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Craft, BrandanWhy Branding Can Increase a Professional Athlete's Value: A Rationale for Designer Engagement
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial, Interior and Visual Communic Design

Brands allow consumers to make choices. They help them differentiate one individual, business, or product from the other by delivering a promise that leads to expectations and perceptions. The value of a brand is measured by this perception.

What the consumer perceives a business to be, not the business's perception, is that business's brand. Designers play a large part in influencing this perception by creating brand identity systems that become the tangible expression of a business's identity. There is an opportunity for designers to play a larger role in a business's success by capitalizing on the increasing reliance on branding to assist in wealth generation.

Professional athletes are small businesses. They are distinct individuals that ultimately rely on their fans to build wealth. The fan's perception of an athlete, that athlete's brand, influences the differentiation of one player from another. The decision to invest in the brand, whether it is to watch a game on television, buy tickets to the game, or purchase a player's jersey after the game, rests on this perception. Designers can help professional athletes formulate strategies to positively influence their brand.

Strong branding could go a long way in increasing an athlete's off-the-field opportunities. Since the career span of a professional athlete is relatively short, shared productivity between athletes and designers could generate increased, and more sustainable income for athletes. Designers could also benefit from these increased opportunities. If brands allow consumer's to make choices, designers influence what choices these consumers make with keen knowledge of consumer behavior and sound design principals.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Committee Chair); Noel Mayo (Committee Member); Peter Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Marketing

Keywords:

brand; brands; athlete; professional athlete; virtual team; designer; brand value

Lee, HyunjungBrand Valuation Model: A Shareholder Value Approach
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Marketing activities are designed and executed to increase brand equity. The financial benefit derived from brand equity is defined as brand value. In this dissertation, a brand valuation model and a new brand value measure are proposed in the context of mergers and acquisitions. The data is collected from Thomson ONE Banker Mergers and Acquisitions database, SEC filings, COMPUSTAT database, CRSP database, and USPTO’s trademark database. To be included in the sample, a merger and acquisition deal has to have a US-based target firm in a consumer product and service related industry and a US-based acquiring firm. All deals are completed between January 1, 2001 and June 30, 2010 and the acquiring firm reported the brand value for a target firm in their SEC filings. The sample has 98 merger and acquisition deals. Bahadir, Bharadwaj, and Srivastava (2008) used the dollar amount the acquiring firm assigned to the target firm’s brand to represent brand value, and developed a brand valuation model with capability and strategic fits between acquiring and target firms. First, I extend their model with Ohlson’s valuation approach (1995). Results show that target firm characteristics explain more of the variability in brand value than acquiring firm characteristics. Second, a new measure of brand value is proposed based on shareholders’ value for the brand. An event study methodology based on Brown and Warner (1980, 1984) with Carhart’s (1997) four-parameter risk adjustment specification is used. Changes in acquiring firm stock returns due to acquisition announcements are further adjusted to the brand level. The brand valuation model with this new measure shows substantially greater explanatory power than the model with the previous measure of brand value. Validity of using shareholders’ value is largely supported by the results of this study.

Committee:

Michael Hu (Advisor); Murali Shanker (Committee Member); Tuo Wang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand value; Brand valuation, Shareholder value; Event Study; Mergers and Acquisitions

Raggio, Randle DavidThree essays exploring consumers' relationships with brands and the implications for brand equity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Business Administration
Despite the attention brand equity has received over the past 15 years, no consistent measure of brand equity has been adopted. In Chapter 2, I propose a new framework for conceptualizing brand equity that distinguishes between brand equity and brand value. In Chapter 3, I develop a measure of brand equity that is consistent with the framework introduced in Chapter 2, but is based on an empirical procedure that is applied to binary consumer response data collected by the Procter & Gamble Company for brands from four product categories and five countries. The benefit to marketing management is the implication that by using the approach described in this paper, other companies also can better understand where their consumers’ brand beliefs come from, and now can develop a measure of brand equity that does not require a large complex instrument. In Chapter 4, I seek to understand the strategic implications of the mental sources of information consumers draw from to develop their beliefs about the benefits that brands deliver, as described in Chapter 3. The general hypothesis is that the level of information that consumers currently use to develop their brand beliefs will moderate the impact of new information, such that a strategic advantage exists for brands when consumers currently use one of the sources instead of the other. Chapter 4 describes an experiment to test whether consumers’ current use of the high-level brand source or detailed attribute source is associated with less vulnerability to new (negative) information. This study finds that when subjects receive negative brand-level information second, it has a greater negative impact on overall brand evaluation if the initial information they possess about the brand is also at a brand level. On the contrary, when consumers are faced with negative brand-level information that directly contradicts existing brand-level information stored in memory, it is reasonable that this new information would be assimilated with the old, and the overall evaluation fall. The results do not support a general prophylactic effect of the brand source, but are consistent with existing brand theory and provide a strong foundation for future research.

Committee:

Robert Leone (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

brand equity; brand value