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Park, Sarah SBiomimicry of Feathers for Airport Design
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture
Biomimicry refers to the work of people who realize that the organic structures or surviving outcomes of nature are not only seemingly beautiful but also durable and who apply them to human inventions by designing with the methods of nature. There are many projects around the world utilizing biomimicry, even from before the term was commonly used. Furthermore, biomimicry is increasingly employed in architecture. In this thesis, I will examine the design of an airport building through biomimicry. Because of a correlation between flights, airplanes, airports, and feathers, I have selected a feather for my biological inspiration. The structural pattern of feathers allows them to sustain their shape and function in flight. Understanding the principle of this structure, which is based on interlocking systems of hooks (barbicels) with three different hierarchies (rachis, barbs and barbules), allows a plausible formulation for a lightweight long-span structure of an airport by designing a feather-like canopy unit. The site I have selected for this examination is Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), which is in decline due to decreased demand. Hoping for a revitalization, the airport management plans to combine Concourse A and Concourse B as one compact concourse in 2023 to reduce the waste, maintenance fees, and unnecessary spaces. Based on these needs from CVG, I propose a new concourse by mimicking a feather’s structure to design an innovative new airport facility.

Committee:

Christoph Klemmt, A.A. Dipl. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Riorden, M.Arch. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Biomimicry;Feather;Airport;CVG;Concourse;Lightweight

Michaels, Simone ColetteDevelopment and Assessment of Artificial Manduca sexta Forewings: How Wing Structure Affects Performance
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EMC - Aerospace Engineering
This research presents novel fabrication and testing techniques for artificial insect wings. A series of static and dynamic assessments are designed which allow consistent comparison of small, flexible wings in terms of structure and performance. Locally harvested hawk moths are tested and compared to engineered wings. Data from these experiments shows that the implemented replication method results in artificial wings with comparable properties to that of M. sexta. Flexural stiffness (EI) data shows a considerable difference between the left and right M. sexta wings. Furthermore, EI values on the ventral wing side are found to be consistently higher than the dorsal side. Based on dynamic results, variations in venation structure have the largest impact on lift generation. Lift tests on individual wings and wing sets indicate detrimental effects as a result of wing-wake interaction.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor); Mark Willis (Committee Member); Richard Bachmann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Aerospace Materials; Biology; Engineering; Entomology; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Manduca sexta; artificial wings; wing fabrication; biomimicry

McBride, Peter NevinsBiomimetic Constructs High-Technology Towards Ecological Design
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)
Due to advances in large-scale rapid-prototyping technology, the terms standard and non-standard are increasingly being challenged in the lexicon of modern construction. Driven by the ever-expanding versatility of digital software, architects find themselves in a position of greater design freedom and less constraint from modular building materials, thus allowing for a paradigmatic shift towards an architecture focused on performative characteristics. The following investigation will engage these contemporary technologies to mimic basic processes and morphologies found in our natural environment that account for its inherent abilities of material conservation and systems integration. Software scripting techniques and research into the fields of biological morphology and behavior, digital design, and rapid-manufacture direct the creation of a morphogenetic generative process that decreases material usage within architectural structures and allows for informed speculation into the future of systems integration and the construction automation.

Committee:

Nnamdi Elleh, PhD (Committee Chair); Rebecca Williamson, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

biology;biomimicry;Chicago;scripting

Swift, Nathan ButlerHEDGEMON: A HEDGEHOG-INSPIRED HELMET LINER
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Physics
In contact sports like football and ice hockey, concussions are a common occurrence. Over 10% of athletes experience at least one concussion per season. Recent discoveries have emphasized the disastrous neurological consequences for people with a history of concussions, which include dementia, depression, and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Today’s helmet technology is woefully inadequate at mitigating concussions, especially in where the athlete’s head experiences rotational acceleration. With lawsuits mounting against leagues like the NFL, the survival of football may depend on solving the concussion problem. The startup Hedgemon, LLC has begun developing a promising impact protection technology based on hedgehog spines. If integrated into a football helmet liner, it could substantially reduce the concussion-causing acceleration of the brain induced by frequent in-game collisions. Adapted from a recently submitted SBIR Phase I grant proposal, this paper discusses in detail the technology at its current state of development and the exciting commercial opportunity.

Committee:

Edward Caner (Advisor); Robert Brown (Committee Member); Michael Martens (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomechanics; Biophysics; Entrepreneurship; Mechanics; Physics; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

Biomimicry; impact testing; helmet liner; hedgehog spines; football; concussion; 3D printing; rotational acceleration; linear acceleration

Walter, Tyler LeeBiomimicry: architecture imitating life's principles
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture
Using nature as inspiration `mimicking the functional basis of biological forms, processes, and systems to produce sustainable solutions. Biomimicry offers from biophilia in that it is not about the bond between nature and humans, but about using nature as a mentor. The study explores the reasoning behind using biomimicry as a design-tool, in terms of building design and masterplanning to design a riverfront proposal in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.

