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Humidity Driven Performance of Biological Adhesives
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2018, Polymer Science
Biological adhesives are sticky secretions or structures produced by several organisms in nature to serve roles such as locomotion, prey capture and defense. These adhesives stick in a variety of environmental conditions and can maintain their adhesion exceptionally well. The present work focuses on understanding one such environmental factor, humidity’ and presents its correlation with the material composition in influencing the adhesion mechanism in two diverse biological attachment systems: Capture silk and Gecko setae. Understanding adhesion in these natural systems is essential with respect to humidity since many synthetic materials including glues fail in presence of water. The first and second studies focus on the glue laden capture silk produced by web building spiders. In the first study, we explored the capture silk of cobweb weaver black widow spider’ known as gumfoot glue’. We first investigated the chemical composition of the glue and for the first time reported that it is majorly a combination of hygroscopic organic salts (low molecular mass compounds, LMMCs) and novel glycoproteins, apart from previously known peptides. Next, we correlated the glue composition with humidity based macro and molecular level studies and showed the synergistic role of LMMCs and glycoproteins in adhesion across the range of humidity conditions. Based on the first study which showed the presence and importance of diverse LMMCs in capture silk adhesion, we designed our second study in understanding the role of LMMCs in the capture silk. Based on hypothesis that LMMC’s compositions control the maximum adhesion and viscosity trends across species, we designed the study in which by using Solution-State NMR, we first analyzed the water-soluble extract of glues for four different spider species from diverse habitats and found extract belonging to each species is a distinct combination of organic LMMCs present in varied proportions. Next, we studied the water uptake of glues and their isolated LMMCs compositions. The results showed that hygroscopic strength of LMMCs alone can’t explain the adhesion response of glues. We believe it is the chemical interactions of diverse LMMCs with glycoproteins that controls the adhesion mechanism of capture silks in presence of humidity. In the third, fourth and fifth studies, we switch to a different adhesive system and present investigations based on the hairs present on gecko feet, known as setae’. In the third study, we first time established the chemical composition of hairs by characterizing molts from gecko feet and showed the presence of ß-keratin and unbound lipids. Also, we showed lipids in hairs were more mobile as compared to lipids in epidermal skin based on which we proposed structural arrangement of lipids and keratin in the setal hairs. The fourth study focused on understanding the role of surface lipids detected in the third study. By means of shear adhesion and contact angle experiments, we found those lipids do not affect adhesive and anti-adhesive properties respectively. The existing hypothesis of ß-keratin softening and leading to higher adhesion in presence of humidity was tested in our fifth study. By series of water uptake and NMR measurements, we found ß-keratin absorbs water and gets soft at a macro and molecular level. Friction cell based shear adhesion measurements on setae supported the hypothesis and showed an increase in adhesion with increase in humidity. The research studies presented provides a detailed account of correlation of environmentally relevant parameter, humidity’ with the building blocks of capture silk and gecko setae and their adhesion performance. The results provide design insights in developing synthetic materials such as adhesives that can work in different humidity environments.

#### Committee:

Ali Dhinojwala, Dr. (Advisor); Mesfin Tsige, Dr. (Committee Chair); Todd A. Blackledge, Dr. (Committee Member); Miyoshi Toshikazu, Dr. (Committee Member); Joy Abraham, Dr. (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Biology; Biophysics; Materials Science; Polymers

#### Keywords:

Biomimicry, Adhesion, Spider Silk, Capture Silk, Geckos, Setae, Water, Lipids, Keratin, Glycoproteins, Hygroscopic Compounds

