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Vreedzaam, Arioene UncasThe Feeding and Behavioral Ecology of Black Spider Monkey Subgroups (Ateles paniscus paniscus) in the Context of Illegal Artisinal Goldmining Activities in the Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname
MA, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
The Brownsberg Nature Park(BNP) in Suriname is home to eight monkey species: Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Alouatta seniculus. Pithecia pithecia, Cebus olivaceus, Chiropotes satanas (sagulatus), and Ateles paniscus. Several studies have undertaken the task to better study the feeding and behavioral ecology of these species within the park. However, studies on the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus) have been absent. As part of my thesis, I decided to conduct a baseline feeding and behavioral ecology study of this species during the period May 2008 to July 2008. In addition, I developed a field method for determining mercury levels (in parts per million = ppm) in fecal and urine samples of wild monkeys. Since the park is under enormous pressure from illegal gold mining activities, I decided to collect baseline data on potential exposure of wild monkeys to mercury in the environment. I also collected samples from monkeys at the zoo in Paramaribo and monkeys born in captivity at Hiram College in Ohio. I collected data on the frequency of feeding, resting, and traveling by black spider monkey subgroups every 10 minutes during all day follows. Feeding ecology data consisted of identifying fruits eaten by these subgroups. For the mercury analysis I used the OSUMEX LTD. home testing kit. Results from the behavioral data show the following frequencies of activities for the entire study period: 32% feeding, 43% resting, and 25% traveling. The feeding data further justifies spider monkeys as ripe fruit frugivores: 76% of food items consisted of ripe fruit, while 22% consisted of leaves, and 2% was comprised of flowers. The mercury testing results from the Brownsberg and zoo populations ranged between 0.025 ppm to 0.1 ppm (toxic level = 0.8 ppm). The Hiram College monkeys all displayed levels at 0.000 ppm. The results from the mercury analyses indicate that 1) wild monkeys in the vicinity of gold mining activities may not be under the same threat as humans, with regards to mercury exposure through food, and 2) that wild monkeys are still relatively exposed to mercury in the environment whether it be natural or anthropogenic.

Committee:

Marilyn Norconk, Phd. (Advisor); Richard Meindl, Phd. (Committee Member); Christopher Vinyard, Phd. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Botany; Conservation; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science; Toxicology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

feeding ecology; behavioral ecology; Brownsberg; Suriname; black spider monkey; Ateles paniscus; small scale gold mining; methylmercury

Pavlic, Theodore P.Optimal Foraging Theory Revisited
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2007, Electrical Engineering
Optimal foraging theory explains adaptation via natural selection through quantitative models. Behaviors that are most likely to be favored by natural selection can be predicted by maximizing functions representing Darwinian fitness. Optimization has natural applications in engineering, and so this approach can also be used to design behaviors of engineered agents. In this thesis, we generalize ideas from optimal foraging theory to allow for its easy application to engineering design. By extending standard models and suggesting new value functions of interest, we enhance the analytical efficacy of optimal foraging theory and suggest possible optimality reasons for previously unexplained behaviors observed in nature. Finally, we develop a procedure for maximizing a class of optimization functions relevant to our general model. As designing strategies to maximize returns in a stochastic environment is effectively an optimal portfolio problem, our methods are influenced by results from modern and post-modern portfolio theory. We suggest that optimal foraging theory could benefit by injecting updated concepts from these economic areas.

Committee:

Kevin Passino (Advisor)

Keywords:

robotics; automation; autonomous vehicles; behavior; behavioral ecology; intelligent control; portfolio theory; modern portfolio theory; MPT; post-modern portfolio theory; PMPT; optimal foraging theory; OFT; optimal diet selection; predator; prey

Sullivan, Amy ErinLOGGING DEBRIS PROTECTS SUGAR MAPLE (Acer saccharum) SEEDLINGS FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoileus virginianus) HERBIVORY IN WOLF-OCCUPIED FOREST
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2015, Biological Sciences
White-tailed deer are a species of great economic and ecological concern. Foresters sometimes leave logging debris known as slash on the forest floor with the intent to protect seedlings from deer herbivory and promote forest regeneration. I examined the effects of slash on rates of deer browsing on sugar maple seedlings in a forest of northern Wisconsin and measured deer foraging behavior using giving-up density and vigilance rates by employing trail cameras. Rates of browsed stems were almost twice as high in the open as within and adjacent to slash. These findings underscore the usefulness of slash for mitigating the effects of deer on tree seedlings.Deer vigilance did not vary by night and day but photos were rarely taken during dawn and dusk. These results may suggest that rather than using reactive vigilance behavior, deer are using proactive antipredator behavior and avoiding the study site at high-risk times.

