Search Results (1 - 25 of 2277 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Peters, Dale A.A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE WORK ANALYSIS: TRANSFORMING A STATIC REPORT INTO AN INTERACTIVE INTERFACE
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Psychology
This paper describes how Cognitive Work Analysis was applied during the design and development of the DARS Interactive Audit. Each of the five phases of Cognitive Work Analysis is presented, with detailed accounts of how the standard process was adapted for the domain. In conclusion, the software implementation resulting from Cognitive Work Analysis is described.

Committee:

Leonard Mark (Advisor)

Keywords:

Cognitive Work Analysis; DARS; DARwin; Interactive Audit; Work Domain Analysis; Control Task Analysis; Strategies Analysis; Social Organization and Cooperation Analysis; Worker Competencies Analysis

Niti, DuggalRetail Location Analysis: A Case Study of Burger King & McDonald’s in Portage & Summit Counties, Ohio
MA, Kent State University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
There has been a growing interest among the academia and the private sector for the use of GIS techniques in the analysis and planning of retail store network. Over the past few decades the methodologies used for research of sighting of retail outlets have become more sophisticated as a result of applicable modeling procedures being developed with GIS. This study conducts a retail location analysis of the relationship between the fast-food store performance of McDonald’s and Burger King and the various spatial and socio-economic factors of their respective catchment areas. Analytical procedures in GIS and statistical techniques have been applied to carry out the analysis in this study. Study areas have been partitioned into a set of Thiessen polygons and into various spatial configurations using variable buffer polygons to emulate various spatial configurations of catchment areas (i.e., trade areas) associated with each fast food store. The socio-economic profiles in the partitioned polygons have been analyzed with a series of regression models. The result of the study has brought out a better understanding of how location factors influence the performance of the stores as well as how the socio-economic attributes of the catchment areas affect the store revenues.

Committee:

Jay Lee (Advisor)

Keywords:

Retail Location Analysis; geographic information systems (GIS); Statistical Analysis; Regression Analysis; Geocoding; Catchment Area Analysis; Buffer Polygons; Thiessen Polygons; McDonald's; Burger King; Fast Food Restaurants; Overlay Analysis

Stakleff, Brandon AlexanderMapping the Future of Motor Vehicle Crashes
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2015, Civil Engineering
To reduce the occurrence of motor-vehicle crashes, professionals in education, enforcement, and engineering are continually tasked with implementing safety solutions. Identifying locations of high rates of crashes allows safety solutions to more adequately target their intended audience. This research examines advances in identifying hot spots of motor-vehicle crashes. These advancements come from improving: 1) the calculation of spatial autocorrelation and interpolation, 2) the identification of spatio-temporal patterns, and 3) the influence of geographical patterns on the spatial distribution of crashes. Overall, by improving the hot spot analysis, concerned professionals may be better prepared and lower the number of alcohol-related crashes. The location of hot spots is important in the implementation of enforcement campaigns. A lapse in accuracy may allow a vehicle operator suspected of disobeying traffic laws from being properly disciplined. Improvements in the calculation of spatial autocorrelation and interpolation result from the use of network distances instead of Euclidean based distances. Network based distances increase the accuracy of resulting hot spots. With the accuracy of hot spots improved, the optimal times to implement safety campaigns in their identified areas become important. Many hot spots purely analyze crashes as if they all occurred at the same time. By investigating crashes in this manner, some key influences may be lost and the efficiency of the implemented campaign may be reduced. Spatio-temporal hot spot are examined and show that as time progresses, clusters of crashes occur and disappear throughout space. By moving campaign sites as the location of crashes move, the overall efficiency of campaign tactics would benefit. Hot spots of crashes have continually been scrutinized for their focus on areas of large populations. In an effort to rectify this belief, the normalization of hot spot is examined in relation to population density. It is found that the strict use of population density provides unfavorable results. Instead, the identification of hot spots through either the frequency or societal crash costs varies the resulting hot spot location. Using crash frequency allows for high visibility/mass target campaigns to best be realized. Meanwhile, the use of societal costs best targets high valued crash occurrences.

Committee:

William Schneider IV, Dr. (Advisor); Stephen Duirk, Dr. (Committee Member); Anil Patnaik, Dr. (Committee Member); Scott Sawyer, Dr. (Committee Member); Mark Fridline, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Transportation

Keywords:

Alcohol-Related Crashes; Crash Analysis; Spatial Analysis; Spatio-Temporal Analysis; Hot Spot Analysis

Simons, Kevin J.The Work Process of Research Librarians: Implementation of the Abstraction-Decomposition Space
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2005, Psychology
Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is a method of understanding and documenting the constraints inherent in a work domain, irrespective of the actions undertaken within the work domain and the actors who undertake them. CWA has been applied successfully in a variety of settings to create tools that make the underlying goals and constraints of the system more apparent, and allow a worker the flexibility to perform his or her job in a manner appropriate to the current conditions, without being restricted to a particular task flow. Additionally, CWA has been the subject of numerous publications. However, detailed descriptions of the steps involved in a CWA have not been published. This dissertation documents a process of creating an abstraction-decomposition space (ADS), the cornerstone of CWA, based on semi-structured protocol analysis with six university librarians. An analysis of the optimal number of participants for such research is also presented. Finally, insight into the work domain of research librarians, based on the resultant ADS, is discussed.

