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Fern, Lisa C.A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Industrial and Systems Engineering
This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order to improve the the methodology for defining technology requirements for regulators in the future. The biggest shortcoming of the presented research program was the absence of the explicit definition, generation and analysis of potential human-automation architectures. Failure to execute this step in the research process resulted in less efficient evaluation of the candidate prototypes technologies in addition to a lack of exploration of different approaches to human-automation cooperation. Defining potential human-automation architectures a priori also allows regulators to develop scenarios that will stress the performance boundaries of the technology during the evaluation phase. The importance of adding this step of generating and evaluating candidate human-automation architectures prior to formal empirical evaluation is discussed. This document concludes with a look at both the importance of, and the challenges facing, the inclusion of examining human-automation coordination issues as part of the safety assurance activities of new technologies.

Committee:

David Woods (Advisor); Philip Smith (Committee Member); Jozef Raadschelders (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Engineering; Experiments; Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

human machine interface; human-automation interaction; human-machine coordination; complex systems; UAS; automation

Bhatt, Mrunal DipakkumarINTELLIGENT VOICE ACTIVATED HOME AUTOMATION (IVA)
Master of Computer and Information Science, Cleveland State University, 2016, Washkewicz College of Engineering
This thesis presents the design of an original Intelligent Home Automation Architecture. My work was divided in two phases. The first portion was dedicated to acquiring a thorough understanding of the most successful and diffused Home-Automation commercial architectures. During this phase, I intended to gain a deep appreciation for the variety of organizations, capabilities, limitations, and potential areas of growth of the existing Home-Automation leading systems. In order to acquire this knowledge, I had to use a reverse engineering approach. The reason for using this methodology arises from the fact that all the products considered in this study are commercially protected as industrial secrets. Consequently, it is not possible to obtain detailed descriptions of their 'real' architectures and internal operations. The second part of this thesis presents my personal contribution in the form of a prototype for a Smart-Home Architecture. My design, called IVA (short for Intelligent Voice Activated) home automation, is primarily driven by the processing of natural language voice commands. I argue that this approach should be attractive to seniors, and people with limited range of mobility. In addition, the hardware needed to implement the system is commonly available and inexpensive. The most sophisticated device in my model is a smartphone, which in most cases, is already own by the prospective user.

Committee:

Victor Matos, PhD (Committee Chair); Ben Blake, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Sunnie Chung, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Information Technology; Technology

Keywords:

Home automation, smart home, smart home architecture, Domotic computing, technology, natural language speech controlled home automation, Android app, Arduino based hardware design

SAMPATH, HEMANTH KUMARA MODULE GENERATION ENVIRONMENT FOR MIXED-SIGNAL CIRCUITS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Engineering : Computer Engineering
Mixed-Signal systems have resulted from the integration of analog and digital systems on the same chip. In mixed-signal systems, the performance depends on the quality of the layout taking into account layout parasitics, variations in device sizes, symmetry and matching. This thesis provides an environment for specification of parameterized modules (devices or groups of devices) through the Module Specification Language (MSL). The environment allows designers to easily incorporate their domain specific knowledge into modules. The language allows modules to be hierarchically composed of other modules, thus promoting re-use of defined modules. The language is independent of the module being specified, making it useful for the development of digital and analog modules. Constructs specifically aimed at improving the quality of analog layouts are provided in the language. The generation environment allows for integration with a variety of CAD tools and layout editors. To validate the tool and the language, an extensive library of parameterized modules was specified and tested.

Committee:

DR. RANGANADHA VEMURI (Advisor)

Keywords:

Module Generation; Mixed-Signal; Analog; Design Automation; Layout

Anozie, Chidi H.Event-Triggered Design of Networked Embedded Automation Systems
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2010, Electrical Engineering
Systems that interact with the physical world can be designed in either an event- triggered (ET) paradigm or a time-triggered (TT) paradigm. Most real-time systems today are designed in the TT-paradigm because it is easier to achieve predictable performance. However, when some critical aspect of the system changes, designs based on the TT-paradigm must be completely revised. Modern application require systems to be flexible and reliable. Since the event-triggered systems are fundamen- tally designed as a colletion of loosely coupled local entities, it was interesting to investigate the predictablity of ET-systems. This investigation focused on a ET-design for operating a MicroFactory, which is a physical simulation of a discrete assembly system. The design was im- plemented and evaluated using a collection of networked embedded microcontrollers. Common tasks in a discrete assembly environment were captured as a collection of primitives. These primitives were redesigned and implemented in the ET-paradigm. Experimental results collected reflect the performance at the level of a single node and at the level of the system. Results were studied in comparison with similar ones obtained using a design that was based on the TT-paradigm. In the future, principles and techniques for reconfigurability can be incorporated in the proposed framework.