Committee:

Thomas Rooney, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Peters, Ph.D. (Committee Member); John Stireman III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Forestry

Keywords:

deer; risk-sensitive; foraging; behavior; behavioral ecology; trophic cascade; ecology of fear; forestry; terrain fear factor; white-tailed deer; wolf

Duncan, Matthew W.Determinants of host use in tachinid parasitoids (Diptera: Tachinidae) of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Southwest Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
Tachinid parasitoids in the subfamily Phasiinae are important natural enemies of heteropteran bugs. Host location by these flies occurs via antennal reception to the pheromones of their hosts; however little is known regarding the mechanisms which underlie host selection. Halyomorpha halys, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, represents a potential novel host species in North America. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of H. halys as a host for phasiine species, and to assess cues used in host selection by the species Gymnoclytia occidua. Field attraction to pentatomid pheromones by both phasiines and pentatomids in Southwest Ohio were investigated and preliminary laboratory host-selection experiments were conducted. In 2015, from June 23 to September 16 pyramid-type traps were baited with three pentatomid-pheromone lures and were monitored in agricultural and semi-natural locations. Trap catches included specimens from seven different phasiine species and three different pentatomid species. Host movement is an important factor in parasitoid attraction to host models, this attraction was not affected by pheromone presence, choice and no-choice trials indicate that Gymnoclytia occidua females do not discriminate against H. halys. However, no parasitoids were successfully reared from H. Halys. Field parasitism by a Gymnoclytia occidua female on H. halys was directly observed, and both adults and nymphs of H. halys were found bearing parasitoid eggs in the field. These results suggest that H. halys may be a “sink” for Gymnoclytia occidua and possibly other native phasiine parasitoids in North America.

Committee:

John Stireman III, Ph.D. (Advisor); Donald Cipollini, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeffrey Peters, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Entomology

Keywords:

behavior; behavioral ecology; chemical ecology; biology; ecology; parasitoids; diptera; tachinidae; phasiinae; gymnoclytia occidua; hemiptera; heteroptera; pentatomidae; invasive species; halyomorpha halys; brown marmorated stink bugs; bmsb;

Bonadio, Christopher N.Evolutionary Origins of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depression
MA, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
Laura Betzig, a sociobiologist, stated quite matter-of-factly: people are animals. Humans (and other nonhuman animals) are evolved social organisms that must successfully transmit their genes to future generations at the expense of similarly reproducing conspecifics. Individuals contribute genes to the next generation by the production of direct offspring or by helping kin who also carry those same genes. All of this competition occurs within a complex network of socially interacting kin and nonkin. Attachment systems and ranked hierarchies are critical components of the social network. The purpose of this thesis is to review hypotheses put forward by human sociobiologists interested in the functional significance (and adaptive design) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression. This very brief introduction hopefully shows the benefits of using an adaptationist model to better understand human behavior.

Committee:

Mary Ann Raghanti, PhD (Advisor); Richard Meindl, PhD (Committee Member); Olaf Prufer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Physical Anthropology

Keywords:

sociobiology; human behavioral ecology (HBE); obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); depression; adaptationist program; attachment theory; inclusive fitness; evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS)