Biomimicry of Feathers for Airport Design
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture
Biomimicry refers to the work of people who realize that the organic structures or surviving outcomes of nature are not only seemingly beautiful but also durable and who apply them to human inventions by designing with the methods of nature. There are many projects around the world utilizing biomimicry, even from before the term was commonly used. Furthermore, biomimicry is increasingly employed in architecture. In this thesis, I will examine the design of an airport building through biomimicry. Because of a correlation between flights, airplanes, airports, and feathers, I have selected a feather for my biological inspiration. The structural pattern of feathers allows them to sustain their shape and function in flight. Understanding the principle of this structure, which is based on interlocking systems of hooks (barbicels) with three different hierarchies (rachis, barbs and barbules), allows a plausible formulation for a lightweight long-span structure of an airport by designing a feather-like canopy unit. The site I have selected for this examination is Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), which is in decline due to decreased demand. Hoping for a revitalization, the airport management plans to combine Concourse A and Concourse B as one compact concourse in 2023 to reduce the waste, maintenance fees, and unnecessary spaces. Based on these needs from CVG, I propose a new concourse by mimicking a feather’s structure to design an innovative new airport facility.

#### Committee:

Christoph Klemmt, A.A. Dipl. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Riorden, M.Arch. (Committee Member)

Architecture

#### Keywords:

Biomimicry;Feather;Airport;CVG;Concourse;Lightweight

Development and Assessment of Artificial Manduca sexta Forewings: How Wing Structure Affects Performance
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EMC - Aerospace Engineering
This research presents novel fabrication and testing techniques for artificial insect wings. A series of static and dynamic assessments are designed which allow consistent comparison of small, flexible wings in terms of structure and performance. Locally harvested hawk moths are tested and compared to engineered wings. Data from these experiments shows that the implemented replication method results in artificial wings with comparable properties to that of M. sexta. Flexural stiffness (EI) data shows a considerable difference between the left and right M. sexta wings. Furthermore, EI values on the ventral wing side are found to be consistently higher than the dorsal side. Based on dynamic results, variations in venation structure have the largest impact on lift generation. Lift tests on individual wings and wing sets indicate detrimental effects as a result of wing-wake interaction.

#### Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor); Mark Willis (Committee Member); Richard Bachmann (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Aerospace Materials; Biology; Engineering; Entomology; Mechanical Engineering

#### Keywords:

Manduca sexta; artificial wings; wing fabrication; biomimicry

Biomimetic Constructs High-Technology Towards Ecological Design
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)
Due to advances in large-scale rapid-prototyping technology, the terms standard and non-standard are increasingly being challenged in the lexicon of modern construction. Driven by the ever-expanding versatility of digital software, architects find themselves in a position of greater design freedom and less constraint from modular building materials, thus allowing for a paradigmatic shift towards an architecture focused on performative characteristics. The following investigation will engage these contemporary technologies to mimic basic processes and morphologies found in our natural environment that account for its inherent abilities of material conservation and systems integration. Software scripting techniques and research into the fields of biological morphology and behavior, digital design, and rapid-manufacture direct the creation of a morphogenetic generative process that decreases material usage within architectural structures and allows for informed speculation into the future of systems integration and the construction automation.

#### Committee:

Nnamdi Elleh, PhD (Committee Chair); Rebecca Williamson, PhD (Committee Chair)

Architecture

#### Keywords:

biology;biomimicry;Chicago;scripting

HEDGEMON: A HEDGEHOG-INSPIRED HELMET LINER
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Physics
In contact sports like football and ice hockey, concussions are a common occurrence. Over 10% of athletes experience at least one concussion per season. Recent discoveries have emphasized the disastrous neurological consequences for people with a history of concussions, which include dementia, depression, and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Today’s helmet technology is woefully inadequate at mitigating concussions, especially in where the athlete’s head experiences rotational acceleration. With lawsuits mounting against leagues like the NFL, the survival of football may depend on solving the concussion problem. The startup Hedgemon, LLC has begun developing a promising impact protection technology based on hedgehog spines. If integrated into a football helmet liner, it could substantially reduce the concussion-causing acceleration of the brain induced by frequent in-game collisions. Adapted from a recently submitted SBIR Phase I grant proposal, this paper discusses in detail the technology at its current state of development and the exciting commercial opportunity.

