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Hesson, ChetUsing Student-Athlete Experience To Predict Mental Well-being
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine which student-athlete experiences at Bowling Green State University (BGSU best predicted student-athlete mental well-being. Data were collected by BGSU Athletics through the analysis of the BGSU 2017 Student-Athlete End of the Year Survey (SAEYS), which was a formal assessment of student-athlete experience and perceived mental well-being. All student-athletes at BGSU on the athletic rosters in April 2017 (380 student-athletes were invited to complete the SAEYS, and 264 student-athletes completed the survey, generating a response rate of 69.4%. Four research questions guided the study. A Factor Analysis was conducted to examine how many reliable and interpretable components there were among student-athlete experience variables. Generally, all factors in the SAEYS were determined to be reliable and interpretable components. Diversity and Inclusion had the highest mean score of all subscales. Time Demands had the strongest correlation with Mental Well-being. Forward multiple regression was utilized to examine which student-athlete experiences best predicted mental well-being. Time Demands, SAS, and Coaching accounted for 21% of the variance found in Mental Well-being, with Time Demands accounting for the largest amount. Additionally, forward multiple regression was conducted to investigate whether student-athlete experience predictive models of mental well-being differed by gender (male/female, ethnicity (minority/non-minority, sport (revenue/non-revenue generating, and citizenship (domestic/international. The study indicated that there were differences between variables. This study also indicated that mental well-being differs by gender, ethnicity, and sport. This study did not see a significant difference in mental well-being of citizenship. Males, minorities, and non-revenue sport participants all indicated a greater mental well-being than their respective counterparts, females, non-minorities, and revenue sport participants. This study focused on highlighting the growing need for athletic departments to focus their efforts not just on the tactical skills associated with their sport, but rather on the student-athletes holistic development, and the impact programming, or lack thereof, can have on the mental well-being of each student-athlete. Each research question showcased connections not previously uncovered, that indicated significant differences among variables studied. This study has hopefully extended research on student-athlete mental health and well-being.

Committee:

Paul Chris Willis, Dr. (Advisor); Laura Stafford, Dr. (Other); Paul Andrew Johnson, Dr. (Committee Member); Rachel Ann Reinhart, Dr. (Committee Member); Ronald E. Zwierlein, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Gender; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Kinesiology; Management; Mental Health; Occupational Psychology; Organization Theory; Personal Relationships; Physical Education; Psychology; Public Health; Social Psychology; Sports Management; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

Student-Athlete Experience; Mental-Well being; Predicting Mental Well-being; Student-Athlete; Student-Athlete Development; NCAA; Mental Health; Student-Athlete Mental Well-being

Bruzina, Angela SBearcats in the Kitchen: A Food Lab-Based Cooking Intervention for Female Athletes
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Allied Health Sciences: Nutrition
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and impact of a ten-week foods lab-based cooking intervention program on the energy and nutrient intake, body composition, and iron status indices in female collegiate athletes. Methods: Female Collegiate athletes were recruited for this study. Participants were excluded if they had severe food allergies, current or planned pregnancy, eating disorder diagnosis, or any metabolic disorder. Participants completed eight food lab-based intervention classes during their summer training period. The classes consisted of nutrition education focusing on healthy eating for optimizing sports performance, skill-based learning that incorporated basic kitchen skills with recipe preparation, and behavioral strategies including food monitoring and goal setting. Dietary intake, anthropometrics, and blood samples were analyzed pre- and post-intervention for changes as well as adequacy in meeting general sports nutrition recommendations for athletes. Dependent variables were anthropometric measures (weight, body fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass), iron status indicators (ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct)), and dietary measures (energy, macronutrients, and iron). Shapiro-Wilk test of normalcy was run on all data and paired T-tests were used to examine the differences pre- to post-intervention for all outcome measures. Results: Eleven NCAA Division I Female Collegiate athletes, age (20.4 ± 1.2 years) participated in the intervention. At the end of the 10 weeks, lean mass increased significantly, 56.1 ± 4.6kg to 56.8 ± 4.6kg, respectively (p = 0.017). In terms of iron status, there were significant increases in Hct and Hb from pre- to post-intervention (p=0.01), while there was a downward trend in ferritin (p = 0.067). Thirty six percent of the participants did not meet the minimum 30g/kg energy recommendation for weight maintenance post-intervention. Further, not one athlete met the minimum carbohydrate recommendation of 5g/kg either pre- or post-intervention. In addition, three participants (n=3, 27%) did not meet the minimum 1.2g/kg protein recommendation post-intervention. The direction of change for all dietary measures was favorable, however, no significant differences were observed in energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, or iron intake from pre- to post-intervention. Conclusion: A foods lab-based cooking intervention that incorporates nutrition education, cooking skills, and dietary goal setting may have benefits relative to nutritional intake, body composition, and iron status in female collegiate athletes. Larger, controlled studies are necessary to determine if Bearcats in the Kitchen could be a useful approach to improve the dietary intake of macronutrients and body composition in collegiate athletes across different sports.

