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Hintch, Sarah AnneInternational Brands and Cultural Diplomacy (Nike's "Brand Diplomacy" and its Influence on China-US Relations)
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, East Asian Languages and Literatures
A thesis presented on the role international brands play in the spread of cultural diplomacy. A brand which conducts marketing and advertising in more than one country has the potential to positively influence the opinions, attitudes and understanding one country’s public has towards the brand’s country of origin. Culture is innately present in everything created by people, including TV commercials, the interior design of stores, picture and video advertisements as well as the interactions between individuals (sponsors, coaches/workers at marketing events etc.). Because of this, all brands contribute to the spread of culture simply by conducting business. If foreign consumers associate a specific brand with its country of origin (or if they are simply aware which country the brand originated), then they might consciously or subconsciously connect their feelings towards the brand with their feelings towards said country. The specific case study presented in this paper is Nike Inc. and how, through their marketing and advertising in China, are able to influence Chinese people’s opinions, attitudes and understanding of America and American culture. Nike, because of their connection with the NBA, and because of the American cultural aspects included in their sporting events, commercials, philanthropies etc., represent the USA. Nike is also currently one of the most popular brands in china, and a proponent of sports diplomacy. This brand thus is in the position to be a powerful and effective cultural diplomat.

Committee:

Galal Walker (Committee Chair); Xiaobin Jian (Advisor)

Subjects:

Foreign Language; International Relations; Marketing

Keywords:

international brands; brand diplomacy; sports diplomacy; Nike China; american brands in china; influence of brands; cultural content of advertising; Nike and the NBA; Nike and America; international companies and diplomacy

Huang, Min-HsinPrice competition between store brands and national brands: determinants of price elasticities for cheese products
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics
Store brands and national brands (Kraft) account for eighty percent of the retail cheese market in the United States. The goal of this study is to estimate brand demand elasticities and reveal factors that determine price elasticities for store and national brands of cheese; more importantly, to provide implications for marketing managers. Data used in this study are store-level scanner data provided by a national supermarket chain in the Columbus, Ohio metropolitan area (CMA). Based on product forms, cheese is classified into five product categories: shredded, sliced, chunk, snack, and miscellaneous. Six stores are included in the data set and these stores are selected from geographic areas that can be described as being populated by higher- and lower-income consumers. A two-stage modeling process is utilized in this study. First, brand demand elasticities are estimated with respect to various store locations, cheese product forms, and package sizes. Second, a meta-analysis is applied to reveal the factors that determine price elasticities of store and national brands. This process involves regressing the estimated price elasticities of store and national brands on the determinants of elasticities: store location, market share, product form, and package size. Both the nonlinear Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and linear approximation AIDS (LA/AIDS) are utilized in the first stage to estimate brand demand elasticities. Given five product categories and two income groups, a total of 20 demand systems are estimated for the two AIDS models. Before estimating the two versions of AIDS model, the unit-root test was initially conducted to confirm stationarity of the time-series variables. This study provides a rich knowledge base for retail store managers and manufacturers to use for maximizing sales and profits. Results from the first stage demand systems indicate that compared with store brands, consumers are very sensitive to national brands price changes for most cheese items even in higher-income areas. The second stage meta-analysis shows that store location, market share, product form, and package size affect price elasticities for store and national brands; moreover, the estimated demand elasticities between AIDS and LA/AIDS models are not significantly different.

Committee:

David Hahn (Advisor)

Keywords:

Store Brands; National Brands; Cheese

Miller, Felicia MaddoxWhat Do Brands Mean? A Series of Three Essays That Explore the Nature of Meaning for Well-known Brands
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Business Administration : Business Administration
Brand meaning has been theoretically linked to brand equity and long-term brand success; however, it remains underdeveloped and underutilized relative to its potential. In this dissertation, three distinct yet interrelated essays address the multifaceted nature of brand meaning and meaning transfer in the context of well-known brands and celebrities. Essay 1, “What do Brands Mean? A multi-dimensional framework for successful meaning management”, proposes a multi-dimensional definition of brand meaning. Building on existing literature, brand meaning is broadly defined as the complex collection of perceptions that are produced by the consumer from the marketplace and culture around them. Using qualitative techniques borrowed from social psychology, the dimensions of this definition are examined and what emerges is a theoretically and empirically sound framework. The second essay, “What do Celebrities Mean? A multi- dimensional framework for understanding celebrity brands”, attempts to apply the definition developed in Essay 1 to the meaning consumers ascribe to celebrities. Using the same method as in Essay 1, the results, not surprisingly, indicate that celebrity meaning differs from traditional brand meaning in some important ways. In the final essay, “How Does Meaning Move? Understanding the process of meaning transfer in the context of celebrity endorsements”, a conceptual framework is tested. This framework, which is well-established in the literature, suggests that brands obtain meaning in part from the celebrities that endorse them. Using well established conditioning procedures to manipulate implied celebrity endorsement relationships, changes in brand meaning and brand attitude are observed. These results make an important contribution to the academic literature and to those interested in the relationship between brands, consumers and culture.