Committee:

Michael McInturf, M.Arch. (Committee Chair); Aarati Kanekar, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Sustainability;Biomimicry;Masterplanning

Rinehart, Aidan WalkerA Characterization of Seal Whisker Morphology and the Effects of Angle of Incidence on Wake Structure
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2016, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Seal whiskers have been found to produce unique wake flow structures that minimize self-induced vibration and reduce drag. The cause of these wake features are due to the peculiar three-dimensional morphology of the whisker surface. The whisker morphology can be described as an elliptical cross section with variation of diameter in the major and minor axis along the length and, angle of incidence, rotation of the elliptical plane with respect to the whisker axis, α at the peak and β at the trough. This research provided a more complete morphology characterization accomplished through CT scanning and analysis of 27 harbor and elephant seal whisker samples. The results of this study confirmed previously reported values and added a characterization of the angle of incidence finding that the majority of angles observed fall within ±5° and exhibit a random variation in magnitude and direction along the whisker length. While the wake effects of several parameters of the whisker morphology have been studied, the effect of the angle of incidence has not been well understood. This research examined the influence of the angle of incidence on the wake flow structure through series of water channel studies. Four models of whisker-like geometries based on the morphology study were tested which isolate the angle of incidence as the only variation between models. The model variations in angle of incidence selected provided a baseline case (α = β = 0°), captured the range of angles observed in nature (α = β = -5°, and α = β = -15°), and investigated the influence of direction of angle of incidence (α = -5°, β = -5°). The wake structure for each seal whisker model was measured through particle image velocimetry (PIV). Angle of incidence was found to influence the wake structure through reorganization of velocity field patterns, reduction of recovery length and modification of magnitude of Tu. The results of this research helped provide a more complete understanding of the seal whisker morphology relationship to wake structure and can provide insight into design practices for application of whisker-like geometry to various engineering problems.

Committee:

Wei Zhang, PhD (Advisor); Ibrahim Mounir, PhD (Committee Member); Shyam Vikram, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Aquatic Sciences; Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

seal; whisker; PIV; biomimicry; fluid dynamics; particle image velocimetry; bio-engineering; engineering; mechanical engineering; aerospace engineering; experimental fluid dynamics;

Stark, Alyssa Yeager The Effect of Water on the Gecko Adhesive System
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2014, Integrated Bioscience
The gecko adhesive system is a dry, reversible adhesive that is virtually surface-insensitive due to the utilization of intermolecular van der Waals forces. Remarkably, although detailed models of the adhesive mechanism exist and hundreds of gecko-inspired synthetics have been fabricated, our ability to fully replicate the system still falls short. One reason for this is our limited understanding of how the system performs in natural environments. To begin to resolve this I focused on one particular environmental parameter, water. Although thin layers of water can disrupt van der Waals forces, I hypothesized that geckos are able to retain or regain adhesive function on wet surfaces. I was motivated to investigate this hypothesis because many species of gecko are native to the tropics, a climate where we expect surface water to be prevalent, thus it is likely geckos have some mechanism to overcome the challenges associated with surface water and wetting. Despite the challenge water should pose to adhesion, I found that when tested on hydrophobic substrates geckos cling equally well in air and water. Conversely, on wet hydrophilic substrates geckos cannot support their body weight. Investigating these results further, I found that the superhydrophobic nature of the adhesive toe pads allows geckos to form an air bubble around their foot, which when pressed into contact with a hydrophobic substrate likely removes water from the adhesive interface. When the toe pads are no longer superhydrophobic however, geckos cannot support their body weight and fall from substrates. In order to regain adhesion geckos only need to take about ten steps on a dry substrate to self-dry their toe pads. Finally, when measuring a dynamic component of adhesion, running, we found that geckos are able to maintain speed on misted hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates, contrary to what we would predict based on static shear adhesion measurements. In conclusion, my research provides a detailed investigation of how water affects the gecko adhesive system and has applications for synthetic design of adhesives which retain or regain function in water and further motivates the study of this remarkable system in a more environmentally relevant context.