Committee:

Abigail Peairs, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sarah Couch, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nutrition

Keywords:

Athlete Dietary Intake;Collegiate Athlete;Female Athlete;Cooking Intervention

Moran, KelseySport Factors, Body Image, and Eating Behaviors in College Student Athletes
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2019, School of Professional Psychology
Eating disorders are a common psychological disorder with athletes being at a higher risk. The rates of clinical and subclinical (i.e. subthreshold, partial diagnosis, or other specified feeding and eating disorder in DSM-5). There are several sport-specific risk factors that increase the prevalence rate of clinical and subclinical eating disorders and body image concerns. Several eating disorder development models exist for the general population, but one specific sport specific factor: coaches, has been left out, despite their significant impact on athletes. This study examined the relationship between coaching behaviors, eating disorder symptomology, and body image concerns. Potential moderators of teammate pressures, self-esteem, and performance pressures were also examined. 160 NCAA Division 1 student-athletes completed the survey. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between coaching behavior and eating disorder symptomology and body dissatisfaction. Additionally, teammate pressures were found to moderate the relationship between coaching behaviors and eating disorder symptomology. Clinical implications, limitations, and future research directions were discussed.

Committee:

Julie Williams, Psy.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Larry James, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Chelsi Day, Psy.D., HSPP (Committee Member); Christopher Modica, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Health; Health Education; Health Sciences; Higher Education; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Recreation; Social Psychology; Sports Medicine; Therapy

Keywords:

Student Athlete; College; College Athletics; Collegiate Student-Athlete; Eating Disorders; Disordered Eating; Body Image; Coaching Behaviors; Sport Factors; Teammate Social Influence, Teammate Modeling

Kluch, YannickMore Than an Athlete: A Qualitative Examination of Activist Identities Among NCAA Division I Student-Athletes
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Media and Communication
Despite the recent re-emergence of the athlete activist into public consciousness, activism among athletes remains non-normative behavior. However, because sport can be a powerful platform for social change, it is important to analyze experiences of the few athletes who identify as activists for social justice causes. As the first empirical study to explore how NCAA Division I student-athletes construct activist identities, this research contributes to knowledge on athlete activism and identity construction in sport by analyzing the student-athlete activist experience through participants' definitions of activism, their constructions and negotiations of activist identities, and barriers to activism. Drawing from interviews with 31 NCAA Division I student-athlete activists from across the U.S., and informed by the communication theory of identity and cultural contracts theory, this dissertation identifies five different conceptualizations of activism: activism as doing something, championing change, being authentic, speaking up, and public protests. Findings document changing notions of athlete activism and reveal nuanced forms of situational activism that do not rely on public expressions of resistance but rather arise from specific situations in athletes' everyday lives. Regarding identity constructions, six higher order themes emerged from the data: motivations for activism, enactments of activism, student-athlete activists' identity negotiations, relational influences, communal influences, and mediated influences. Data also revealed six barriers to student-athlete activism: strict regulation of athletes' schedules and lack of time, isolation from the wider campus community, stigma attached to activist identities, emotional exhaustion, team cultural norms, and institutional barriers. Participants indicated they engaged in activism that does not explicitly challenge institutional power and, by extension, relied on the intercollegiate sport system to create change from within. Finally, this dissertation presents implications for key stakeholders in student-athlete activism in the contemporary cultural climate: student-athletes, coaches/athletic administrators, and governing bodies behind intercollegiate sport, including athletic conferences and the NCAA. By embracing the multiplicity of student-athlete activist identities, this dissertation advocates for scholars and intercollegiate athletics professionals to enhance student-athletes' power to change cultural identity scripts and anchor activism and inclusive leadership in the social description of student-athletes for generations to come.

Committee:

Lara Martin Lengel, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Raymond Schuck, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Sandra Faulkner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nancy Spencer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vikki Krane, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Higher Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

sport communication; athlete activism; student-athlete; identity; identity negotiation; communication theory of identity; cultural contracts theory; social justice; sport for social change; qualitative methods; interviewing; NCAA

Flynn, Madelaine EversfieldAn Examination of Collegiate Athletes and Non-Athletes' Knowledge of Concussion Definition, Symptoms, and Post-Injury Services
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, Speech Pathology and Audiology
Introduction: Concussions affect various populations, including collegiate athletes and non-athletes. Yet, research examining knowledge of concussion within the collegiate population exclusively targets varsity athletics. The study’s purpose was to obtain and compare collegiate varsity athletes, recreational athletes, and non-athletes’ knowledge of concussion definition, symptoms, and support services available post-injury. Preferred methods of concussion education delivery was also examined. Method: Researchers surveyed 306 current college students using an online survey system. The survey included forced choice and free recall question formats. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to analyze results and compare responses among groups. Results: Collegiate athletes and non-athletes demonstrate incomplete knowledge of concussion definition, related symptoms, and professionals involved in concussion management. Varsity athletes rated self-knowledge of concussion parameters significantly higher than the other groups (p<.001), though few significant differences in actual knowledge levels were observed. Overall, respondents reported having the highest preference for concussion education delivered by medical professionals. Discussion: Knowledge concerning concussion is incomplete in the collegiate population. Varsity athletes’ exposure to formal education did not result in higher knowledge levels compared to other groups. Further examination of concussion educational delivery models’ effect on change in concussion-related behavior in this population is warranted.