Committee:

Marvin Dainoff (Advisor)

Keywords:

Cognitive Work Analysis; CWA; Abstraction-Decomposition Space; ADS; Decision Ladder; Work Domain Analysis; WDA; Task Analysis; Information Research; Librarian; Library Science; Information Science; Protocol Analysis

Jiang, HaiThe Effect of Amplitude Control and Randomness on Strongly Coupled Oscillator Arrays
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2009, Electrical Engineering

Phased arrays have many applications such as Radar Communication, Satellite Communication, and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). For the traditional phased array, a phase shifter is used with each antenna element to establish a constant phase progression along the antenna array. A constant phase progression will force the electromagnetic wave to add up so that the energy would radiate at a particular angle with respect to the array. However, it is difficult to integrate the bulky phase-shifters in the monolithic module, especially when the application involves a large number of elements. This dissertation studies an alternative phase beam-scanning technique using arrays of coupled oscillators (COA), which avoids the use of phase shifters. This technique of COA may reduce the complexity of phase control circuits and provide for a phased array of lower volume and weight. Consequently, it simplifies the architecture of the T/R module and reduces the overall cost.

In this work, dynamic equations of the nonlinear COA with arbitrary coupling networks are derived using both time and frequency domain methods. From the dynamic analysis, it is shown that the phase distribution along the array, and hence the beam scanning angle of the array, can be controlled by free running frequencies of the coupled oscillators. The stability and nonlinear behaviors of synchronized coupled oscillators are studied via the nonlinear control theory and applied to radar beam scanning arrays. Analysis indicates that a stable, unique equilibrium point exists when choosing a specific set of free running frequencies, and it is associated with the desired phase shift but within a given range.

By means of previous dynamic analysis, effects of amplitude dynamics are studied for COAs with uniform, triangular and Chebyshev amplitude distributions. The array with different coupling strengths, nonlinear parameters, and synchronization frequencies are considered. Results demonstrate that beam shapes and SLLs can be controlled for the coupled oscillator array using strong coupling. The influence of the random, free-running frequency distribution of the phase error in COAs, which causes the phase shift error and hence the error of main beam scanning angle (EMBSA), is also investigated through a Monte Carlo analysis. It is found that strongly COAs are more robust than weakly COAs under the same level of randomness in free running frequencies. Furthermore, when random deviations become larger, the robustness of strongly COA is especially obvious.

Committee:

Robert Penno (Advisor); Guru Subramanyam (Committee Member); Raul Ordonez (Committee Member); Muhammad Islam (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Coupled Oscillator Array; Phased Array; Amplitude Control; Dynamic Analysis; Stability Analysis; Transient Analysis; Robust Analysis; Effects of Amplitude Dynamics; Error of Main Beam Steering Angle; Strong Coupling; Monte Carlo Simulation.

Swaro, James E.A Heuristic-Based Approach to Real-Time TCP State and Retransmission Analysis
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
This study focuses on understanding how to classify out-of-order network traffic sent using the Transport Control Protocol(TCP). Packets that arrive out of order are the result of network reordering or loss recovery. TCP initiates loss recovery in response to the perceived loss of data, decreasing the congestion window and throughput of the connection. When TCP reacts poorly to loss, throughput may drop, latency may increase, and congestion collapse may occur. This thesis analyzes TCP traffic from an arbitrary observation point in a network, rather than at the TCP endpoint. Observing traffic at a TCP endpoint inhibits the inference of loss and detection of network reordering in one direction of the connection. Alternatively, observing traffic at an arbitrary point between two TCP endpoints allows inference of loss and detection of network reordering in both directions. Positioning the observation point at an arbitrary point can increase the diversity of observed connections, increasing the likelihood of detecting rare forms of aberrant behavior. In this paper, several algorithms and heuristics for classification of out-of-order TCP traffic are analyzed and implemented in a new TCP traffic analyzer called tcprs. An in-depth analysis of each algorithm and heuristic is given and compared with the results from tcptrace and tcpcsm. It was found that tcprs achieves an improvement in classification accuracy as compared with tcptrace and tcpcsm.

Committee:

Shawn Ostermann, Ph.D. (Advisor); David Juedes, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeffery Dill, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Hans Kruse, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

TCP; bulk trace analysis; traffic analysis; tcprs; retransmission analysis; network reordering analysis; congestion state detection; fine-grained retransmission detection

Tussing, Timothy MarkAnalysis of Effects on Sound Using the Discrete Fourier Transform
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Mathematics

The purpose of this study was to show how mathematics can be used to analyze effects on sound. Our hope is that this may inspire student interest in mathematics.

We analyzed five common industry standard effects. Research data was gathered using Mathematica and GarageBand software. Three versions of each effect were used to alter pure tone sound waves of ten different frequencies using GarageBand. Then using Mathematica's Fourier command, the frequency spectrum of each altered sound wave was generated. Through observation of each set of 30 frequency spectra, the most prominent and common pure tone components were determined. For each effect, Mathematica's Fit command was used to determine a best fit model of the magnitude of each component as a function of frequency.

Our models provide descriptions of the effects that are consistent with the traditional descriptions of the industry standard effects in our study. If similar research is to be conducted, our recommendation is that more versions of each effect, a wider range of input frequencies, and a higher sampling rate would produce function models that are even more consistent with traditionally accepted effect descriptions. Furthermore, an understanding of the hardware and software design used to build effects on sound is highly recommended.

