's use of best educational practices was associated with higher attributions of caring.

Committee:

David L. Meabon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Ronald D. Opp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sue E. Ikczak, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary A. Kozy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education; Nursing

Keywords:

attributed caring; best practices; doctoral nursing students; dropout; nursing; online

Gottfried, George MichaelQualitative analysis of child-caring experiences of religious sisters
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1992, Sociology
This study involves a partial life history ethnographic analysis of child-caring experiences of religious sisters at a children's home prior to 1970. Thirteen women were interviewed about their experiences during their child-caring assignment at the St. Cloud Children's Home. Most were assigned there during the 1940's and 1950's, but one was there in 1925. Also pertinent to this study was any subsequent meaning these experiences had for these women upon reflection. The findings suggest that the women in the study saw the experience as a good one for them, but tended not to dwell on the past. Most felt they did the best they could and moved on from there. All of the women in the study came from rural areas and relatively large families. Decisions to enter the convent were made in later teenage and in the early twenties at a time when most people were dealing with issues of autonomy and intimacy. Since the community itself had a rule about close relationships, these nuns were not supposed to develop close or special relationships with anyone. This issue suggests that those children they managed may also have had some developmental delays due to the paucity of affectional relationships from these child caring staff people. The outcome of the study has rele vancy for social work as it highlights a piece of institutional history by the reminiscences of these nuns as well as the recall of the researcher who grew up in that environment. In addition, it may hold meaning for future uses of institutions as programmed facilities for children who are homeless or the product of drug users who cannot care for their own.

Committee:

Howard Goldstein (Advisor)

Keywords:

Qualitative analysis child-caring experiences religious sisters

Pedraza, Lisandra“Because they are spiritually discerned”: spirituality in early childhood education
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Teaching and Learning
The purpose of my qualitative research was to explore with early childhood education teachers, their understanding of children’s spirituality and how they think educators can support this type of development in the classroom. I wanted to search further with them how spirituality in early childhood education paves the way toward social justice. This study was grounded in the critical Black feminist and interpretive theoretical frames with a situated methodology. It incorporated grounded theory. The research included five participants from two different early childhood education settings, who were selected purposefully through community nomination. The instruments to gather data included: individual interviews, observations, written field notes and narratives. The findings pointed to a theoretical framework that integrates the four major themes across the data: identity and connectedness with the self, identity and connectedness with self and others in relation to social justice, spirituality embedded in loving education, and multiple spiritualities negotiated within early childhood education. The theoretical framework for spirituality in early childhood education that emerges from the findings.

Committee:

Cynthia Tyson (Advisor)

Keywords:

SPIRITUALITY; EARLY CHILDHOOD; SOCIAL JUSTICE; EDUCATION; CARING EDUCATION; LOVING EDUCATION; HOLISTIC EDUCATION

Hollis, Lanny KeithCatholic Sschools and Student Academic Performance: Does the Urban Catholic School Experience Mitigate Ethnoracial Disparity?
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2009, College of Education and Human Services
This study examined an inner-city Catholic high school to ascertain the possible existence of an achievement gap. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses examined academic indicators (GPA and Math and Science OGT results) and demographic and school variables. Students (258 Black, 101 White, and 55 Hispanic) completed questionnaires, which were matched with school data and confirmatory alumni focus groups. Analyses revealed no significant differences (ANOVA) among academic indicator means. Correlations were found between academic indicators and length of Catholic education, good behavior, extracurricular participation, high-school-graduation-oriented peers, and teacher caring scores. Regression models found positive student behavior, peers, female gender, extracurricular participation, and teacher caring predicted higher academic scores. Traditional achievement gap indicators (race, ethnicity, family wealth, parent education, attendance, and 2-parent households) were not predictive. Further research should replicate this study (using HLM nesting analyses between and within Catholic schools) among students and adults in Catholic schools.

Committee:

Karl F. Wheatley, PhD (Committee Chair); Joshua G. Bagaka's, PhD (Committee Member); David W. Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Antonio Medina-Rivera, PhD (Committee Member); Brian P. Yusko, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

Catholic schools; achievement gap; private schools; school climate; school culture; school caring