Committee:

Kelly Knollman-Porter, Ph. D., CCC-SLP (Advisor); Renee Gottliebson, Ph. D., CCC-SLP (Committee Member); Laura Kelly, Ph. D., CCC-A (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Speech Therapy

Keywords:

concussion; knowledge; concussion symptom; concussion definition; post-injury services; collegiate athlete; recreational athlete; sports

Goffena, Jordan DThe relationship between coaches' leadership behavior and athletes' self-regulated learning
Master of Science, Miami University, 2015, Sport Studies
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate hypothesized links between collegiate athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ interpersonal leadership behavior and their own ability to self-regulate their sport specific learning. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 61 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes to assess their perceptions of their coaches’ leadership styles as well as their own self-regulation ability. Cluster analyses resulted in the identification of two groups of athletes who exhibited contrasting profiles with regard to perceived coaching style. Group 1 included athletes with high perceptions of autonomy-supportive coaching behavior and Group 2 with high perceptions of controlling coaching behavior. Comparison of the two groups in regard to their self-regulatory abilities indicated that Group 1 athletes had higher scores than did Group 2 on the planning subscale of the self-regulated learning scale. These results are discussed in relation to future research directions. Practical implications for coaches are also advanced.

Committee:

Thelma Horn (Committee Chair); Robin Vealey (Committee Member); Joseph Schroer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Pedagogy

Keywords:

self-regulated learning; coach-athlete relationship; coach leadership; coach behavior; athlete perception; autonomy-support; self-determination theory

Czekanski, William AndrewSocial Exchange in Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Exchange Ideologies in the Coach-Student-Athlete Dyad
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services

This study examined the application of the Social Exchange Theory (SET) in intercollegiate athletics. Using Blau (1964) and Homans’s (1961) definitional scheme of social exchange, the theory was first deconstructed and individual elements were explored. As a result, the constructs of trust, justice, commitment, obligation and performance were identified and defined. Furthermore, relationships between these constructs where hypothesized in relation to intercollegiate coach-student-athlete dyads. The amalgamation of these hypotheses led to a fully and partially mediated model of student-athlete performance being proposed.

To test the individual hypotheses, as well as the proposed models, a convenient population of student-athletes at a large Midwestern university was asked to partake in a study. A sample of 132 student-athletes completed usable questionnaires and analysis of their responses was conducted through use of structural equation modeling (SEM). Results of the analysis showed: (1) Procedural, interpersonal, and information justice all had positive significant relationships with trust; (2) Trust had a positive, significant relationship with leader-member exchange (LMX); (3) LMX had a positive, significant relationship with commitment, as measured by feelings of obligation and emotional attachment; and (4) Commitment had a positive, significant relationship with performance, as measured by self-evaluations of individual performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

Additionally, it was found that a fully mediated model most aptly explained the pathway of student-athlete production. In the model, procedural, interpersonal, and information justice were treated as independent variables and were found to positively relate to trust; that is, the greater the perceptions of each form of justice the greater the level of trust student-athletes had in the coach. Trust then served as a mediating variable that positively influenced the quality of the exchange relationship (i.e., LMX), which in turn led to greater levels of commitment to the coach. Finally, the model showed the greater the levels of commitment student-athletes had towards their coach, the greater their individual performance.

These findings suggest the application of social exchange constructs to the study of the coach-student-athlete dyad is appropriate, and thus calls for further investigation. Moreover, the findings hold a number of noteworthy applications to coaches, as the importance of perceptions of justice, the quality of relationships, and the degree of trust student-athletes have in their coach were all found to be key determinates in student-athlete performance. Additional discussion of the results suggests future directions for scholars to take in their exploration of intercollegiate coach-student-athlete dyads, and offers specific application and suggestions for intercollegiate coaches.

Committee:

Brian Turner, PhD (Advisor); Packianathan Chelladurai, PhD (Committee Member); Donna Pastore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sports Management

Keywords:

Social Exchange Theory; coach-athlete relationship; student-athlete; performance

Schwarz, Christopher CharlesAttack-ademically Ineligible: Student Athlete Sex Crimes and the Dangerous Misunderstandings of FERPA
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2016, Kinesiology
This thesis discusses privacy rights and university obligations with regard to alleged sex crimes by student-athletes. Sexual assault remains a long-standing problem at universities nationwide, the eradication of which is only just beginning as many schools join the movement to provide safe academic forums for victims to express their experiences. However, we are far from a rape-free collegiate America. When a sex-crime occurs, the treatment by universities of what they must disclose, and to whom, lacks consistency. The problem may be that universities hide behind the Federal Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) more than what may be appropriate; it may be a matter of state law or university policy. This thesis maps out the issues, the governing law, where it is clear and where it is gray, and how to amend the gray areas for the sake of protecting students subjected to sex-crimes. The methods used were case analysis and use of a hypothetical for application. While many cases dot the landscape during the analytical process, the student-athlete as he or she relates to FERPA, served as the cornerstone to understanding FERPA’s effect on university privacy duties and FERPA’s effect on the student body through the student-athlete. The research showed that while FERPA may be ambiguous, universities hide behind FERPA more than what the legislation allows, thus harming school community interests and leaving students vulnerable to potentially dangerous situations, the likelihood of which could be significantly diminished if more universities chose to speak up rather than hide behind FERPA.