Committee:

Shivakumar Sastry, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Experiments

Keywords:

event-triggered design; networked embedded automation systems; time-triggered; TinyOS; sensors; actuators; component oriented;

Khazon, SteveChanges in State Suspicion Across Time: An Examination of Dynamic Effects
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2016, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
State Information Technology (IT) suspicion is the simultaneous action of uncertainty, mal-intent, and cognitive activity about underlying information that is being electronically generated, collated, sent, analyzed, or implemented by an external agent (Bobko, Barelka, & Hirshfield, 2014). Understanding IT suspicion is important in both military and civilian contexts as both are growing increasingly reliant on automation to augment human performance (e.g., Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010). The current process model of state IT suspicion describes how suspicion arises and its immediate correlates. Little is known about how suspicion changes over time and what factors influence this change. Drawing upon the self-regulation (e.g., Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998) and attention (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992) literatures, I posited that suspicion is a mentally and emotionally demanding state that cannot be sustained for long periods of time. I used a growth curve modeling approach (Bliese, 2013) to examine how state IT suspicion changes over time and which factors influence this change. I found that state suspicion decreases over time and that factors related to cognitive activity and uncertainty influence the rate at which it changes. I discuss implications of my findings for the existing body of knowledge on IT suspicion, as well as its practical important in military and security contexts.

Committee:

Nathan Bowling, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Tamera Schneider, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joseph Lyons, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Information Technology; Psychology

Keywords:

automation; trust; suspicion; Information Technology; personality; growth curve

Evans, Dakota C.A THEORETICAL ADAPTIVE AUTONOMY MODEL: REAL-TIME PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE WORKLOAD
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2014, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering
Increases in modern-day system complexity, has led for a need to improve human performance and the interaction between the two. Three objectives: (1) to investigate physiological measures as indicators of cognitive workload, (2) to assess cognitive workload during human interaction with different autonomy levels, and (3) to develop a theoretical model for an adaptive autonomous system that changes with real-time cognitive workload measures were addressed. This effort seeks to improve human computer interaction by providing the human with the acceptable level of computer automation based on real-time cognitive state. Two experiments involved collection of measures of subject physiology, subjective survey data, and performances measures to assess cognitive workload. The first experiment involved assessment of workload during different task difficulty levels. The second experiment compared workload under different system automation levels. Fixation rate, electromyography measures, and heart rate standard deviation were found to include significant main effects for both experiments.

Committee:

Mary Fendley, Ph.D. (Advisor); Frank Ciarallo, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nasser Kashou, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experiments; Industrial Engineering; Physiological Psychology

Keywords:

human-computer interaction, cognitive workload, automation, physiology, ophthalmology, physiology, psychophysiology, eye tracking, adaptive autonomy, NASA TLX, X-bar charts, usability, human factors, engineering, modeling, theoretical models

Davis, Jonathan MichaelDiesel Engine Experimental Design and Advanced Analysis Techniques
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Mechanical Engineering
A new diesel engine control strategy has been developed. In order to successfully validate and implement this control strategy experimental design techniques were used which optimize the data collection process. This included the setup of cylinder pressure measurements as well as the creation of an automating testing program. This program automates engine testing, interfacing with key components such as the dynamometer and engine controller (ECU). Both steady state and transient testing algorithms were developed. Several advanced analysis techniques have been developed for the project. A combustion noise algorithm was created which uses cylinder pressure signals. An in depth study on pegging cylinder pressure was completed, utilizing GT Power©. GT Power© was also used to analyze an experimental design to simulate altitude at sea level in the test cell.