Committee:

Dr. Chris Allen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

meaning; brand meaning; brands; brand management; familiar brands

Craft, BrandanWhy Branding Can Increase a Professional Athlete's Value: A Rationale for Designer Engagement
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial, Interior and Visual Communic Design

Brands allow consumers to make choices. They help them differentiate one individual, business, or product from the other by delivering a promise that leads to expectations and perceptions. The value of a brand is measured by this perception.

What the consumer perceives a business to be, not the business's perception, is that business's brand. Designers play a large part in influencing this perception by creating brand identity systems that become the tangible expression of a business's identity. There is an opportunity for designers to play a larger role in a business's success by capitalizing on the increasing reliance on branding to assist in wealth generation.

Professional athletes are small businesses. They are distinct individuals that ultimately rely on their fans to build wealth. The fan's perception of an athlete, that athlete's brand, influences the differentiation of one player from another. The decision to invest in the brand, whether it is to watch a game on television, buy tickets to the game, or purchase a player's jersey after the game, rests on this perception. Designers can help professional athletes formulate strategies to positively influence their brand.

Strong branding could go a long way in increasing an athlete's off-the-field opportunities. Since the career span of a professional athlete is relatively short, shared productivity between athletes and designers could generate increased, and more sustainable income for athletes. Designers could also benefit from these increased opportunities. If brands allow consumer's to make choices, designers influence what choices these consumers make with keen knowledge of consumer behavior and sound design principals.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Committee Chair); Noel Mayo (Committee Member); Peter Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Marketing

Keywords:

brand; brands; athlete; professional athlete; virtual team; designer; brand value

Shields, Alison B.WHAT DID YOU DO TO MY BRAND? THE MODERATING EFFECT OF BRAND NOSTALGIA ON CONSUMER RESPONSES TO CHANGED BRANDS
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Marketers often make changes to brands to make the brand seem current or exciting. Some updates are successful while others are spectacular failures. This dissertation establishes a connection between consumer acceptance or rejection of updated brands and the consumer’s reported brand nostalgia. In this dissertation, I refine the current marketing definitions of nostalgia to develop a more specific construct of brand nostalgia, develop a scale to measure the construct of brand nostalgia, examine the differences between schemas for nostalgic brands and non-nostalgic brands, and show that consumers’ affective and attitudinal responses to changes in a brand are moderated by brand nostalgia. Nostalgia has been defined as “a positively toned evocation of a lived past” (Davis 1979), and “a fondness for possessions and activities associated with days of yore” (Holbrook 1993). Consumers have been observed to engage in nostalgic behaviors, from re-watching favorite old movies (Holbrook, 1993) to reminiscing about favorite cars from their youth (Brown, Kozinets and Sherry 2003) to consuming specific foods as a way to reconnect with the past (Loveland, Smeesters and Mandel, 2010). Consumers have also reported nostalgic feelings for particular brands or items (Holbrook and Schindler 2003). When individuals recall nostalgic memories, they recall affect and brand information stored in their schema for the target brand (Collins and Loftus 1975). Nostalgia is “not a true recreation of the past but rather a combination of many different memories, all integrated together and in the process, all negative emotions filtered out” (Hirsch 1992). Thus, the individual’s memory trace is biased, leading the individual to recall the brand as being better than it actually was. Further, when an individual forms a relationship with a brand, the individual incorporates affective and attitudinal information into the schema, leading to a more complex, more robust schema (Fournier 1998; Smit, Bronner and Tolboom 2006). Once the individual experiences the updated brand, he compares the new experience to his biased memory and attempts to assimilate the new stimuli into his or her existing schema. The individual’s ability to assimilate the new experience into their schema built on the biased memory will depend on the degree of change to the brand as well as the individual’s level of nostalgia towards the brand. When a highly nostalgic individual processes a changed brand, his more complex and affect-based schema will lead to a smaller latitude of acceptance for the change (Hart and Diehl 1993). If the change falls outside the latitude of acceptance, the individual will reject the updated brand (Atkins, Deaux & Bieri 1967). Conversely, less nostalgic individuals are likely to have less complex, less affect-laden, less positively biased memories of the brand, making them more likely to assimilate the change (Meyers-Levy and Sternthal 1993; Martin 1986; Martin, Seta and Crelia 1990). This dissertation combines literature from marketing, psychology and sociology to identify the ways in which the cognitive structures nostalgic individuals access when exposed to a brand towards which they are nostalgic differ from the cognitive structures non-nostalgic individuals access. This dissertation further provides a framework for both practitioners and academics to better predict consumer responses to changes in brands with nostalgic cache.

Committee:

Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Chair); Robert D. Jewell (Committee Member); Katherine A. Rawson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Nostalgia; Consumer/Brand Relationships; Changed Brands;