#### Committee:

Edward Caner (Advisor); Robert Brown (Committee Member); Michael Martens (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Biomechanics; Biophysics; Entrepreneurship; Mechanics; Physics; Sports Medicine

#### Keywords:

Biomimicry; impact testing; helmet liner; hedgehog spines; football; concussion; 3D printing; rotational acceleration; linear acceleration

Natural Perceptual Characteristics and Psychosocial Impacts of Touch Evoked by Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2018, Biomedical Engineering
Following an upper limb amputation, both the functional and sensory capabilities of the hand are lost. Prior studies demonstrated the ability of neural stimulation to evoke sensations on the missing hand of persons with upper limb loss. However, the sensations have only been cursorily assessed in terms of their perceptual characteristics and psychosocial impacts. Further, we do not know to what extent mimicking natural firing patterns can improve the stimulation-evoked sensations. Using classical psychophysical techniques, we characterized the perception of intensity of sensations evoked by electrical stimulation through Flat Interface Nerve Electrodes (FINEs) implanted in three humans with upper limb loss, and compared these characteristics to natural intensity perception. We found that intensity perception is equivalent for natural and artificial touch, including intensity sensitivity, dynamic range, and the time course and extent of adaptation resulting from prolonged stimulation. We demonstrated that population spike rate is the neural basis of perceived intensity. To determine the impact of sensation on the holistic experience of having a hand, two persons with upper limb loss utilized a sensory restoration system in their homes and communities. We found that sensation improved the psychosocial experience of using the prosthesis, including confidence in abilities, prosthesis incorporation, perception of social interactions, and body image. Sensation improved prosthesis function and increased prosthesis usage. This study indicated that extraneural stimulation is a feasible method of long-term sensory restoration in community use. Participant perspectives revealed that sensation was critical for outcome acceptance. We developed a theoretical model of the impacts of sensation based on a qualitative analysis of participant experiences, which may provide a unified framework to study outcome acceptance following amputation. To determine whether mimicking natural afferent activity would improve stimulation-evoked sensations, we developed a computational model to construct biomimetic stimulation patterns and predict the evoked firing patterns in the recruited afferent population. We tested the biomimetic patterns in three humans implanted with FINEs, and found subject-specific differences in the perceived naturalness of the biomimetic patterns. The perceived naturalness of the stimuli was influenced by subject-specific preferences, expectations for intensity, and possibly learning. The computational model demonstrated that biomimetic stimulation evokes more natural neural activation patterns than conventional stimulation. The model may be useful for generating hypotheses about the neural correlates of perception that can be tested in future studies. This work demonstrates how neural stimulation can serve as a tool to study neural coding. The perceptual similarities between natural and artificial touch indicates that stimulation-induced sensation likely utilizes the same sensory processing pathways as natural sensation. For persons with limb loss, sensory restoration reshapes the holistic experience of the prosthesis into having a hand that can feel. Finally, stimulation patterning can evoke complex patterns of neural activity which modify the sensory percepts.

#### Committee:

Dustin Tyler, PhD (Advisor); Robert Kirsch, PhD (Committee Chair); Ronald Triolo, PhD (Committee Member); Grover Gilmore, PhD (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Neurosciences; Rehabilitation

#### Keywords:

peripheral nerve stimulation; neuroprosthesis; artificial touch; neural coding; limb loss rehabilitation; tactile sensation; psychophysics; grounded theory; biomimicry; computational modeling; sensory adaptation; perception; psychosocial outcomes

Biomimicry: architecture imitating life's principles
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture
Using nature as inspiration mimicking the functional basis of biological forms, processes, and systems to produce sustainable solutions. Biomimicry offers from biophilia in that it is not about the bond between nature and humans, but about using nature as a mentor. The study explores the reasoning behind using biomimicry as a design-tool, in terms of building design and masterplanning to design a riverfront proposal in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.