Committee:

Brian Turner, Dr. (Advisor); Donna Pastore, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Criminology; Education; Education Finance; Education Policy; Higher Education; Kinesiology; Law; Legal Studies; Personal Relationships; Political Science; Public Health; Public Policy; Sports Management; Sports Medicine; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Federal Education Rights and Privacy Act; FERPA; Privacy; Law; Student; Athlete; Student-Athlete; Sex; Crime; Sexual Assault; Assault; Education; Football; Basketball; NCAA; NFL; Ohio State; Florida State; Winston; Rape; HIV; Congress; Safety; Emergency

Pedersen, Erik J.The College Student Athlete and Alcohol: A Study of the Student Athlete Use and Abuse of Alcohol Consumption
Masters in Education, Marietta College, 2007, Education
The alcohol use and abuse of college athletes is a rapidly growing concern in colleges and universities across the country. The purpose of this study was to research and evaluate a group of college student athletes at a small liberal arts college in southeastern Ohio. The researcher obtained statistical information from the student athletes at Marietta College by giving them a fifteen question survey. The researcher conducted his research the 2nd semester of 2007. The student athletes were asked to participate by completing both a confidential and anonymous survey. The survey asked questions in direct relationship to alcohol consumption and patterns of use. The statistical information was obtained with permission from the Director of Athletics and the respected coaches from the varsity teams at Marietta College. This study was designed to investigate the drinking habits of student athletes at a division 3 liberal arts college. Statistical tests were run through the data analysis program SPSS. The frequency tests indicated that Marietta College student athletes do consume alcohol; however the statistics were not as alarmingly high as other studies that have been conducted at other colleges and universities.

Committee:

Dr. Cathy Skouzes (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Health

Keywords:

Alcohol Survey; Student Athlete Alcohol Abuse; Marietta College Student Athlete Study; Alcohol Survey;and Alcohol Abuse

Craft, BrandanWhy Branding Can Increase a Professional Athlete's Value: A Rationale for Designer Engagement
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial, Interior and Visual Communic Design

Brands allow consumers to make choices. They help them differentiate one individual, business, or product from the other by delivering a promise that leads to expectations and perceptions. The value of a brand is measured by this perception.

What the consumer perceives a business to be, not the business's perception, is that business's brand. Designers play a large part in influencing this perception by creating brand identity systems that become the tangible expression of a business's identity. There is an opportunity for designers to play a larger role in a business's success by capitalizing on the increasing reliance on branding to assist in wealth generation.

Professional athletes are small businesses. They are distinct individuals that ultimately rely on their fans to build wealth. The fan's perception of an athlete, that athlete's brand, influences the differentiation of one player from another. The decision to invest in the brand, whether it is to watch a game on television, buy tickets to the game, or purchase a player's jersey after the game, rests on this perception. Designers can help professional athletes formulate strategies to positively influence their brand.

Strong branding could go a long way in increasing an athlete's off-the-field opportunities. Since the career span of a professional athlete is relatively short, shared productivity between athletes and designers could generate increased, and more sustainable income for athletes. Designers could also benefit from these increased opportunities. If brands allow consumer's to make choices, designers influence what choices these consumers make with keen knowledge of consumer behavior and sound design principals.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Committee Chair); Noel Mayo (Committee Member); Peter Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Marketing

Keywords:

brand; brands; athlete; professional athlete; virtual team; designer; brand value

Baker, Frank W.Mental Toughness: Effect on Factors Associated with Injury and Illness in Adolescent Athletes
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Athletic Training (Health Sciences and Professions)
Background: High school sports participation has increased in the past decade, notably in multiple sport participation and sport specialization by adolescent athletes. Stressful circumstances during training and competition can predispose athletes to overtraining syndrome and athlete burnout. Others have used a mental toughness training program to determine how athletes handle stressors during training and competition, and whether the training positively affects factors associated with illness and injury. Objective: This study is an extension of previous research on mental toughness.1 This study measured the effect of a mental toughness intervention on mental toughness, somatic manifestation, athlete burnout, stress recognition, stress response, coping aptitude, and athletic performance. Participants: Six Caucasian male varsity track athletes from a rural public high school participated in this study. Methods: The participants completed instruments assessing mental toughness, athlete burnout, somatic manifestations, stress recognition, and stress response prior to, during, and at the conclusion of a 4-wk mental toughness intervention. The Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough) was used for assessing mental toughness. Spearman rho correlation coefficients (r) assessed the relationships between mental toughness, athlete burnout, somatic manifestations, stress response, stress recognition, and coping aptitude. A related sample Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine if the MeBTough, Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ), Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms (CHIPS), Stress Response Scale for Adolescents (SRSA), Brief Cope Inventory (BriefCOPE) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores after the intervention were significantly different than baseline scores. Results: At baseline, mental toughness displayed a negative relationship with athlete burnout (r = -0.07), somatic manifestations (r = -0.46), and stress recognition (r = -0.17). There was a decrease in somatic manifestations (P = 0.04) and athlete burnout (P = 0.04) following the intervention. Active coping (P = 0.04), use of emotional support (P = 0.04), and planning (P = 0.04) subscale scores of the BriefCOPE increased from pre- to postintervention. No significant change in mental toughness (P = 0.17), stress recognition (P = 0.34), or stress response (P = 0.71) from pre- to postintervention was observed. Increases in mental toughness resulted in enhanced performance, most noticeably by a decrease in the team’s 4 x 800 m event time by 1 min. Conclusion: Though mental toughness was inversely related to athlete burnout and somatic manifestations in these 6 rural high school track athletes, a 4-wk mental toughness intervention did not improve their mental toughness. Future studies, including a longer intervention in a larger sample of a variety of athletes, are needed to assess the true impact of the online intervention on mental toughness scores and the factors associated with overtraining injury and illness.