Committee:

Peter Niewiarowski, Dr. (Advisor); Ali Dhinojwala, Dr. (Advisor); Todd Blackledge, Dr. (Committee Member); Matthew Shawkey, Dr. (Committee Member); Jutta Luettmer-Strathmann, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Biomechanics; Biophysics; Ecology; Materials Science; Morphology; Organismal Biology; Polymers; Zoology

Keywords:

gecko; adhesion; water; superhydrophobic; biomimicry; van der Waals; wetting; locomotion; friction; contact angle; self-cleaning; morphology; performance; behavior; ecology

Wade, Mary EEngineering of Elastomeric Biomaterials and Biomimicry of Extracellular Matrix for Soft Tissue Regeneration
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Integrated Bioscience
Discoveries of new synthetic polymeric materials have become increasingly important in the field of biomedicine. Recent advancements in bio-functionalization strategies have led to innovation of biomimetic materials that can enhance tissue regeneration. Poly(ester urea)s are one unique set of materials comprised of amino acids and diols that are able to achieve tunable mechanical and degradation properties for a variety of tissue engineering applications. These materials can be functionalized with peptides utilizing an assortment of strategies in order to enhance cellular and tissue interactions. One alternative functionalization strategy under current investigation is combining decellularized extracellular matrix with poly(ester urea)s using engineering approaches such as electrospinning, melt-spinning, and 3D-printing. Our research into these techniques has provided interesting insights into the effects of processing on nanostructured scaffolds, and how molecular and scaffold structure can be tailored to overcome processing obstacles. We have also recently discovered a new series of elastomeric materials inspired by the chemical structure of rubber. These new polymers also exhibit tunable mechanical and degradation properties. We have tested these elastomers in vitro and in vivo and observed excellent cellular and tissue responses. Elastomers containing a degradable monomer in every copolymer repeat unit were capable of degrading within a period of 4 months in vivo while allowing for significant tissue infiltration and matrix regeneration. These two examples support the use of biomimicry for the design of novel materials, from molecular synthetic strategies to macromolecular scaffold design, and similar approaches will play a critical role in furthering the development of biomaterials for tissue regeneration.

Committee:

Matthew Becker (Advisor); Rebecca Willits (Committee Chair); Amy Milsted (Committee Member); Ge Zhang (Committee Member); Darrell Reneker (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Biomechanics; Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Chemistry; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Keywords:

elastomer; electrospinning; melt spinning; 3D printing; sterilization; sewing; extracellular matrix; biomimicry; tissue regeneration; inflammation; biomaterial

BALDRIDGE, DEVIN WILLIAMTHE METABOLIC DESIGN METHODOLOGY
MDes, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Design
Industrial designers gather references from a multitude of sources, synthesize it, and convey those influences in the design of products. Looking only at competitors for inspiration can potentially limit the perspective of contemporary designers and subsequently the innovation of products. Just as people feel connected to nature, designers can create products that consumers feel connected to through the reference of nature. This document focuses on how nature can be used as a model in order to address many of the problems confronting designers today. There has been no clear and practical methodology for modern industrial designers to observe and reference nature. The Metabolic Design Methodology is a design strategy that represents the culmination of the four categories, I have recognized, in the design of products. The categories are: Surfaces/Finishes, Form/Structure, Materials, and Processes/Production. The four categories represent common topics industrial designers consider in the design of products. They represent a tool meant to facilitate the systematic referencing of nature in the design of products. They were developed to present designers with opportunities for invention by establishing some parameters as they wade through the design process. The report is comprised of four primary parts. Part I includes; the introductory chapter as well as a chapter entitled, Contemporary and Classical Methodologies for Understanding Nature. Part II; presents and explains the four categories I am proposing. Part III; analyzes two case studies in which I demonstrate varying degrees of application of the Metabolic Design Methodology. Finally, Part IV; is the concluding chapter. The two case studies represent varying degrees of metabolic influence into an otherwise traditional design strategy. Through the case studies I demonstrate how each category can be systematically incorporated into traditional design approaches independently, or how the categories may be used collectively to produce rich design solutions. The more conscious designers are, the more references they have to tap into, and the more their creativity will be expressed. Nature holds the answer to many riddles still plaguing design today. When industrial designers expand their perspective to include nature, countless design innovations will be made possible.

Committee:

Dr. J. Chewning (Advisor)

Subjects:

Design and Decorative Arts

Keywords:

industrial design; product; biomimicry; sustainable design; metabolism

McGovern, Joseph WilliamBiomimicry: how learning from nature can restore sustainability in architecture
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)
Building trends over the past half century have created spaces that don’t respond to the climate of the place and have deteriorated the quality of physiological conditions and the sustainability of our built environment. Every organism in nature is a product of the need to be sustainable and energy efficient, however, in the quest to create more sustainable buildings the wealth of solutions provided by nature is largely overlooked. This thesis studies how nature solves impediments to sustainability in architecture and applies those strategies to create a truly environmentally sustainable architectural project. Strategies used in nature for construction, thermal comfort, daylighting, and ventilation will be explored and applied while trying to reduce the embodied and operating energy of the built environment. This thesis outlines an applicable, repeatable process of architectural design that is rooted in scientifically researched natural solutions, or biomimicry. This process is applied from the start of the design process through design development of a sustainable, multi-family housing project in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati.