#### Committee:

Michael McInturf, M.Arch. (Committee Chair); Aarati Kanekar, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Architecture

#### Keywords:

Sustainability;Biomimicry;Masterplanning

A Characterization of Seal Whisker Morphology and the Effects of Angle of Incidence on Wake Structure
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2016, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Seal whiskers have been found to produce unique wake flow structures that minimize self-induced vibration and reduce drag. The cause of these wake features are due to the peculiar three-dimensional morphology of the whisker surface. The whisker morphology can be described as an elliptical cross section with variation of diameter in the major and minor axis along the length and, angle of incidence, rotation of the elliptical plane with respect to the whisker axis, α at the peak and β at the trough. This research provided a more complete morphology characterization accomplished through CT scanning and analysis of 27 harbor and elephant seal whisker samples. The results of this study confirmed previously reported values and added a characterization of the angle of incidence finding that the majority of angles observed fall within ±5° and exhibit a random variation in magnitude and direction along the whisker length. While the wake effects of several parameters of the whisker morphology have been studied, the effect of the angle of incidence has not been well understood. This research examined the influence of the angle of incidence on the wake flow structure through series of water channel studies. Four models of whisker-like geometries based on the morphology study were tested which isolate the angle of incidence as the only variation between models. The model variations in angle of incidence selected provided a baseline case (α = β = 0°), captured the range of angles observed in nature (α = β = -5°, and α = β = -15°), and investigated the influence of direction of angle of incidence (α = -5°, β = -5°). The wake structure for each seal whisker model was measured through particle image velocimetry (PIV). Angle of incidence was found to influence the wake structure through reorganization of velocity field patterns, reduction of recovery length and modification of magnitude of Tu. The results of this research helped provide a more complete understanding of the seal whisker morphology relationship to wake structure and can provide insight into design practices for application of whisker-like geometry to various engineering problems.

#### Committee:

Wei Zhang, PhD (Advisor); Ibrahim Mounir, PhD (Committee Member); Shyam Vikram, PhD (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Aquatic Sciences; Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Mechanical Engineering

#### Keywords:

seal; whisker; PIV; biomimicry; fluid dynamics; particle image velocimetry; bio-engineering; engineering; mechanical engineering; aerospace engineering; experimental fluid dynamics;

The Effect of Water on the Gecko Adhesive System
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2014, Integrated Bioscience

#### Committee:

Peter Niewiarowski, Dr. (Advisor); Ali Dhinojwala, Dr. (Advisor); Todd Blackledge, Dr. (Committee Member); Matthew Shawkey, Dr. (Committee Member); Jutta Luettmer-Strathmann, Dr. (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Biomechanics; Biophysics; Ecology; Materials Science; Morphology; Organismal Biology; Polymers; Zoology

#### Keywords:

gecko; adhesion; water; superhydrophobic; biomimicry; van der Waals; wetting; locomotion; friction; contact angle; self-cleaning; morphology; performance; behavior; ecology

Biomimicry in Industry: The Philosophical and Empirical Rationale for Reimagining R&D
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Integrated Bioscience
Biomimicry is innovation through emulation of biological forms, processes, patterns, and systems. What motivates practice is a basic understanding of natural selection as a process that favors high-performance, resource-efficient survival strategies – strategies that can be abstracted to address technical challenges from the molecular to systemic scale. Biomimicry has generated commercial solutions in diverse sectors, but industry practice is limited by a lack of clarity around quantitative / qualitative benefits and best practices. This body of work starts to unveil the different dimensions of value biomimicry can offer business, providing evidence of its potential to enhance creativity, increase rates of intellectual property generation, and inform environmentally sustainable solutions. It also details an iterative five-phase biomimicry process, validated in a corporate context, that can serve as a template for industry implementation. Perhaps most importantly, it describes how biomimicry helps us recall a fundamental truth we managed to forget: humans are a part of rather than apart from nature. Innovating from this point of view, we brighten prospects of a flourishing life on this planet.