Committee:

Cheryl Howe, PhD (Advisor); Sheri Huckelberry, PhD (Committee Member); Chad Starkey, PhD, AT (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Health Sciences; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

mental toughness; athlete burnout; overtraining syndrome; adolescent athlete

Newell, Emily MarieThe International Student-Athlete Transition to College: Identifying Struggles and Suggestions for Support
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
International student-athletes (ISAs) are one of the fastest growing subpopulations in intercollegiate athletics, increasing at a rate that is far outpacing the overall student-athlete growth in NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletics. This growth demonstrates the increased need to study this population in terms of the experienced issues during the transition and ways in which colleges and universities, as well as intercollegiate athletic departments, can better support this population for retention and success (NCAA, 2015). This study examines the between group differences of international student-athletes and domestic student-athletes In two separate studies, this work utilized a panel of experts that work with the international student (both non-athlete and athlete) population on the campus of a large, Midwestern University in a multitude of capacities in order to develop a survey instrument that could accurately assess the transitional issues experience and support needs of the ISA population on campus through the Delphi method of consensus. The latter study utilized the survey developed through a Delphi method of consensus to sample international and domestic student-athletes, as well as international non-athletes, on one campus in order to identify significant statistical differences between the groups on items related to the transition to college and sources of academic, personal, and athletic support. Independent samples t-tests were employed to analyze the data, and comparisons were made between the international and domestic respondents that were sampled for the study. Transitional issues and sources of support found to be statistically significant in the data were applied to the recommendations proposed in the conclusion of this dissertation. Through studying both the practitioners that work with the ISA population on campus and the ISAs themselves, data was uncovered that both confirmed previous research on ISAs, international student non-athletes, and domestic student-athletes and uncovered new areas of adjustment issues related to the transition to college. This work culminates with the revision of a previous table that outlines suggestions for better support of ISAs during the transition to college that can be utilized by practitioners on campus and in the intercollegiate athletic department.

Committee:

Brian Turner, PhD (Advisor); Donna Pastore, PhD (Committee Member); Marc Johnston-Guerrero, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

student-athletes; international student-athletes; transition to college; intercollegiate athletics; student-athlete success; student-athlete academics

Grueter, Shannon R.Predicting Energy Availability in Recreational Athletes
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Exercise Physiology-Research (Health Sciences and Professions)
The purpose of this investigation was to develop a prediction equation for energy availability in recreational athletes. Fifteen apparently healthy individuals (8 females, 7 males) participated in the 7-day data collection of dietary intake and energy expenditure. The first session included a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) test, completion of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and a body composition (BOD POD) measurement; the researcher also outlined the details of the research process. Results indicated that energy availability had a number of predictors that varied based on gender. Potential predictors for the entire group included: carbohydrate (g/kg) (R2 = 0.45), fat mass (R2 = 0.73), percent contribution of fat to the diet (R2 = 0.85), exercise frequency (R2 = 0.97), and skipping of lunch (R2 = 0.99). Potential predictors for females included: body fat percentile (R2 = 0.90), percentage contribution of alcohol in the diet (R2 = 0.987), weight concern (R2 = 0.997), and percentage contribution of carbohydrate to the diet (R2 = 0.999). The potential predictor for males was carbohydrate (g/kg) (R2 = 0.44).

Committee:

Sharon Rana, PhD (Committee Chair); Michael Clevidence (Committee Member); Murray Deborah (Committee Member); Oh Hyun-Ju, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences

Keywords:

Energy availability; recreational athlete; dietary intake; energy expenditure

Drummer, Talea R.GETTING IN THE GAME: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF SECOND-YEAR STUDENT-ATHLETES’ EXPERIENCES UTILIZING EXISTING DATA OF THE 2010 SOPHOMORE EXPERIENCES NATIONAL SURVEY
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has a variety of rules and regulations that hold intercollegiate athletic departments, teams, and student-athletes accountable to the academic progression of student-athletes. Through various rules and regulations athletes must focus on academic as well as athletic responsibilities. In an era of increased Academic Progress Rate (APR) minimums and amplified penalties to teams that do not meet those minimums, it is imperative to focus on the student-athlete and find ways for athletic academic administrators, coaches, faculty, and other student-affairs personnel to support their athletes. This study utilized quantitative methods to analyze existing data of the 2010 Sophomore Experiences National Survey to examine the second-year athlete respondents (N = 376) as well as non-athlete second-year students. The methods utilized in this study included Exploratory Factor Analysis, Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, and a Comparison of Correlation Coefficients. The findings of this study suggest that second-year athletes and non-athletes need a connection to campus in order to be certain of their major and intend to re-enroll. The findings also suggest that various areas of satisfaction, goal setting, and managing difficulties can have an affect as well. Finally, athletes and non-athletes were not different on what affected how certain they are of their major; however, there were a few differences in the intent to re-enroll between athletes and non-athletes. The goal is for those who work directly with student-athletes will find ways to implement the findings and suggestions of the research to support this unique sub-population.