Vreedzaam, Arioene UncasTHE FEEDING AND BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY OF BLACK SPIDER MONKEY SUBGROUPS (Ateles paniscus paniscus) IN THE CONTEXT OF ILLEGAL ARTISINAL GOLDMINING ACTIVITIES IN THE BROWNSBERG NATURE PARK, SURINAME
MA, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
The Brownsberg Nature Park(BNP) in Suriname is home to eight monkey species: Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Alouatta seniculus. Pithecia pithecia, Cebus olivaceus, Chiropotes satanas (sagulatus), and Ateles paniscus. Several studies have undertaken the task to better study the feeding and behavioral ecology of these species within the park. However, studies on the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus) have been absent. As part of my thesis, I decided to conduct a baseline feeding and behavioral ecology study of this species during the period May 2008 – July 2008. In addition, I developed a field method for determining mercury levels (in parts per million = ppm) in fecal and urine samples of wild monkeys. Since the park is under enormous pressure from illegal gold mining activities, I decided to collect baseline data on potential exposure of wild monkeys to mercury in the environment. I also collected samples from monkeys at the zoo in Paramaribo and monkeys born in captivity at Hiram College in Ohio. I collected data on the frequency of feeding, resting, and traveling by black spider monkey subgroups every 10 minutes during all day follows. Feeding ecology data consisted of identifying fruits eaten by these subgroups. For the mercury analysis I used the OSUMEX LTD. home testing kit. Results from the behavioral data show the following frequencies of activities for the entire study period: 32% feeding, 43% resting, and 25% traveling. The feeding data further justifies spider monkeys as ripe fruit frugivores: 76% of food items consisted of ripe fruit, while 22% consisted of leaves, and 2% was comprised of flowers. The mercury testing results from the Brownsberg and zoo populations ranged between 0.025 ppm to 0.1 ppm (toxic level = 0.8 ppm). The Hiram College monkeys all displayed levels at 0.000 ppm. The results from the mercury analyses indicate that 1) wild monkeys in the vicinity of gold mining activities may not be under the same threat as humans, with regards to mercury exposure through food, and 2) that wild monkeys are still relative exposed to mercury in the environment whether it be natural or anthropogenic.

Committee:

Marilyn Norconk, Phd (Advisor); Richard Meindl, Phd (Committee Member); Christopher Vinyard, Phd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Botany; Conservation; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Physical Anthropology; Toxicology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

feeding ecology, behavioral ecology, black spider monkey, Ateles paniscus, Suriname, Brownsberg, methylmercury, small scale gold mining,

Cramer, Michael JohnThe Effects of Bot Fly (Cuterebra Fontinella) Parasitism on the Ecology and Behavior of the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus Leucopus)
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : Biological Sciences
Parasitism is a common interaction between species in which one species, the parasite, gains a benefit at the expense of the other, the host. Parasitism can have far-reaching effects on the population biology and behavior of both species involved. A common parasite-host system is that between bot flies (Cuterebra fontinella) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Although this interaction has been studied extensively, the cost of parasitism to the host is unclear. The goals of this research were to investigate the effects of bot fly parasitism on (1) population dynamics, (2) reproductive behavior, and (3) individual movement of P. leucopus. This approach attempted to understand how bot fly parasitism affects host populations by looking at host population dynamics directly, and by investigating the effects of parasitism on individual behavior. None of the data collected conclusively supported the idea that P. leucopus suffers a cost due to association with bot flies. Results showed that although some individuals harbored several infections during the season, they tended to have a single bot at a time. This, in conjunction with the observed asynchronous pattern of infection and reproduction, lends support to the conclusion that bot flies did not adversely affect the host population, perhaps due to increased tolerance of the host to this common parasite. Expectations about negative effects of bot flies on reproductive behavior were also not supported. Contrary to predictions, uninfected males were not more aggressive than infected males, and reproductive females showed a preference for males infected with bot flies. Finally, although there was no effect of infection on male movement, there was a tendency for females to decrease movement during infection. Taken together, the results of this research suggest that bot flies may have been in such close association with P. leucopus that the host has developed a tolerance for this common parasite.

Committee:

Dr. Guy Cameron (Advisor)

Keywords:

parasitism; sexual selection; behavioral ecology; population ecology; movement; Peromyscus leucopus; Cuterebra fontinella

Ukizintambara, TharcisseForest Edge Effects on the Behavioral Ecology of L'Hoest's Monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

Forest edges are associated with forest edge effects that result from changes in physical features of the habitat, predator species and number, and prominence of human activities and other disturbances that can have direct or indirect impact on the distribution, ecology, and fitness of forest plant and animal species. I conducted a literature review on edge effects on primate species and came up with a classification of primate species in three general categories " thriving, sensitive and resilient species to edge effects " based on behavioral and demographic responses.

In Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, edge effects followed non-monotonic patterns (wave-like) most likely due to the additive influence of edge effects, the history of logging in the area, and the persistent human activities and other disturbances. Such edge effects were more detectable in vegetation canopy cover and density and distribution of pioneer plant species whose dominance could increase or decrease up to 400 m from the park boundary towards the interior of the forest. Such distance, however, can vary considerably depending on variables examined.