Committee:

Bart Snapp (Advisor); Herb Clemens (Committee Chair); James Cogdell (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics Education

Keywords:

mathematics; mathematics education; sound; music; discrete; sound wave; Fourier transform; discrete Fourier transform; analysis; harmonic analysis; frequency spectrum; spectral analysis; Fourier analysis; mathematics and music; mathematics of sound

Thozhal, RijoAutomated ECG Analysis for Characteristics of Ischemia from Limb Lead MLIII Using the Discrete Hermite Transform
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2015, Biomedical Engineering
An important driving force in the human circulatory system is the heart. The electrical activity of the heart can be recorded as P, Q, R, S and T waves that constitute an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The main method used in this thesis involves the discrete Hermite Transform (DHmT) that provides shape analysis for ECG signals. Earlier work proved that the DHmT method of characterizing ischemia from ECGs was fast and accurate for the ECG signals from precordial lead V4. Myocardial ischemia is a lack of oxygen flow to heart tissue exhibited in ECGs through different shapes. This thesis extends that analysis to limb lead MLIII to characterize ischemia. When used with other leads, analysis of MLIII confirms ischemic characteristics for particular arteries. This work is important because cardiologists tend to characterize such events using different standard ECG leads. The ECG signal shapes can be characterized by a new digital signal transform that is shape-based: the discrete Hermite transform (DHmT), method discovered by Mugler et al. (2000). An online archived database (http://physionet.org) is used for obtaining ECG waveforms from the European ST-T databank. These signals are computationally analyzed using MATLAB programming. The DHmT and related methods are applied to quickly and accurately identify characteristics of ischemia in ST segments. Heartbeats that show artifacts or abnormalities are not included in the analysis. The speed of the computation is such that a 2-hour ECG recording can be processed in 2.19 minutes on a standard PC. It tailors the analysis to the individual patient. The analysis concentrates on MLIII to determine the ischemic characteristic shapes of ST depression and elevation. The results show that high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value are given by this method when applied to ischemic episodes. It is believed that this research into MLIII is the first of its kind.

Committee:

Dale Mugler, Dr. (Advisor); Narender Reddy, Dr. (Committee Member); Yang Liu, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research

Keywords:

Electrocardiogram; ECG; ECG analysis; discrete Hermite transform; DHmT; ischemia; pre-diagnostic tool; modified limb lead III; MLIII; MATLAB; signal processing; beat analysis; HRV; episode analysis; PhysioNet

Alsaqqa, ObadaFuzzy Time-Delay Model in Fault-Tree Analysis for Critical Path Method
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Civil Engineering
Construction projects are always expected to be delayed, but the likelihood of a delay varies between projects because of the particular circumstances and schedule for that project. It is usually left to the scheduler to estimate these future circumstances of the project when preparing the schedule and determining the duration of the project. However, the schedule of the Critical Path Method (CPM) does not indicate the factors that are assumed to participate in determining the likelihood for delay. These deterministic durations, apart from the relationship between the activities, are the dominant contributor to the critical path in the CPM calculation. Risk management focuses on the processes that are considered critical, although delay may emerge from non-critical paths. In this study, a new fuzzy model is proposed to provide a subjective assessment of the likelihood of delay for activities in different periods. Using this model, the scheduler’s assessment of the likelihood of delay for each activity can be combined to determine the likelihood of a project delay. This process is done utilizing fuzzy logic and fault-tree analysis and is then combined with the CPM schedule of the project. The result is a fuzzy fault-tree that shows the potential delay of the project and its contributing paths. Applying this method on a sample project, the results show that risk of delay comes not only from critical paths but also from non-critical paths. Consequently, the CPM schedule duration can be reevaluated such that the project can be rescheduled to account for the new findings and, at the very least, the risk of delay can be accounted for.

Committee:

Fabian Tan (Advisor); Tarunjit Butalia (Committee Member); Rachel Kajfez (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Logic; Management; Mathematics; Operations Research

Keywords:

Construction Management; CPM; Delay Likelihood; Fault Tree Analysis; FFTA; FTA; Fuzzy Fault Tree; Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis; Fuzzy Logic; Fuzzy Model; PERT; Project Delay; Risk Management; Scheduling; Time Delay Analysis; Time Overrun; Uncertainty