Committee:

Stephen Thomas, EdD (Committee Chair); Mark Kretovics, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Schenker, PhD (Committee Member); Kulics Jennifer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Sports Management

Keywords:

Athlete; Sophomore Slump; Eligibility; Major Selection; Retention; Academic Progress Rate; APR; Intercollegiate Athletics; Progress Towards Degree; College Student; Factor Analysis; Quantitative; Hierarchical Regression; Multiple Regression; NCAA

Cieslak, Thomas JDescribing and measuring the athletic identity construct: Scale development and validation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Physical Activity and Educational Services
Athletic identity has received much attention in the literature (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993; Horton & Mack, 2000; Krylowicz, 2000; Lantz & Schroeder, 1999; Ryska, 2003; Wiechman & Williams, 1997); however, several authors (e.g., Brewer & Cornelius, 2002; Hale, James, & Stambulova, 1999; Martin, Eklund, & Mushett, 1994) have mentioned the need to expand the construct. The purpose of this study was to develop a more comprehensive athletic identity framework. Specifically, this study expanded previous research by adding a factor (i.e., positive affectivity (PA)) to the framework and adding several items to previously established factors (i.e., social identity (SC), exclusivity (EX), negative affectivity (NA), and self-identity (SI)). In addition, the current study examines the relationship between athletic identity and other identities within the self (i.e., family, friendship, athletic, religious, academic, and romantic). A total of 222 participants from a university Intramural Sports program were surveyed. A panel of experts, field test, pilot test, and final sample were used to establish validity and reliability of the AIMS-Plus. Analysis of the data was conducted with SPSS and AMOS programs. The results of the analyses produced the following: 1) the descriptive statistics indicate that the PA component contributed more to the total athletic identity score followed by NA, SC, SI, and EX components; 2) the internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas) were acceptable for the five factors; 3) confirmatory factor analysis indicated the absolute fit indices and incremental fit indices showed a poor fit of the data; and 4) ANOVA indicated that high and medium athletic identifiers did not significantly differ in their rating and ranking of the relative importance of six identities with the exception of the athletic identity and romantic identity.

Committee:

Janet Fink (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Social

Keywords:

ATHLETIC IDENTITY; athlete; Sports; affectivity; Brewer

Masters, Tyler J.Subjective Well-Being, Sport Performance, Training Load and Life Experiences of College Athletes
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies /Kinesiology
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among subjective well-being (SWB), training load, life experiences, and sport performance. Method: College athletes (N=66; ages 18-24) from four sports (ice hockey, baseball, softball, swimming) at a Midwestern Division I program were categorized into higher and lower subjective well-being groups based on POMS-B total mood disturbance scores and completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and College Student Athlete Experiences Survey throughout an academic semester. The surveys were completed bi-weekly for one semester (i.e., 8 times). A coach from each program will complete a Coach's Assessment of Player Performance for each athlete. Life experiences were analyzed using MANOVA and SWLS, performance and total energy expenditure (TEE) using ANOVA. Results: Group main effects were significant for all life experiences (p<.01) as well as satisfaction with life (p<.05). College athletes with higher SWB perceived their life experiences as being less negative and reported higher satisfaction with life than individuals with lower SWB. Significant main effects for time were found for three of the four life experiences (p<.05), player performance (p<.01), coach performance (p<.01), and total energy expenditure (p<.01). The lower SWB group showed greater fluctuations in life experiences across time but similar performance and TEE throughout the semester. Conclusion: College athletes with higher SWB perceived their life experiences as being less negative than individuals with lower SWB, but contrary to expectations the two groups did not differ in performance or total energy expenditure. This investigation has provided evidence for the need to monitor SWB and the influence of life experience to ensure the psychological health of college athletes.

Committee:

David Tobar, PhD (Committee Chair); Bonnie Berger, EdD (Committee Member); Amanda Paule, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Personal Relationships; Psychology

Keywords:

Subjective Well-Being; Performance; Training Load; Life Experiences; College Athlete; Academic Pressure; Time Pressure; Social Isolation; Relationship Issues

Scanlon, Kelsey FAn Exploration of the Relationship between Menstrual Phase and Collegiate Female Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Capacities
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
INTRODUCTION: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. METHODS: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of 50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). RESULTS: Statistical significance was not observed (p>0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one way of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. CONCLUSION: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of a one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30 second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Committee:

Ellen Glickman (Committee Co-Chair); Jacob Barkley (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Health Sciences; Physiology

Keywords:

anaerobic; power output; upper body; lower body; female; menstrual cycle; follicular; luteal; athlete