Committee:

Giorgio Rizzoni, PhD (Advisor); Shawn Midlam-Mohler, PhD (Committee Member); Yann Guezennec, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Automotive Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Diesel Engine;Cylinder Pressure;LabVIEW;GT Power;Altitude;EGR mixing;automation;Engine testing;Combustion Noise;

Ding, ChenComputer formal drawings and their automation
PhD, Case Western Reserve University, 1991, Computer Engineering
Pictures are an important communication medium; but generating pictures in a computer system is tedious and time consuming. Besides, many other problems are found in using pictures. Our work aims to (1) develop models to formalize the objects to be visualized and the pictures that visualize them, (2) use visualization schemes to solve the automatic visualization problem, (3) use aesthetics rules to solve the aesthetics problem, and (4) build a system to automate the process of generating computer drawings. We have developed the Formal Drawing Model which formalizes computer drawings without losing visual reality. Elements in the Formal Drawing Model possess formal syntax and semantics. The model is powerful enough to accommodate a large variety of computer drawings. Aesthetics has not been addressed adequately in the past. In our work, we examine in detail what makes a picture pleasing and the mechanisms affecting the efficiency of using pictures to convey information. Aesthetics rules, distilled from numerous diagram drawings in textbooks, are the key component in the automatic drawing system proposed. Based on our theoretical work, we build a framework to automate diagram drawing. We stress four issues which are critical to such a system but have not been integrated in the past. They are (1) Appropriate user involvement, (2) User custom ization, (3) Efficiency, and (4) Aesthetics. Solving these problems will allow us to build a more powerful and natural automatic drawing system. ftn*Work supported by K. C. Wong Educational Foundation, Hong Kon.

Committee:

Prabhaker Mateti (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Computer formal drawings automation

Neubauer, CatherineAlertness Maintaining Tasks: A Fatigue Countermeasure During Vehicle Automation?
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: Psychology
Driver fatigue is a leading cause of vehicular accidents (Lee, 2006). Additionally, development of newer technology such as vehicle automation offers a potential countermeasure to driver fatigue. As vehicle operation becomes increasingly automated, driver fatigue appears to be a pressing safety issue. A number of countermeasures have been evaluated in the attempt to alleviate driver fatigue. In the present context trivia games have been suggested as a fatigue countermeasure but like cell phone use, they may prove distracting. The present study investigated the effects of two especially relevant workload factors on driver performance: automated driving and secondary media usage. Vehicle automation is a relatively new trend among automakers that can potentially alleviate the adverse effects of fatigue and in turn regulate workload, however recent studies have suggested that automation may result in a dangerous state of underload in which effort is withdrawn from the driving task (Desmond, Hancock & Monette, 1998; Funke et al., 2005). A manipulation of full and partial vehicle automation was used to induce fatigue during simulated driving. Participants were also assigned to one of three media device conditions (control, cell phone or trivia). Subjective state response, vehicle control and reaction time to a sudden event were recorded. As predicted, the media devices did help minimize the loss of task engagement and elevated distress produced by vehicle automation. We also extended findings that the media devices helped improve concurrent driver performance, with control driving shown to be associated with the worst vehicle control. However, media usage was not associated with faster response time to subsequent “sudden events”, suggesting that such devices may not enhance alertness during unpredictable events.

Committee:

Chung-Yiu Chiu, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Dean Beebe, Ph.D. (Committee Member); John Holden, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Fatigue;Driving;Automation;Stress;Distraction;Workload

Sheerer, Corey D.A Hand-Held Device for Controlling a Mounted, Motor-Driven Colonoscope
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Colorectal cancer is a prevalent and deadly disease that is further emerging within our society. As knowledge about this disease becomes more widespread, an increasing demand for screening and high standards arises. This creates a need for a device which can be more easily mastered by physicians to achieve competency, as well as reduce injury risks from performing repetitive motions during a heavy load of colonoscopy procedures. This thesis focuses on the fabrication of a prototype colonoscope that incorporates a holding structure to support the colonoscope, and a hand-held device that actuates distal tip steering. Experimentation was performed to compare the fatigue and learning curve of the prototype scope to a conventional scope. Fatigue was measured as a reduction in force corresponding to the maximum voluntary contraction of the left thumb and forearm. Results show that subjects using the prototype scope did not experience any significant reduction in force in either the thumb or forearm, while the conventional scope resulted in a force reduction of 17% and 16% in the forearm and thumb respectively. Cecal intubation time and learning rate showed no significant decrease while using the prototype scope compared to a conventional scope.