MARISARLA, SOUJANYASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF AN EQUIVALENT BOX-WING REPRESENTATION OF SENSORCRAFT JOINED-WING CONFIGURATION FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE, LONG-ENDURANCE (HALE) AIRCRAFT
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Mechanical Engineering
The current research focuses on studying the modal response of a joined wing aircraft based on the Sensorcraft configuration. Sensorcraft, a class of High-Altitude, Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft, is an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), and is being studied by the AFRL for applications involving telecommunication relay, environmental sensing and military reconnaissance. The Sensorcraft is designed to operate at high altitudes (60,000 ft) with low speed and for long durations of time (60 to 80 hours). At these operating conditions, the density, and hence, the Reynolds number, is low. These conditions require the Sensorcraft to operate with high lift and low drag with high-aspect ratio wings. Moreover, the vehicle must be lightweight and strong, and offer high aerodynamic performance and efficiency. The AFRL has identified a diamond shape joined wing configuration for Sensorcraft due to the primary structural advantage of strength as each wing braces the other against lift loads.The University of Cincinnati (UC), along with its partners, AFRL and Ohio State University are working together to study the complete nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of the joined-wing model. At UC, four different structural modeling approaches were adopted for analysis. The current research focuses on the analysis of an in-house Sensorcraft joined wing model developed by the AFRL. This model is an equivalent representation of the actual 3-D joined wing model. The wing is idealized as a box structure consisting of shells, rods, beams, shear panels and concentrated masses. This box wing structure has the advantage of being computationally inexpensive over the full 3-D model, and has been optimized to minimize the deflections of the antennae equipment in the control surface of the wing. The fluid loads applied on the box-wing structure are obtained from a concurrent aerodynamic analysis for different mach numbers and angles of attack performed at UC.A modal representation is obtained for different operating boundary conditions as the first step in the overall aeroelastic analysis of the joined wing. AFRL has obtained the modal representation for the Sensorcraft model using NASTRAN, and as part of the DAGSI project requirement, the structural analyses at UC are performed using ANSYS. The results are compared with those from NASTRAN and the correctness of the methodology is verified. Prior to the NASTRAN box-wing model translation into ANSYS, a number of validation tests are performed to test the consistency between the functionalities of the ANSYS elements and NASTRAN elements. Once the results of the validation test cases are found to be satisfactory, the actual analysis of the joined wing is performed for clamped, rigid and symmetry boundary conditions at the wing roots. The frequencies were found to be different between the two codes for each of these boundary conditions. In order to trace the issue causing the differences in the results, a number of simpler joined wing models are analyzed. Finally, the problem is traced down to differences in the formulation between the constraint equations in ANSYS and RBE1 elements in NASTRAN.Due to the assumption of small deflections, linear static analysis is performed and considered sufficient for predicting the displacement response. However, a nonlinear analysis is also performed to validate the assumptions of linearity that have been used in the modeling of the wing. The tip deflection from linear is estimated to be 5.3 % of the span of the wing. For higher angles of attack, the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing is higher, and consequently the lift forces are greater in magnitude. This could cause larger deformation in the main wing that could potentially lead to buckling of the aft wing. Hence, an eigenvalue buckling analysis is performed which show that the wing is stable and not prone to buckling for the loads employed for the linear static analysis. A procedure is also established to determine the structural response under time varying aerodynamic loads from the CFD analysis. This analysis serves as a starting point for future complete aeroelastic analysis of the joined wing.

Committee:

Dr. Urmila Ghia (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Finite Element Analysis; Structural Analysis; Modal Analysis; Box-Wing; Joined-Wing

Oet, Mikhail VFinancial stress in an adaptive system: From empirical validity to theoretical foundations
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Management
A review of financial system stress measures reveals not only the absence of theory on financial stress, but also the absence of search for theory. To remedy this gap, this study conducts a rigorous investigation of the empirical validity and dynamic properties of financial stress measurement in the context of financial system complexity. We provide and validate four contributions to literature. First, we establish the relevance and comparative quality of macro-level stress measurement for the financial system relative to alternative measures of system conditions. Second, we establish theoretical foundations for measuring financial stress across multiple units of analysis. This measure builds on the understanding of stress origins and drivers and incorporates price, quantity, and behavioral variables to explain the pattern of apparently irrational choices of financial agents. At the macro-level, stress is supported empirically by hypotheses of association between behavioral aspects of heterogeneous financial agents and overall financial system stress. At the micro-level, we apply abductive inference to the empirical results to propose a new theoretical stress measure for heterogeneous agents and instruments. Defining financial stress theoretically allows continual measurement of financial stress at the level of the various heterogeneous partitions of the financial system (e.g. agents and instruments) as these partitions evolve through structural changes and financial innovations. Third, we build a theory of stress transmission across micro-level of sectoral agents to the macro-level of the financial system. This theory describes a process of stress transmission across financial intermediaries and the process by which its agent stress escalates to the financial system. Fourth, we examine the process by which unusual conditions in the financial markets manifest as critical states of financial system stress.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen (Committee Chair); Lucia Alessi (Committee Member); Agostino Capponi (Committee Member); Myong-Hun Chang (Committee Member); Corinne Coen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Banking; Economics; Finance; Management

Keywords:

financial stress; heterogeneous agents; empirical validity; factor analysis; dynamic factors, stochastic analysis; content analysis

Joa, YoungnyoA Hyperlink and Sentiment Analysis of the 2016 Presidential Election: Intermedia Issue Agenda and Attribute Agenda Setting in Online Contexts
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Media and Communication
This study investigated the intermedia agenda-setting dynamics among various media Twitter accounts during the last seven weeks before the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Media Twitter accounts included in analysis were those of print media, television networks, news magazines, online partisan media, online non-partisan media, and political commentators. This study applied the intermedia agenda-setting theory as the theoretical framework, and network analysis and computer-assisted content analysis enabling hyperlink and sentiment analysis as the methods. A total of 5,595,373 relationships built via Tweets among media Twitter accounts was collected. After removal of irrelevant data, a total of 16,794 relationships were used for analysis. The results showed that traditional media Twitter accounts, such as print media and television networks, play roles in the Tweeting network by bridging isolated media Twitter accounts, and are located in the center of networks, so that information reaches them quickly; further, they are connected to other important accounts. Together with the changes in the volume of Tweeting that signaled media interest, the set of popular URLs and keywords/word pairs in Tweets also served as sensors that detected media Twitter accounts’ interest about that time. The results also supported the previous research findings that, as political events, the debates affect the production and dissemination patterns of news. Not only did the volume of Tweeting produced spiked immediately after each debate, but various types of hyperlinks and sentiment words used in Tweets increased as well. The number of negative sentiment words observed in the Tweeting network surpassed the number of positive sentiment words observed in the Tweeting network across different time points, and the gap between them decreased as the election approached. The use of positive and negative sentiment words differed across different media Twitter account categories. Online non-partisan media reported the highest use of positive sentiment words, while political commentators reported the highest level of negative sentiment word use. With respect to sentiment contagion, this study found the influence of online media and partisanship on intermedia agenda-setting dynamics within Twitter. Lastly, there were more evident individual agenda setters that affected negative sentiment contagion in multiple media categories, while in positive sentiment contagion, there was no distinctive media Twitter account found. The results advocated a multimethod approach to explore the dynamics of intermedia agenda-setting and sentiment contagion within Twitter. Limitations and future research were addressed as well.