#### Committee:

Peter Niewiarowski, PhD (Advisor); John Huss, PhD (Committee Member); Bob Gray, PhD (Committee Member); Steve Ash, PhD (Committee Member); Ven Ochaya, PhD (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Biology; Design; Entrepreneurship; Management; Mechanical Engineering; Philosophy; Sustainability

#### Keywords:

biomimicry; biomimetics; bioinspiration; bioinspired design; innovation; sustainable innovation; environmental sustainability; ecodesign; creativity; design-by-analogy; analogical thinking; hedgehog spines; impact attenuation; flexural properties

A detailed investigation of adhesion modulation in spider capture silk at macro, micro and molecular length scales
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Polymer Science
Orb web spiders are carnivores that use sticky capture silk to catch and retain prey their web. Prey capture is an essential part of their survival. Remarkably, the sticky capture silk needs to be sticky in diverse spider habitats that can range from dry and arid to wet and humid. This is in contrast to most synthetic adhesives which fail above a critical humidity. In this study, I used spider glue as a model system to conduct a detailed investigation of its humidity responsive adhesion at multiple length scales. On a macro scale, I found that spiders use a combination of capillary instability and environmental humidity to control the spacing and size of glue droplets on their capture silk. Modulation of BOAS morphology results in non-linear scaling of capture silk adhesion with glue volume, and can be used to catch different sized prey in their habitats. Investigating further, I found that spider glue adhesion changes with humidity such that adhesion is maximum at the humidity resembling the habitat humidity of the spider species. Using the fundamental droplet spreading power law, I measured the viscosity of glue droplets as a function of humidity. The glue viscosity varies over five orders of magnitude with humidity, but is very similar at the humidity of maximum adhesion, which can be very different, 30\%-90\% relative humidity (RH) for different species. Moreover, droplet spreading contributes significantly to adhesion modulation. Both overspreading and underspreading of glue droplets leads to reduced adhesion. Maximum adhesion is observed under optimal spreading of the glue droplet such that crack initiation is delayed and high peeling forces are required to initiate the crack. Spider glue is an aqueous mix of glycoproteins, and small molecules that include both organic and inorganic compounds. The optically heterogeneous structure of spider glue droplet was hypothesized because of phase-separation betweem proteins and small molecules. I used confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy to reject the phase-separation hypothesis by finding chemically homogeneity across the spider glue droplet. The results support Solid-State NMR results that suggest molecular level synergistic interactions between proteins and small molecules that make the glue sticky. We used Infrared spectroscopy to probe molecular interactions in glue as a function of humidity. We find significant molecular rearrangements, including aggregation of $\beta$-sheets, occur with an increase in water concentration in glue. These results explain the orders of magnitude drop in glue viscosity observed with an increase in humidity. In conclusion, my research provides detailed analysis on how spider glue is adapted to habitat humidity to maximize the capture of prey. This study establishes spider glue as smart model adhesive that can be used to design new generation adhesives that respond to humidity and can be used under humid conditions. Further, this study motivates research into this remarkable bioadhesive from an environmental relevance and functional materials context.

#### Subjects:

Biophysics; Materials Science; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

#### Keywords:

Adhesion, Humidity, Spider, Silk, Spectroscopy, Biomimicry, Bioinspired

Engineering of Elastomeric Biomaterials and Biomimicry of Extracellular Matrix for Soft Tissue Regeneration
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Integrated Bioscience
Discoveries of new synthetic polymeric materials have become increasingly important in the field of biomedicine. Recent advancements in bio-functionalization strategies have led to innovation of biomimetic materials that can enhance tissue regeneration. Poly(ester urea)s are one unique set of materials comprised of amino acids and diols that are able to achieve tunable mechanical and degradation properties for a variety of tissue engineering applications. These materials can be functionalized with peptides utilizing an assortment of strategies in order to enhance cellular and tissue interactions. One alternative functionalization strategy under current investigation is combining decellularized extracellular matrix with poly(ester urea)s using engineering approaches such as electrospinning, melt-spinning, and 3D-printing. Our research into these techniques has provided interesting insights into the effects of processing on nanostructured scaffolds, and how molecular and scaffold structure can be tailored to overcome processing obstacles. We have also recently discovered a new series of elastomeric materials inspired by the chemical structure of rubber. These new polymers also exhibit tunable mechanical and degradation properties. We have tested these elastomers in vitro and in vivo and observed excellent cellular and tissue responses. Elastomers containing a degradable monomer in every copolymer repeat unit were capable of degrading within a period of 4 months in vivo while allowing for significant tissue infiltration and matrix regeneration. These two examples support the use of biomimicry for the design of novel materials, from molecular synthetic strategies to macromolecular scaffold design, and similar approaches will play a critical role in furthering the development of biomaterials for tissue regeneration.