Committee:

Choi Junghun (Advisor); David Drozek, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Robotics; Systems Design

Keywords:

Colonoscopy; automation; fatigue; learning rate; learning curve; wireless; android; application; motor actuated; device; mechanism; colonoscope

Tsai, Chi-KengComputer control of an electro-hydraulic robot leg with proximity ranging system /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1985, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Robots;Automation

Sheu, Hsin-TengA coordinated decentralized flow and routing control algorithm for an automated highway system /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1987, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Traffic flow--Automation;Traffic engineering

James, Joseph JFORECASTER WORKLOAD AND TASK ANALYSIS IN THE 2016 PROBABILISTIC HAZARD INFORMATION SYSTEM HAZARDOUS WEATHER TESTBED
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2018, Mechanical Engineering
During spring 2016, a Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) was run to improve the Probabilistic Hazard Information (PHI) prototype, as part of the FACETS (Forecasting a Continuum of Environmental ThreatS) program. Each week of the 3-week testbed, three National Weather Service forecasters were trained on the PHI prototype tool to produce dynamic, probabilistic hazard information for severe weather threats. Archived and real-time weather scenarios were used to test this new paradigm. The forecasters’ mental workload was evaluated after each scenario using the NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Forecaster screen recordings were also compiled to complete task analysis on forecaster interaction with the tool. This study summarizes the trends in mental workload experienced by forecasters while using the PHI prototype system. Six sub dimensions of mental workload, mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort and frustration were analyzed separately to derive top contributing factors to workload. The average mental workload was 46.6 (out of 100, std: 19, range 70.8). Top contributing workload factors include using automated guidance, PHI object quantity, multiple displays and formulating probabilities in the new paradigm. Task analysis found a significant increase in time to produce PHI objects from previous years. Tornado objects took specifically more time to produce. The paradigm change from deterministic to probabilistic forecast created opportunities for forecasters to communicate continuous, dynamic information. This challenged forecasters to constantly interrogate storm development and predict threat development over time.

Committee:

Chen Ling, PhD (Advisor); Shenyong Wang, PhD (Committee Member); Sergio Felicelli, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

Automation, Human Factors, Weather, PHI, HCI, Workload, Mental Workload, Task Analysis, Cognitive Task Analysis, Hierarchical Task Analysis, Severe Weather Warning System, FACETS

HUANG, YAO-CHINEFFECTS OF ROBOTIC PRESCRIPTION DISPENSING SYSTEM ON OUTPATIENT PHARMACY OPERATIONS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Pharmacy : Pharmaceutical Sciences
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing ScriptPro's SP 200 dispensing system on outpatient pharmacy operations at The Christ Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio. Videotaping and fixed-interval work sampling (one minute interval) were conducted over a 10-workday period before and after the implementation of SP 200. The chi-square test was applied to determine if any time change in each predetermined work activity. The total number of prescriptions filled before and after SP 200 implementation was 2,958 and 2,987, respectively. A total of 38,961 pharmacist and 31,646 technician observations of work activities were recorded. The activities were categorized into: (1) prescription processing activities, (2) problem-solving activities, (3) inventory maintenance, (4) personal/idle time, and (5) miscellaneous activities. A reduction of 0.4 FTE pharmacist and 1.1 FTE technician occurred after SP 200 implementation. Percentage of time (PT) was defined as the mean value based on one full time equivalent (FTE). For the pharmacists, SP 200 resulted in a decrease in PT for personal/idle time and miscellaneous activities (p < 0.0001) and an increase in PT for prescription processing activities (p < 0.0001); but no satistically significant change in PT for problem-solving activities (p > 0.05). For the technicians, SP 200 led to a decrease in PT for personal/idle time (P < 0.0001) and an increase in PT for problem solving activities and miscellaneous activities (p < 0.0001); but no significant change in PT for prescription processing activities (P > 0.05). The SP 200 dispensing system improved workplace efficiency and manpower utilization despite a reduction in staffing.

Committee:

Dr. Alex Lin (Advisor)

Keywords:

work sampling; automation; script pro; efficiency; manpower

GIBSON, DENNISINTEGRATING BEHAVIORAL MODELING AND SIMULATION FOR MEMS COMPONENTS INTO CAD FOR VLSI
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Engineering : Computer Science
The goal of this project is to show that the use of behavioral modeling, in conjunction with current VLSI CAD tools,will aid in the rapid prototyping of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and also in the area of design automation. A behavioral model of the cantilever beam (a basic MEMS device) is used as an instrument to demonstrate how such models may be utilized. The first example demonstrates how to extend finite element analysis capabilities to an existing design tool. Second, an example including the cantilever beam model is used to demonstrate the usefulness of modeling in the area of simulation, which is of great importance for the rapid prototyping of systems. Finally an example is given to show how the cantilever beam model may be utilized to aid in the area of design automation.