Committee:

Gi Woong Yun, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Kate Magsamen-Conrad, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Sung-Yeon Park, PhD (Committee Member); Bill Albertini, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism; Mass Communications

Keywords:

2016 US Presidential Election; Intermedia Agenda Setting; Sentiment Contagion; Twitter Data Analysis; Sentiment Analysis; Network Analysis

Veruttipong, Paktra Lawhanuwat,The design and construction of a centrifugal chromatograph with electrochemical detection and enzymatic analysis applications of a multichannel electrochemical centrifugal analyzer /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1984, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Chemistry

Keywords:

Chromatographic analysis;Electrochemical analysis;Enzymes--Analysis;Centrifuges

Kim, Amy Chan HyungKnowledge Structure in Sport Management: Bibliometric and Social Network Analyses
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
Over 250 sport management degree programs and over 25 academic journals are in existence currently. Despite the dramatic growth of academic programs and publications, as a relatively young academic field, there are ongoing debates on diverse issues such as definition, boundary, and methodology in the field of sport management (Chalip, 2006; Costa, 2005; Pitts, 2001, Quatman & Chelladurai, 2008; Slack, 1998). Reflecting the notions of Kuhn (1970), the field of sociology of science has contributed to provide insights on these ongoing issues in academic fields. Based on the ontological and epistemological foundations of the social construction of knowledge in sociology of science, this study identified critical concepts and paradigms and explored the structural patterns of those concepts in knowledge structure of sport management. For this, the study employed bibliometric analysis and social network analysis on keywords and citations data retrieved from the articles of the Journal of Sport Management between 1997 and 2010. Embracing the advantages of the multilevel design, this study conducted two different levels of analyses with keywords and citations data – keyword analysis (KA) and citation analysis (CA) for individual attributes and keyword co-occurrence network analysis (KCNA) and co-citation network analysis (CCNA) for relational attributes. The findings of the study indicated that there has been a shift on trends and themes in sport management in both levels – analytical and structural levels. The results of KA and CA revealed the shift on the popularity of certain individual keywords and publications whereas the results of KCNA and CCNA disclosed the shift on the popularity of structures of groups of keywords and publications.

Committee:

Packianathan Chelladurai, Ph.D. (Advisor); Brian Turner, Ph.D. (Other); Donna Pastore, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Sports Management

Keywords:

knowledge structure; social network analysis; co-citation network analysis; keyword co-occurrence network analysis; sport management; bibliometric;

Schaab, KatharineThreatening Immigrants: Cultural Depictions of Undocumented Mexican Immigrants in Contemporary US America
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, American Culture Studies
This project analyzes how contemporary US cultural and legislative texts shape US society’s impression of undocumented (im)migrants and whether they fit socially constructed definitions of what it means to “be American” or part of the US national imaginary. I argue that (im)migrant-themed cultural texts, alongside legal policies, participate in racial formation projects that use racial logic to implicitly mark (im)migrants as outsiders while actively employing ideologies rooted in gender, economics, and nationality to rationalize (im)migrants’ exclusion or inclusion from the US nation-state. I examine the tactics anti- and pro-(im)migrant camps utilize in suppressing the role of race—particularly the rhetorical strategies that focus on class, nation, and gender as rationale for (im)migrants’ inclusion or exclusion—in order to expose the similar strategies governing contemporary US (im)migration thought and practice. This framework challenges dichotomous thinking and instead focuses on gray areas. Through close readings of political and cultural texts focused on undocumented (im)migration (including documentaries, narrative fiction, and photography), this project homes in on the gray areas between seemingly pro- and anti-(im)migrant discourses. I contend (im)migration-themed political and popular rhetoric frequently selects a specific identity marker (e.g. gender or socio-economic status—never race) and depicts it as the single factor influencing US border monitoring and defense. In order to demonstrate this argument, I place legal texts in conversation with cultural texts. Taken together, political and cultural texts show the emergent strategies for discussing undocumented (im)migration without directly discussing race or racial inequalities, as the texts deny or have purportedly resolved racial inequalities.

Committee:

Jolie Sheffer, PhD (Advisor); Susana Peña, PhD (Committee Member); Rebecca Kinney, PhD (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Ethnic Studies; Gender Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

immigration; migration; immigrant; migrant; undocumented; gender; sexuality; class; economics; cultural racism; race; nation; nationalism; xenophobia; security; localism; culture; immigration policy; discursive analysis; visual analysis; textual analysis