#### Committee:

Matthew Becker (Advisor); Rebecca Willits (Committee Chair); Amy Milsted (Committee Member); Ge Zhang (Committee Member); Darrell Reneker (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Biology; Biomechanics; Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Chemistry; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

#### Keywords:

elastomer; electrospinning; melt spinning; 3D printing; sterilization; sewing; extracellular matrix; biomimicry; tissue regeneration; inflammation; biomaterial

THE METABOLIC DESIGN METHODOLOGY
MDes, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Design
Industrial designers gather references from a multitude of sources, synthesize it, and convey those influences in the design of products. Looking only at competitors for inspiration can potentially limit the perspective of contemporary designers and subsequently the innovation of products. Just as people feel connected to nature, designers can create products that consumers feel connected to through the reference of nature. This document focuses on how nature can be used as a model in order to address many of the problems confronting designers today. There has been no clear and practical methodology for modern industrial designers to observe and reference nature. The Metabolic Design Methodology is a design strategy that represents the culmination of the four categories, I have recognized, in the design of products. The categories are: Surfaces/Finishes, Form/Structure, Materials, and Processes/Production. The four categories represent common topics industrial designers consider in the design of products. They represent a tool meant to facilitate the systematic referencing of nature in the design of products. They were developed to present designers with opportunities for invention by establishing some parameters as they wade through the design process. The report is comprised of four primary parts. Part I includes; the introductory chapter as well as a chapter entitled, Contemporary and Classical Methodologies for Understanding Nature. Part II; presents and explains the four categories I am proposing. Part III; analyzes two case studies in which I demonstrate varying degrees of application of the Metabolic Design Methodology. Finally, Part IV; is the concluding chapter. The two case studies represent varying degrees of metabolic influence into an otherwise traditional design strategy. Through the case studies I demonstrate how each category can be systematically incorporated into traditional design approaches independently, or how the categories may be used collectively to produce rich design solutions. The more conscious designers are, the more references they have to tap into, and the more their creativity will be expressed. Nature holds the answer to many riddles still plaguing design today. When industrial designers expand their perspective to include nature, countless design innovations will be made possible.

#### Subjects:

Design and Decorative Arts

#### Keywords:

industrial design; product; biomimicry; sustainable design; metabolism

Biomimicry: how learning from nature can restore sustainability in architecture
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)
Building trends over the past half century have created spaces that don’t respond to the climate of the place and have deteriorated the quality of physiological conditions and the sustainability of our built environment. Every organism in nature is a product of the need to be sustainable and energy efficient, however, in the quest to create more sustainable buildings the wealth of solutions provided by nature is largely overlooked. This thesis studies how nature solves impediments to sustainability in architecture and applies those strategies to create a truly environmentally sustainable architectural project. Strategies used in nature for construction, thermal comfort, daylighting, and ventilation will be explored and applied while trying to reduce the embodied and operating energy of the built environment. This thesis outlines an applicable, repeatable process of architectural design that is rooted in scientifically researched natural solutions, or biomimicry. This process is applied from the start of the design process through design development of a sustainable, multi-family housing project in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati.

#### Committee:

Jerry Larson (Committee Chair); John Hancock (Committee Member)