Committee:

Dr. Carla Purdy (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

MEMS; design automation; CAD; behavioral modeling; micro mirror

Jaswa, Vijay ChinubhaiAn experimental study of real-time computer control of a hexapod vehicle /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1978, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Automation;Locomotion

Archer, BrandenProfiling Primitives of Networked Embedded Automation
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2010, Electrical Engineering

Recent advances in wireless technologies now allow microcontrollers with low-power wireless radios to integrate with sensor and actuator systems. Using such devices to perform automation tasks is referred to as Networked Embedded Automation (NEA). In NEA, devices perform local actions based on local sensing and communications with neighboring devices. Traditional automation systems use networks of Programmable Automation Controllers wired to each other to regulate system behavior. NEA represents a change in direction for automation systems as they are poised to leverage existing wireless sensor network technologies and distributed algorithm advances.

A challenge with integrating NEA into automation systems is understanding predictability and safety issues that are inherent in these enhanced systems. This thesis proposes a set of primitives that are suitable for developing composable automation systems that are regulated by embedded devices interacting over wireless links. A node level architecture and design that helps realize these primitives is presented. Using a robust platform called FireFly, the temporal performance of these primitives is profiled. Experimental results demonstrate that the latency and jitter associated with these primitives are promising and useful for a class of automation systems. In the future, this work can be extended to larger scale systems with tighter temporal constraints.

Committee:

Shivakumar Sastry (Advisor); Nathan Ida (Committee Member); Igor Tsukerman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Networked Embedded Automation

Ambrosia, Michael Gerald7D CARDIAC FLOW MRI – TECHNIQUES & AUTOMATION OF RECONSTRUCTION
Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2012, Fenn College of Engineering
Advances in magnetic resonance imaging to quantify the blood flow in the heart and major vessels stemming from the heart has recently allowed for advanced clinical applications for patients suffering from cardiac valve problems and aortic abnormalities. 7D cardiac flow quantification is relatively new, but has already shown potential in several clinical applications, including bicuspid valve and aortic coarctation characterization. In addition radiologists diagnosing valvular regurgitation may benefit from insight provided by the 7D cardiac flow quantification protocol. 7D cardiac flow quantification using magnetic resonance imaging will provide direction flow quantification in the anterior / posterior, head / foot, and left / right directions, in time, through the imaging volume. Providing MRI techniques that may lead to clinical applications to characterize the cardiac valves, the flow differentials during cardiac function, and the flow and pressure differentials of the aortic arch, as well as automation of the delayed reconstruction process for raw data, are the main focus of this study. The study was approached in four stages. First, using the Philips ExamCard environment, a scan protocol was developed. The scan protocol provided the anatomical views for the 7D flow quantification in the heart. Execution of the ExamCard provides two anatomical areas of focus, the aortic arch and the valve plane of the heart. Raw data was saved to the scanner’s database, for later reconstruction. A second stage of the project was completed to verify the ExamCard and manual reconstruction had been properly developed. To do so, four volunteer studies were completed. Each volunteer was scanned on the same Philips 1.5T Achieva scanner, using the 7D flow ExamCard developed in stage one, and raw data reconstructed using the manual delayed reconstruction procedure. Flow quantification in a 3D volume in 3 directions over time was verified. Results were verified using existing studies as a gold standard. Because manual delayed reconstruction is time consuming, and may lead to errors, automation of the delayed reconstruction is desired. A third stage of the project was aimed at automation of the delayed reconstruction process. The third stage of the project involved writing a batch file to automate the reconstruction of the raw data saved from the previously described scan protocol. The batch file is an executable script file that will automate the manual work of the Philips delayed reconstruction procedures. The batch file, when executed, will select, change reconstruction parameters for each of the 2 anatomical areas, in three different directions, for a total of 6 scan reconstructions, run the reconstruction, and name the scans appropriately. Using raw data of the four volunteer studies in stage 2, the batch file was tested. The focus then shifted to a fourth stage of the project. The focus was verifying the results of the automation versus the manual delayed reconstruction process. Using standard Philips Achieva analysis software, reports for all manual, automated, and “subtraction” data sets were generated. These reports were compared. In all cases, both the manual and automated data sets produced analysis exactly the same for the given parameters. The “subtraction” data set further proved the manual and automated data sets were the same by analysis where all measured parameters were zero, proving the hypothesis and demonstrating the automated batch file did indeed reconstruct the raw data equivalent to reconstruction produced using the standard manual delayed reconstruction package from Philips. Finally, the data sets from the automated reconstruction were used to plot velocity profiles across regions of interest and compare results between operators as well as patients. The project was completed at the Philips Healthcare facility located at 595 Miner Rd, Highland Heights, OH, in conjunction with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation of Cleveland, Ohio.