Sajedi, SiavashRELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF CORROSION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Civil Engineering
Chloride induced corrosion is known as the dominant cause of premature damage in reinforced concrete (RC) bridges in the United States. However, the current corrosion management strategies do not suggest a suitable procedure for performance evaluation and optimum design/repair of RC bridges in corrosive environments. Corrosion affects the integrity of the RC structure by deteriorating the material properties and the bond at the steel-concrete interface. In this study, first, a simple probabilistic model of bond strength considering corrosion effect is developed using multivariable regression technique based on a comprehensive database collected from the literature. The predictions are found to be accurate and unbiased when compared with the experimental results. The proposed bond model is employed in the nonlinear finite element models of intact and corroded RC beams to investigate the importance of steel-concrete bond modeling on evaluating flexural behavior of the beams. Then, the minimum required development length for a given corrosion level is calculated and its sufficiency is investigated through a numerical analysis. In the next step, an analytical procedure is proposed for predicting the nonlinear flexural behavior of intact and corroded RC beams with or without lap splices using the developed bond strength. The proposed analytical procedure can facilitate the performance evaluation and reliability assessment of the existing intact/corroded RC structures. The accuracy of the proposed procedure is verified through several experimental and numerical case studies. Furthermore, the proposed procedure is applied to predict the flexural behavior of intact and corroded T-beams of an RC bridge and the results are verified though the finite element analyses. Next, a module based on a reliability-based multi-objective design optimization (RB-MODO) technique using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is developed for the optimum design of RC bridge beams considering corrosion effects. The procedure simultaneously maximizes the reliability of the structure and minimizes the material costs, given a design service life. Note that the analytical procedure developed in the previous section can be incorporated into the RB-MODO technique for optimum design of the structures based on both ultimate and serviceability performances. As an illustration, the developed RB-MODO technique is used for optimum flexural design of an interior T-beam of an illustrated RC bridge with and without considering corrosion effects subjected to various design constraints and service lives. Three types of materials are used in the design process: normal strength concrete with black steel rebars (NSC-BS), normal strength concrete with epoxy coated rebars (NSC-EC), and high performance concrete with black steel rebars (HPC-BS). Then, the optimum design strategy is selected among the considered materials based on the Pareto front results obtained from the proposed RB-MODO procedure. Lastly, a reliability-based life-cycle-cost-analysis (LCCA) approach is developed to compare the long-term cost effectiveness of using six commonly-used groups of materials in design and repair of RC structures, including: NSC-BS, NSC-EC, NSC-SS (NSC with stainless steel (SS) rebars), HPC-SF-BS (high performance concrete (HPC) containing Silica Fume (SF) with BS rebars), HPC-SL-BS (HPC containing Slag (SL) with BS rebars), and HPC-FA-BS (HPC containing Fly Ash (FA) with BS rebars). A reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) technique is used for optimum initial design of the structure for each group of materials through minimizing the initial costs, given a target ultimate reliability index. Then, reliability analysis is conducted to evaluate the time-dependent serviceability and ultimate performances of the structure, and to predict the time-to repair and the number of repair operations. Lastly, LCCA is conducted to select the optimum corrosion management strategy in terms of selecting an optimum material for design and repair of the RC structures in corrosive areas.

Committee:

Qindan Huang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Corrosion; repair; steel-concrete bond; load-deflection prediction; FE analysis; reliability analysis; multi-objective optimization; life-cycle-cost-analysis; RC bridge

Zelik, Daniel JustinOn the Measurement and Visualization of Analysis Activity: A Study of Successful Strategies for Web-based Information Analysis
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering

Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) has a history built, in part, on leveraging representational design to improve system performance. Traditionally, however, CSE has focused on visual representation of "monitored" processes -- active, ongoing, and interconnected activities occurring in a system of interest and monitored by human controllers -- such as operating a power plant, controlling a petrochemical process, or monitoring a patient's respiration. In contrast, comparatively little attention has been directed toward the representation of processes in which direct monitoring and control of the process is not a central function. Of particular interest is the Macrocognitive Sensemaking process of information analysis, especially as currently practiced in the U.S. Intelligence Community.

In addressing how to effectively represent such processes, this research begins with a more fundamental question: "What defines high quality information analysis?" This research takes a decidedly narrow view of this issue, positing a rigid definition of analysis quality: simply, that the quality of an analysis process is, or perhaps should be, defined by the quality of the output it produces. To the extent that process measures that predict product quality can be identified, these measures yield the base data necessary for creating representations that provide outcome-diagnostic insight into analysis activities.

The relationship between measures of analytical process and assessments of analytical products was investigated via a two-part, laboratory-based, Staged World study of web-based information analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify meaningful relationships between process and product measures -- in particular automatically collectable indicators of analytic quality -- in order to enable the discovery of domain-independent techniques for representing information analysis activity. This study built on prior research with professional intelligence analysts which suggests analytical strategies that predict performance, as well as studies which found that providing insight into analytical activities represents a potentially strong mechanism for influencing perceptions of rigor.

In the first part of the study, participants used a computer workstation configured with a standard web browser to perform one or more web-based analysis tasks under variable scenario conditions. In the second part of the study, a separate pool of participants used a modified Q-sort method to assess the relative quality of the analysis products generated by participants in the first part. These independent assessments were combined to yield a measure of concordance, which served as a critical component for assessing the overall quality of products generated by the first set of participants. The data were then analyzed by comparing process measures collected during the first part of the study to product assessments that were generated during the second part.

This study found that automatically collected measures of information analysis activity both predicted performance and differentiated between analytical strategies. In addition, the results suggest applications for the research method beyond the scope of this study and implications on visualizing information analysis activity that extend across domains. Finally, the findings suggest several novel insights that should refine how CSE conceptualizes and measures expertise in naturalistic information analysis, specifically, and in Macrocognitive Sensemaking more broadly.