Architecture

#### Keywords:

biomimicry; sustainability; live/work; Cincinnati; Over-the-Rhine; nature

Implementing Biomimicry Thinking from fundamental R&D to creating nature-aligned organizations
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Biology
The appreciation for nature as inspiration for design has happened throughout human history. However, it wasn’t until the late 1990s that biomimicry was put forward as a discipline providing a framework to more actively and consciously use nature’s time-tested and refined strategies to inform innovative products, services and systems. The implementation of biomimicry as a design tool to solve real-life, time-sensitive challenges inherently requires an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Biological knowledge needs to be made available, either by new research or by extracting it from existing literature. This then needs to be abstracted into design principles to be used to inform the creation of new designs. Ultimately this design needs to be commercialized by organizations that remain successful under rapidly changing conditions. In this PhD work I explored the implications of implementing biomimicry thinking throughout this entire process, which included the scientific, engineering, design and business world. It is through experiential and observational learning that people are trained to design, support, and lead biomimicry endeavors. By sharing my experiences, challenges, concerns and research results I am hoping to boost the further development of biomimicry as a tool for technological and social innovation, as well as promote the potential of biomimicry to facilitate a sustainability transition and therefore increase its prominent implementation for solving real-life, time-sensitive challenges. The growing interest and successful application of biomimicry can ultimately result not only in more environmentally conscious technologies, but also make organizations themselves nature-aligned.

#### Committee:

Peter Niewiarowski (Advisor); Matthew Shawkey (Advisor); Dayna Baumeister (Committee Member); Pravin Bhiwapurkar (Committee Member); Ali Dhinojwala (Committee Member); Karim Alamgir (Committee Member)

#### Subjects:

Architecture; Biophysics; Environmental Engineering; Sustainability

#### Keywords:

Biomimicry; sustainable development; light modulation; avian eggshells; photodegradation; ultra-violet protection; waste management; architecture; building envelope; adaptive thermal comfort;

Organic Web Design: Exploring Nature as Metaphor in Responsive Web Design
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
The rise of responsive design as an approach to web design in the last decade has shaped the ways that designers consider the web as a medium. As this approach has developed, its practitioners have begun forming patterns and templates which might limit alternative modes of thinking in the field. Criticism of this approach is still in its early stages, leaving open an opportunity for reflection, expansion, and the exploration of alternative modes of thinking and making for considering the medium. The web browser has properties which are inherently flexible, fluid, and adaptive—begging for a parallel exploration of flexible, fluid, adaptive systems as external inspiration for web design. Nature has been considered as a form of inspiration throughout the history of the arts and design, providing analogical and metaphorical modes of thinking that expand upon traditional approaches. Biomimicry is an emerging practice within industrial design, architecture, and engineering—yet little has been discussed within the field of visual communication design, especially within responsive web design.¿ In this thesis, relationships shared by design and the natural world are investigated through secondary research, and critical making is used as primary research to examine the organic properties of the web browser. Three prototypes were designed to explore, expand, and reflect upon these organic properties within responsive design. Each prototype was subsequently reviewed by design educators and professionals. This thesis proposes that looking to nature’s principles and forms can inform design for the web as a medium, providing an approach which builds upon and extends the capacities of responsive web design.

#### Committee:

Jessica Barness, MFA (Advisor); Ken Visocky O'Grady, MFA (Committee Member); Aoife Mooney, MA (Committee Member)

Design

#### Keywords:

Biomimicry; Responsive Web Design; Medium; Critical Making; Web Design; User-Interface Design;

Building as Bricolage: Confronting Hyperconsumption
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture

We are consuming our world faster than it can be replenished. It is a crisis of consumption – a product of an antiquated linear production paradigm in which resources are depleted and landscapes become wastelands. A more holistic approach is urgently needed: Biomimicry. The imitation (mimicry) of nature (bio) for human means brings about more cyclical, regenerative efficient models of production.

Bricolage is one such alternative method inspired by nature. It is the act of improvisational making, using only so-called waste materials. In nature’s mature ecosystems, organisms us waste as a resource and nothing escapes the system.

Bricolage as a production method for architecture brings the built environment closer to nature, and promotes sustainability through frugality and resourcefulness. It also informs the architectural process, so that it becomes more means-oriented, diversified, and hands-on. In this way both the process and place confront and subvert the consumptive crisis that threatens our world. The stage for this demonstration – as built for this thesis – is the rehabilitation and greening of a building in Cincinnati’s historic Over the Rhine district.

#### Committee:

Michael McInturf, MARCH (Committee Chair); Aarati Kanekar, PhD (Committee Member)

Architecture

#### Keywords:

architecture;design/build;bricolage;biomimicry;waste;means-oriented