Committee:

Sandra Halliburton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Chatzimavroudis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Melanie Traughber, D.Sc. (Committee Member); Michael Bolen, M.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research; Engineering; Medical Imaging; Radiology

Keywords:

7D CARDIAC FLOW MRI &8211; TECHNIQUES &38; AUTOMATION OF RECONSTRUCTION

FUNKE, GREGORY JTHE EFFECTS OF AUTOMATION AND WORKLOAD ON DRIVER PERFORMANCE, SUBJECTIVE WORKLOAD, AND MOOD
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
The effects of vehicle automation, drive difficulty, workload transitions, and subjective state on drivers’ performance efficiency and mood were assessed. This combination of driving variables is likely to play a key role in automotive safety in the future as in-vehicle technologies increase. Two levels of drive difficulty (straight, curved) were combined factorially with three levels of vehicle-automation (manual, continuous-automation, intermittent-automation) to produce six experimental conditions (N = 20 per condition). In the straight roadway condition, road curvature was absent from the drive. The road in the curved condition was a continuous set of ‘s-curves,’ which required participants to make constant steering inputs. Participants in the continuous-automation condition drove in a simulated automated vehicle, which controlled drivers’ lateral position and longitudinal speed. Participants in the intermittent-automation condition drove in a mix of manual and automated vehicle control, which required frequent control transitions. Participants in the manual condition completed the drive without automated vehicle control. Performance during the experiment was assessed on several indices, including a monitoring task which required participants to detect pedestrian hazards. Participants completed the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI; Matthews, Desmond, Joyner, & Carcary, 1997) a measure of stress vulnerability in a driving context, the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ, Matthews, et al.., 1999; 2002), a measure of subjective mood state, and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX; Hart & Staveland, 1988), a measure of the perceived mental workload associated with a task. Results of the experiment indicated that curved roadways impaired driver performance, but did not influence workload. Automation facilitated performance, but the effect was transient and only observed in the continuous-automation condition. Automation did not reduce driver workload; perceived workload was actually elevated in the intermittent-automation condition. Workload transition effects were found to relate to impaired lateral vehicle control, and increased driver errors. Several DSI factors and DSSQ task engagement were found to be predictive of post-task subjective state and several indices of task performance. Overall, results indicated that vehicle automation may facilitate driver performance, but transitions between manual and automated vehicle control may pose substantial safety risks. Human factors implications and solutions are discussed.

Committee:

Dr. Gerald Matthews (Advisor)

Keywords:

Driving; Automation; Workload; Workload Transition Effects

VIJAY, VIKASA TOP-DOWN METHODOLOGY FOR SYNTHESIS OF RF CIRCUITS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Engineering : Computer Engineering
This thesis presents automated techniques for synthesis of high performance RF circuits. The top-down methodology developed encompasses all stages of RF design from circuit sizing, layout generation to parasitic extraction and performance analysis. The objective of this methodology is to minimize the design time and generate efficient, correct and re-usable design solutions. In the proposed methodology, given a circuit netlist and a set of performance goals, a ready-to-tapeout layout is generated which meets the specified performance constraints. A sizing tool is integrated to perform design space exploration. A parameterized layout generator generates the layout based on the input sizes. An RF-Performance Analysis system (PAS-RF) comprising of a set of C++ functions is also developed for measuring the performance of the RF circuit. The proposed methodology is successfully tested by synthesizing variants of RF receiver circuits (LNA, Mixers, VCO etc.) for different performance criterion.