Committee:

David Woods, PhD (Advisor); Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Emily Patterson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

information analysis; intelligence analysis; analysis process; sensemaking; rigor; cognitive systems engineering; staged-world study; representation aiding; representational design; insight provenance

NARAYANAN, VIJAYSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SHELL WING MODEL FOR JOINED-WING CONFIGURATION
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Mechanical Engineering
The focus of the current research is to analyze the structural behavior of a joined wing aircraft based on Sensorcraft configuration. The joined-wing aircraft is an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) and is being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for High-Altitude and Long-Endurance (HALE) missions. HALE aircraft typically find applications in telecommunication relay, environmental sensing and military reconnaissance. The Sensorcraft is designed to operate at high altitudes (60,000 ft) with low speed (300- to 400-knot range) and for long durations of time (60 to 80 hours). At these operating conditions, the density, and hence, the Reynolds number, is low. These conditions necessitate a wing operating with high lift and low drag with high-aspect ratio wings. Moreover, the vehicle must be lightweight and strong, and offer high aerodynamic performance and efficiency. The wings are thus slender and flexible and undergo large deflections during flight. The diamond shape of the joined wing has the primary structural advantage of strength as each wing braces the other against lift loads. The AFRL team has developed an in-house Sensorcraft joined-wing model. The University of Cincinnati (UC), along with its partners, AFRL and Ohio State University are working together to study the complete nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of the joined-wing model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed and the aerodynamic loads acting on the model have been determined. While four different structural models are currently analyzed at UC, the current research focuses on creating and analyzing a reinforced shell joined wing model. Unlike the conventional box-wing models, the reinforced shell wing model has the same shape as that of the aerodynamic model. Here two different models have been created and analyzed. In the first model, the surface mesh for the structure is the same as the grid used for CFD analysis, and hence the pressure loads are applied to the structure accurately without the need for performing load interpolation. The reinforcements are constructed identical to the box-wing model provided by the AFRL. While the process of load transfer becomes trivial in this case, the major drawback of this model is that, the elements comprising the surface mesh have poor aspect ratios that prevent a nonlinear analysis from being performed. For loads corresponding to zero angle of attack, a linear analysis yields a tip deflection of 6 % of the wing span. However, at high angles of attack, the deflections can be much higher and hence a nonlinear analysis is necessary to include the effect of large deflections. Hence, another model is constructed where the aspect ratio is preserved to meet the criteria required for performing a nonlinear analysis. The surface mesh for this model is different from the surface grid used for the CFD analysis. Both linear and nonlinear analysis (taking into effect the large deformation effects) are performed on the by subjecting the structure to a range of uniformly distributed pressure loads that are normally encountered during flight conditions. The model is analyzed for several different load cases, each case representing the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. For higher loads, the linear analysis was found to under-predict the deflection by almost 12 %. The wing skins were found to wrinkle under high stress levels, while a linear analysis did not show any skin buckling for the same load condition. This study concludes that for accurate analysis of aeroelastic behavior, it is necessary to include geometric nonlinearities in the structural solution. A modal analysis is also carried out to determine the free vibration modes of the structure that would serve as an initial step for future dynamic analyses to study the flutter behavior of the joined wings. Finally, this research concludes by stating that in the future, a comprehensive design optimization study may be necessary to obtain the right balance between mass and stiffness and this optimized structural model may be coupled with the aerodynamic model inside a Multi-Disciplinary Computing Environment (MDICE) for complete aeroelastic analysis of the joined wing model.

Committee:

Dr. Urmila Ghia (Advisor)

Keywords:

Structural Analysis; Joined Wings; High-Altitude Long-Endurance Aircraft; Sensorcraft; Geometric Nonlinear Analysis; Modal Analysis

Singh, Bhanu PratapKNOWLEDGE-GUIDED METHODOLOGY FOR SOFT IP ANALYSIS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, EECS - Computer Engineering
Demand for increasing functionality in handheld devices is driving integration of more functions (IPs) into System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. The development of such complex designs poses new challenges to the semiconductor industry in terms of productivity gaps and risks meeting quality and time-to-market goals. In SoC design, these goals are critical as rapid advances in process and product technology have shortened product life cycles with a limited feasible marketing window. SoC design teams have been employing IP reuse methodology to increase their productivity and often integrate third party IPs in their system. Verification has developed into a major bottleneck in SoC design and has now reached crisis proportions. Verification involves building a complex test environment and the productivity gap affecting verification means that thorough verification of third party IPs is generally not done. In practice, there are risks involved in using a third party IP as bugs may creep in due to versioning issues, poor documentation, and mismatches between specification and RTL. As a result of this, third party IP specification and RTL must be carefully evaluated. The current state-of-the-art lacks a methodology, which captures the expertise of a design expert by providing knowledge representation, extraction and reuse schemes. New techniques are required that can leverage heuristic knowledge of design experts and uncover IP quality issues early in design cycle. Simulation based verification techniques can also be augmented by engineers understanding and knowledge of design. This work addresses the issue of third party IP analysis by providing a methodology to find correspondence between IP specification and RTL. In this research, a knowledge-based system is used to mitigate the risk of using a 3rd party IP. The methodology provides a technique to analyze IP specs and RTL, which are then cross-correlated to discover any discrepancies. The key innovative ideas in our approach are to use prior and trusted experience about designs, which include their specs and RTL code. Also, we have captured this trusted experience into two knowledge bases (KB), Spec-KB and RTL-KB. Finally, knowledge base rules are used to cross-correlate the RTL blocks to the specs. We apply our knowledge-based system to analyze a third party soft IP, provided by its RTL code description and a trusted specification document. The third party IP analysis involves a rule-based search process, which checks the existence of trusted design properties in an untrusted design. Our validation approach complements existing IP validation techniques and acts as a spec vs. RTL lint tool with a behavioral analysis capability.