Graham, Danielle N. Athletic Identity and Moral Development: An Examination of NCAA Division I Athletes and Their Moral Foundations
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2017, Educational Leadership
This study investigated the moral foundations of intercollegiate student-athletes in relation to their athletic identity, specifically with respect to student-development in college. Research has established that prolonged participation in sport contributes to the development of an athletic identity (Brewer & Cornelius, 2001; Brewer, Van Raalte & Linder, 1990; Cieslak, 2004) and countless studies have identified significant categorical differences in moral reasoning tendencies between student-athletes and non-athlete students (Bonfiglio, 2011; Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Howard-Hamilton & Sina, 2001; Lyons & Turner, 2015; Priest, Krause, & Beach, 1999). Two hundred and thirty-eight NCAA Division I intercollegiate, club sport, and intramural sport student-athletes, possessing varying degrees of athletic identity, served as participants. Athletic Identity was measured with the 7-item, 3-factor abbreviated version of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer & Cornelius, 2001), and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) (Graham, et al., 2011) was used to evaluate the moral foundations on which elite-athletes rely. Regression analyses suggested that athletic identity was significantly related to the Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity foundations of the Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) (Graham et al., 2011). ANOVA analyses indicated that female athletes scored higher on Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity than male athletes and that time (e.g., years of collegiate sporting experience) may contribute to the development of athletes’ moral orientations. The results suggest that maintaining increased degrees of athletic identity may play a role in the moral foundations on which NCAA Division I intercollegiate student-athletes rely.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Joanne Risacher, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sharon Heilmann, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Social Psychology; Sports Management

Keywords:

athletic identity; moral development; moral foundations; elite athlete

Campbell, James HDJANGOS CHAINED: UNDERSTANDING THE NARRATIVES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE STUDENT ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN DIVISION I BASKETBALL AT PREDOMINANTLY WHITE INSTITUTIONS
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
Using Critical Race Theory as a conceptual foundation, this study examined the struggle and unique tensions encountered by African American males participating in Division I basketball in the United States. Particularly, it examines those tensions associated with the inequities these athletes experience as a result of eligibility requirements, their experience of otherness, and the lack of agency. This is a qualitative analysis that uses a template analysis. The primary research question is: How do Division I African American male intercollegiate basketball players narrate their university experience and what do those narratives reveal about their understanding of the material conditions of their labor? This question aims at understanding how the players understand their experiences at their university both on and off the basketball court, but it ended up being primarily interested in their experiences with their academic life. This dissertation also provides a brief history of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and covers the rules and regulations that apply to the student-athlete. The literature addressing black masculinity, "otherness," and persistence is also presented. Some of the main findings of this study were the African American male student athletes maintain complex and contradictory perceptions of self in the academic side of their experiences, reveal a fairly consistent agreement on the right for student athletes to receive some financial remuneration for all of the revenue they create, experienced both positive and negative moments related to being Black at a Predominantly White Institution including the complexity of interracial dating, but the central finding of the study is that while these young Black men have mostly positive memories of their college experiences, they found themselves having to subsume their academic ambitions to their basketball responsibilities.

Committee:

Richard Quantz (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

African Americans; Educational Leadership; Sports Management

Keywords:

African American Male; Student Athlete; Division I; Predominantly White Institutions; Django; Critical Race and Sport; Critical Race Theory; Black Masculinity; Otherness; NCAA; Basketball; Narratives

Hada, BetsyTHE COLLEGE STUDENT-ATHLETE AND ACADEMICS: A STUDY OF THE STUDENT-ATHLETE’S GRADE POINT AVERAGE IN AND OUT OF COMPETITION SEASON
Masters in Education, Marietta College, 2006, Education
The education of the collegiate athlete is a growing concern across the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a representative group of collegiate athletes, and their success in the classroom at a mid-western college in Ohio. The researcher obtained the statistical information from the student-athletes at Marietta College. The study will encompass the 2003-2005 academic school years. The researcher compared the grade point average of the student-athletes in their competitive season to their grade point average out of season. The statistical information was acquired from the Marietta College Registrar and Athletic Director.

Committee:

Dr. Bill Bauer (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, General

Keywords:

Student-athlete; Grade point average; Marietta College

Pretz, Laura ChristineASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS IN SPORTS-RELATED CONCUSSION: INCIDENCE RATE AND RECOVERY PATTERNS
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2007, Speech Pathology and Audiology
Research has shown possible risk factors associated with a greater incidence of sports-related concussion and varying recovery patterns. This study examined athletic positions, gender, and previous history of concussion to investigate the risk factors of sustaining a concussion and of affecting an athlete’s recovery. Results are as follows: football players in offensive positions have a greater risk for sustaining a concussion than those in defensive positions; there is no difference in the severity of the concussions or in the rate of recovery between offensive and defensive football players; athletes in non-contact sports are more at risk for a concussion than those who participate in contact sports; each concussion an athlete sustains increases the risk of sustaining a future concussion by 50%; if an athlete has sustained three or more prior concussions, it is probable that more symptoms will accompany each subsequent concussion; male athletes have more symptoms than female athletes.

Committee:

Fofi Constantinidou (Advisor)

Subjects:

Speech Communication

Keywords:

CONCUSSION; athlete; sports; football; Neuropsychological; Concussed; sustaining a concussion

Grigsby, Alan V.Men on the Edge: A Qualitative Investigation of Marginality, Stress, and Social Support among Black Male Student-Athletes at a Predominantly White University
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
Drawing on data from thirteen qualitative interviews this thesis aims to understand the experiences of Black male student-athletes at a predominantly white university. Robert Park's (1928) theory of the marginal man is the guiding framework for this study. Taking the marginal man theoretical framework into mind, Black male student athletes are an interesting group to study because they occupy a unique social location,one on the margins. Respondents expressed that they experience stress and are marginalized academically, athletically, and socially. Respondents' perceptions of social support have also been recorded and analyzed. Findings suggest that the respondents view stressful experiences and subsequent experiences with social support at the university to be a consequence of a combination of their race and role as student-athletes.