Committee:

Dr. Ranga Vemuri (Advisor)

Keywords:

Radio Frequency; Synthesis; Optimization; Automation; Layout Generation; RF; Analog; High Frequency; Module Generation; C++; SKILL; Extraction; Performance Analysis; Circuit Sizing; Radio Receiver; LNA; Mixer; VCO; Phase Frequency Detector

Heffner, Ned ThomasDevelopment of a Robotic System for Quantitative Therapeutic Massage
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Biomedical Engineering
With the growing understanding of cellular and intercellular signaling and transduction, and the potential to exploit the mechanisms thereof to achieve medical goals up to and including reversal of aging mechanisms, along with the scale-dependent limitations of conventional pharmacological and surgical methods such as cost, logistics, and repeatability, it can be seen that one possible future of biomedical advancement lies the use of subtle methods, with acute attention to the physiological underpinnings. As such the development of a means of quantitatively investigating the effects of massage at the cell, tissue, and structural levels may allow us to reverse-engineer the ancient treatment, to which several mechanisms of efficacy have been suggested, and developed improved, direct-acting, facile, and repeatable protocols for addressing specific pathophysiological mechanisms via massage. To that end, first pneumatic, then robotic massage devices were developed, along with protocols to simulate pathological conditions to be addressed, programming to mechanically imitate conventional massage movements, and custom dynamometric equipment to assess functional recovery. Additionally, to aid in formulation of massage application and interpretation of results, a comprehensive study of the history, current state, and canonical understanding of the mechanisms of massage therapy was performed. Finally, applying a custom extrapolation protocol to data acquired via a newly developed robotic massage system, it became possible to isolate rheological component values for the tissue of massaged subjects, thereby shedding light quantitatively on the mechanisms and effects of this ancient but inconsistently understood therapy.

Committee:

Yi Zhao, PhD (Advisor); Stephen Lee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research

Keywords:

Massage Therapy; Automation; Exercise

Nagose, AtulAutomated Magnetic Particle Attachment to an Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2009, Mechanical Engineering

The traditional Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a two-dimensional tool, which can only generate surface profile with limited depth variation. A design modification to the traditional AFM has been proposed by Jayanth et.al [1] to make it a true three-dimensional tool. The modified cantilever has a magnetic particle attached to it. These particles are attached indigenously on the commercially available cantilevers. The magnetic particle attachment process is very sensitive to vibration and requires very precise motion control avoiding any unnecessary body movement. Since conventionally it has been done manually, it imposes stringent constraints on the user performing this task. A more accurate and faster process was required to replace the existing system. This thesis develops an automated process for attaching a magnetic particle to the AFM cantilever. The new process requires very little manual involvement in the most critical steps of the process.

A setup was designed to incorporate the visual feedback from a camera attached to a microscope and actuation using a three-axis piezo stage. The image formation process was modeled relating any three-dimensional point to its corresponding location in the image captured by a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) chip. Image processing algorithms were developed to locate the particle, micro-pipette and the AFM cantilever, also to track the particle and micro-pipette in real-time. Finally a control system was designed which would control the location of the object (micro-pipette or the particle) by actuating the piezo stage. The control system used image from only one camera, while the hysteresis in the piezo stage, which was being operated in open loop, was countered for.

The control system was tested for automating different steps in the process. It was first calibrated to extract the necessary system parameters. Its robustness was tested by performing the process under varying illumination and vibration. The process could successfully attach particles of size ranging from 25 – 70 µm under these conditions. The automated process was twice as fast as the manual process and required minimal manual involvement in the particle attachment step. Similar results were observed for other steps that were automated, specifically the particle pick-up and glue dabbing step.

Committee:

Chia-Hsiang Menq (Advisor); Gary Kinzel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Atomic Force Microsocpe Cantilever; Visual Feedback; Position Control; Magnetic Particle; Automation

Fisher, Joseph E.Telescope Automation Project
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2001, Electrical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Telescope Automation Project

Committee:

R. Dennis Irwin, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Telescope Automation

Pine, Douglas TaylorThe effects of teaching numerical control concepts via simulator versus non-simulator activities on the achievement, programming proficiency and attitude of high school students /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1973, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Automation;Numerical calculations--Computer programs;Simulation methods

Wang, WeirongAn integrated automation extrusion die design system
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1996, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)
An integrated automation extrusion die design system

Committee:

Bhavin Mehta (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Automation Extrusion Die Design System; Extrusion Process; Viscoplasticity

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