L'Hoest's monkeys living along the edge of the Bwindi forest did not appear to be more affected behaviorally by edge effects than an interior group. Both groups spent relatively equivalent amount of time on major behavioral activities such as feeding, travelling and resting. Socializing was significantly less in the edge group compared with the interior group and that is likely to have a detrimental effect on the edge group cohesion. A correlation was found between the abundance of plant food species and the amount of time l'Hoest's monkeys spent feeding on these plant food species along the forest boundary while monkeys of the interior group fed on different items regardless of their abundance. The edge group had also a larger home range than the interior group especially because they expanded it during crop raiding or feeding on native vegetation in fallows outside the park.

Crop raiding was a very risky activity during which l'Hoest's monkeys experienced fatal confrontations with local farmers. Although early work suggested that forest edges were beneficial to wildlife, this study has concluded that forest edges in Bwindi can be ecological traps or sink areas for the edge-resilient l'Hoest's monkey species whose edge groups rely on immigration from the interior forest groups to survive and cope with disturbances and threats associated with forest edges.

Committee:

Beth Kaplin, PhD (Committee Chair); Peter Palmiotto, DF (Committee Member); Marina Cords, PhD (Committee Member); Alastair McNeilage, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science

Keywords:

Forest edge effects; behavioral ecology; habitat characteristics; crop raiding, l'Hoest's monkeys; Bwindi Impenetrable forest; Uganda

Johnston, Christine NinetteEcological and Behavioral Impacts of Snag Density on Cavity-Nesting Birds in the Oak Savanna
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Biological Sciences
Natural and anthropogenic disturbances affect the abundance, availability, and distribution of resources within oak savanna, an early successional ecosystem. Disturbance-dependent species, such as cavity-nesting birds of the oak savanna, are experiencing population declines. The cavity-nesting bird guild depends on snags (standing dead trees), which occur naturally, but are also formed as a result of oak savanna restoration practices. In order to understand the role that snag density plays on the ecology and behavior of cavity-nesting birds, we assessed the relative abundance, evidence of reproductive success, activity budgets and substrate use of the guild in five oak savanna sites. We also analyzed the influence of other site characteristics including canopy cover and area on all bird relative abundance, diversity, and cavity-nesting bird behavior. Cavity-nesting bird and all bird abundance were related to snag density by polynomial functions where the relative abundance of birds was highest at either ends of the snag density range. The site without any confirmed nests and the lowest species diversity had the lowest snag density (5.4 snags/ha) and the most homogenous canopy, however, the weight of juvenile Eastern Bluebirds was highest at that site. No differences in activity budgets were found between sites at the guild scale, however, substrate use at the guild and species scale was different between sites. At the guild scale, as snag density increased, snags were used more often and as canopy cover increased, snags and dead wood were used less and live wood was used more often. At the species scale, patterns of substrate use were similar to those of the guild, however, the site with the lowest snag density and homogenous canopy particularly influenced substrate use as canopy cover increased. These results suggest that not only is snag density important to cavity-nesting bird ecology and behavior, but that the vegetative structural context of snags in oak savanna is an important factor as well and should be considered when oak savanna restoration takes place.

Committee:

Karen Root (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Ecology

Keywords:

snag; cavity-nesting bird; oak savanna; behavioral ecology; disturbance

Raterman, JessicaMate Selection Preferences of Senescing Adults in Cincinnati, Ohio
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Arts and Sciences: Anthropology
This thesis advances the understanding of the characteristics that older adults desire in a long-term mate and what conditions their decision to marry, remarry, or date in their old age, especially regarding the role of kin selection. Data from 105 participants, with a minimum requirement of 55 years of age, were collected using a study-specific questionnaire based on the mate selection criteria popularized by Hill (1945) and corroborated by Buss (1989). Study sites are community-based senior centers or independent living complexes with a minimum age requirement around the Greater Cincinnati Area in Ohio. Results suggest that age does not have a significant effect on the importance of traditional mate-selection criteria. Additionally, the likelihood to marry, remarry, or date is very low, which might be significantly influenced by age. This study contributes to our overall understanding of human life histories, models of senescence, and the grandparental generation.

Committee:

Jeremy Koster, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Leila Rodriguez Soto, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

anthropology;mate selection;human behavioral ecology;human evolutionary ecology;mating preferences