Committee:

Debra Henderson, PhD (Committee Chair); Cynthia Anderson, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Vander Ven, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

African American Athlete; Black athletes; collegiate athletics; marginality; marginal man; social support;; stress; student athletes;

Hodges, Ariel C.Where Do I Play Next? A Sociological Study of Student-Athletes, Their Retirement Transition and Their Social and Emotional Support Systems
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2018, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
While previous studies have examined the identity of student-athletes, more information is needed about the identity, type of retirement and social and emotional support received during a student- athlete’s retirement when they transition from being a collegiate athlete to life post- retirement. Using interview data, the present study uses a symbolic interactionist lens and focuses on the transition process. The data suggests that despite a student-athlete’s identity being deeply entrenched, those in this study were able to have a relatively easy retirement transition. During their transition they received support from a variety of groups; the most prominent was their families. Social class is one factor that is a potential buffer during the retirement transition. Discussion centers on details of identity formation, the easiest and most difficult parts of retirement and expands on social and emotional support. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed as well.

Committee:

Rachel Terman (Committee Chair); Thomas Vander Ven (Committee Member); Christine Mattley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Social Support; Emotional Support; Student-Athletes; Collegiate Athlete; Sociology; Sociology of Sport

Rennolds, Jessica LImpact of an Educational Intervention on Female Athlete Triad Knowledge in Female Collegiate Athletes
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
The purpose of this study was to determine if an educational intervention for female collegiate athletes can improve knowledge of the female athlete triad. The participants of the study were 49 female collegiate athletes from Kent State University, an NCAA affiliated university. A Triad Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ) was distributed to four teams during the first week of this study and again during the following week. After the first administration of the TKQ, one team received an educational presentation, one team an educational handout, one team received both the presentation and handout, and the final team served as the control with no educational intervention given. The TKQ was administered again the following week to determine if there was a difference in female athlete triad knowledge among the different intervention groups. The results of the study indicated there was a significant difference (p < .001) between groups on TKQ posttest performance. Furthermore, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant improvement (p < .001) between pretest and posttest scores for the intervention groups. Overall, the findings of this study revealed that an educational intervention for female collegiate athletes improved knowledge of the female athlete triad.

Committee:

Amy Miracle (Advisor); Karen Gordon (Committee Member); Tanya Falcone (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences; Nutrition

Keywords:

female athlete triad, female collegiate athletes, educational intervention

Nyman, EdwardThe Effects of an OpenNI / Kinect-Based Biofeedback Intervention on Kinematics at the Knee During Drop Vertical Jump Landings: Implications for Reducing Neuromuscular Predisposition to Non-Contact ACL Injury Risk in the Young Female Athlete
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Exercise Science
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the validity and effectiveness of a prototype real-time Kinect-based biofeedback and screening system (KBBFSS) during drop vertical jump (DVJ) ACL injury prevention training in young female athletes. We hypothesized that KBBFSS would be both valid and reliable as compared with traditional MOCAP, and that a four-week intervention using KBBFSS would be effective at improving landing kinematics. Methodology: 24 female gymnasts were randomized into control (CTRL) or Kinect-based biofeedback (KBF) groups. Eight of the subjects were additionally randomized into a validation subset. Subjects were grouped as high risk or normal risk using a novel risk stratification algorithm. Custom KBBFSS software afforded on-screen representation of limb and joint segments responding intuitively and immediately to subject movement. Subjects performed twenty 30cm drop landings three days per week for four weeks, wherein KBF subjects used the KBBFSS to augment landing mechanics, while CTRL subjects did so without KBBFSS. Alpha-level was set a priori at p≤0.05. Results: KBBFSS results were valid for pre (r=0.963) and post (r=0.897) knee flexion, and pre (r=0.815) and post (r=0.916) knee separation distance as compared with MOCAP. Knee flexion change score was statistically different between groups (p=0.001) and effect size was large (d= 1.618), power of 0.93. Knee separation distance change score was statistically different (p=0.024) between groups, with moderate effect size (d=0.99) and power of 0.73. KBF group reduced peak vGRF more than controls, with large effect size (d=1.84). KBF decreased peak bilateral frontal plane valgus knee moment more than controls, with moderate effect size (d=0.44). Correlations between pre-training RQS and changes in knee flexion and separation distance for high risk subjects were moderate. Conclusion: KBBFSS kinematic values are valid and KBF intervention significantly improved non-contact ACL injury risk knee kinematics. The RQS algorithm moderately predicted outcome measures, supporting previously established postulations that individuals who are at greatest functional risk of non-contact ACL injury stand to gain the greatest benefit from intervention. Though further research is warranted, in particular longitudinally, this new clinically-deployable tool may be effective in combating non-contact ACL injury in female adolescent athletes.

Committee:

Barry Scheuermann, PhD (Committee Chair); Charles Armstrong, PhD (Committee Member); Martin Rice, PhD (Committee Member); Vijay Goel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomechanics; Computer Science; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Rehabilitation; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

ACL; Kinect; OpenNI; Biofeedback; Knee Injury; Gymnastics; Female Athlete; Injury Prevention; Biomechanics

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