Committee:

Jerry Larson (Committee Chair); John Hancock (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

biomimicry; sustainability; live/work; Cincinnati; Over-the-Rhine; nature

Fecheyr Lippens, DaphneImplementing Biomimicry Thinking from fundamental R&D to creating nature-aligned organizations
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Biology
The appreciation for nature as inspiration for design has happened throughout human history. However, it wasn’t until the late 1990s that biomimicry was put forward as a discipline providing a framework to more actively and consciously use nature’s time-tested and refined strategies to inform innovative products, services and systems. The implementation of biomimicry as a design tool to solve real-life, time-sensitive challenges inherently requires an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Biological knowledge needs to be made available, either by new research or by extracting it from existing literature. This then needs to be abstracted into design principles to be used to inform the creation of new designs. Ultimately this design needs to be commercialized by organizations that remain successful under rapidly changing conditions. In this PhD work I explored the implications of implementing biomimicry thinking throughout this entire process, which included the scientific, engineering, design and business world. It is through experiential and observational learning that people are trained to design, support, and lead biomimicry endeavors. By sharing my experiences, challenges, concerns and research results I am hoping to boost the further development of biomimicry as a tool for technological and social innovation, as well as promote the potential of biomimicry to facilitate a sustainability transition and therefore increase its prominent implementation for solving real-life, time-sensitive challenges. The growing interest and successful application of biomimicry can ultimately result not only in more environmentally conscious technologies, but also make organizations themselves nature-aligned.

Committee:

Peter Niewiarowski (Advisor); Matthew Shawkey (Advisor); Dayna Baumeister (Committee Member); Pravin Bhiwapurkar (Committee Member); Ali Dhinojwala (Committee Member); Karim Alamgir (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Biophysics; Environmental Engineering; Sustainability

Keywords:

Biomimicry; sustainable development; light modulation; avian eggshells; photodegradation; ultra-violet protection; waste management; architecture; building envelope; adaptive thermal comfort;

Catanese, Alexander J.Organic Web Design: Exploring Nature as Metaphor in Responsive Web Design
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
The rise of responsive design as an approach to web design in the last decade has shaped the ways that designers consider the web as a medium. As this approach has developed, its practitioners have begun forming patterns and templates which might limit alternative modes of thinking in the field. Criticism of this approach is still in its early stages, leaving open an opportunity for reflection, expansion, and the exploration of alternative modes of thinking and making for considering the medium. The web browser has properties which are inherently flexible, fluid, and adaptive—begging for a parallel exploration of flexible, fluid, adaptive systems as external inspiration for web design. Nature has been considered as a form of inspiration throughout the history of the arts and design, providing analogical and metaphorical modes of thinking that expand upon traditional approaches. Biomimicry is an emerging practice within industrial design, architecture, and engineering—yet little has been discussed within the field of visual communication design, especially within responsive web design.¿ In this thesis, relationships shared by design and the natural world are investigated through secondary research, and critical making is used as primary research to examine the organic properties of the web browser. Three prototypes were designed to explore, expand, and reflect upon these organic properties within responsive design. Each prototype was subsequently reviewed by design educators and professionals. This thesis proposes that looking to nature’s principles and forms can inform design for the web as a medium, providing an approach which builds upon and extends the capacities of responsive web design.

Committee:

Jessica Barness, MFA (Advisor); Ken Visocky O'Grady, MFA (Committee Member); Aoife Mooney, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Biomimicry; Responsive Web Design; Medium; Critical Making; Web Design; User-Interface Design;

Masters, JoelBuilding as Bricolage: Confronting Hyperconsumption
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture

We are consuming our world faster than it can be replenished. It is a crisis of consumption – a product of an antiquated linear production paradigm in which resources are depleted and landscapes become wastelands. A more holistic approach is urgently needed: Biomimicry. The imitation (mimicry) of nature (bio) for human means brings about more cyclical, regenerative efficient models of production.

Bricolage is one such alternative method inspired by nature. It is the act of improvisational making, using only so-called waste materials. In nature’s mature ecosystems, organisms us waste as a resource and nothing escapes the system.

Bricolage as a production method for architecture brings the built environment closer to nature, and promotes sustainability through frugality and resourcefulness. It also informs the architectural process, so that it becomes more means-oriented, diversified, and hands-on. In this way both the process and place confront and subvert the consumptive crisis that threatens our world. The stage for this demonstration – as built for this thesis – is the rehabilitation and greening of a building in Cincinnati’s historic Over the Rhine district.

Committee:

Michael McInturf, MARCH (Committee Chair); Aarati Kanekar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

architecture;design/build;bricolage;biomimicry;waste;means-oriented