Committee:

Christos Papachristou (Committee Chair); Francis Merat (Committee Member); Daniel Saab (Committee Member); Hongping Zhao (Committee Member); Francis Wolff (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

Knowledge Base System, Soft IP Analysis, Expert System, Specification Analysis, RTL Analysis, Specification to RTL correspondence

Bellman, Sacha DeVroomenA STUDY OF THREE COMMUNITIES’ COMMUNICATION EFFORTS TO ENCOURAGE RECYCLING IN A CHANGING MEDIA LANDSCAPE
Master of Technical and Scientific Communication, Miami University, 2013, English
In today’s changing media landscape, communities are using multiple platforms to communicate with its residents to encourage recycling participation. This study looks at the way communities are keeping up with the changes and finding new ways to communicate with residents about recycling. The study includes rhetorical and textual analysis of each community’s Web sites, social media and traditional media sources.

Committee:

Michele Simmons, Ph. D. (Advisor); Jean Lutz, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Prytherch David , Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Environmental Studies; Technical Communication

Keywords:

Recycling; technical communication; rhetorical analysis; textual analysis; visual analysis; recycling participation; Web sites; social media; Rumpke; Colerain Township; New York; Hamilton, Ohio;

Miller, Ian TimothyProbabilistic finite element modeling of aerospace engine components incorporating time-dependent inelastic properties for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2006, Applied Mathematics
The research included in this abstract pertains to probabilistic finite-element creep analysis of a composite combustor liner. A composite combustor liner is an aerospace engine component that is subjected to very high temperatures, ranging between 1500 - 2100 degrees Fahrenheit. A creep analysis of this component is essential for rational design as creep (a slow time-dependent information under constant load) is prevalent at high temperatures. In a probabilistic analysis, many, if not all, of the state variables are represented by random variables with appropriate probability distributions incorporating relevant parameters. This formalism is much more realistic, as it more accurately describes the variability in properties and loadings that are inherent in the composition of aerospace materials and loadings encountered by aerospace components.

Committee:

Ali Hajjafar (Advisor)

Keywords:

Creep Analysis; Reliability Analysis; Aerospace Engine Components; Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials; Finite Element Analysis

Wu, GuangxiAnalyses and Applications of Thermoelectric Modules: Electrically Parallel and Serial Structures
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EECS - Electrical Engineering
Conventional thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are composed of n-type and p-type thermoelectric (TE) legs connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The development of TE technology based on the traditional TEM structure has been limited by its low efficiency and high cost. Most of ongoing research nowadays focuses on developing new TE materials that have higher intrinsic efficiency. This research analyzes the TE problem from an electrical engineering angle. The conventional electrically serial structure considers TE legs as voltage power sources. In contrast, this research takes advantage of TE legs as current power sources, leading to an alternative TEM structure, where all TE legs are made from single type of TE material and connected in parallel both electrically and thermally. Experimental, analytical and numerical analysis have been carried out to evaluate the performance of unit modules with the newly proposed electrically parallel structure. It indicates that the modules’ figure-of-merit and energy conversion efficiency can be increased within a certain device area limit, the fabrication cost can be decreased, the power density and mechanical durability can be increased, while the temperature gradient is kept in the cross-plane direction. It can also increase the device lifetime, because on the one hand, there is no mismatch between the thermal expansion rate among TE legs. On the other hand, for serial structure, even a single break of the connection can lead to the failure of the device. However, for the electrically parallel structure, a small break of the junction will not affect the performance significantly. Meanwhile, the proposed electrically parallel structure can also benefit the back-end step-up DC-DC converter design. It can produce a higher output voltage (so a higher output power and efficiency) to the load, and possibly work under a slower switching frequency to decrease the switching energy loss. In addition, the electrically parallel structure can also stimulate innovative applications of TEM, because of its simplified multilayered device structure. An innovative TEG energy harvesting system from pavement structures has been implemented and has proved promising to periodically power low energy consumption sensors to monitor civil infrastructure’s health in the long-term.

Committee:

Xiong Yu (Advisor); Christian Zorman (Committee Member); Philip Feng (Committee Member); Hongping Zhao (Committee Member); Chung-Chiun Liu (Committee Member); Alp Sehirlioglu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Energy

Keywords:

Thermoelectric modules, electrically parallel structure, electrically serial structure, experimental analysis, analytical analysis, numerical analysis, innovative applications, pavement structures

Briggs, Maxwell H.Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Power Density
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58% using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a maximum piston power increase of 14%. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data showing close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

Committee:

Joseph Prahl (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Alternative Energy; Applied Mathematics; Conservation; Design; Electrical Engineering; Energy; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Mechanics; Naval Engineering; Nuclear Engineering; Technology

Keywords:

Stirling, Engine, Power Density, Energy, Free-Piston, Nodal Analysis, Isothermal Analysis, Analysis, Experimental Validation,

Olson, Travis HeathThe Governmentalities of Globalism: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Study Abroad Practices
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Educational Studies
American institutions of higher education are increasingly utilizing internationalization as a technology of competition. One of the most prominent techniques of internationalization is the promotion of study abroad program participation amongst undergraduate students. On the other hand, students are increasingly demanding opportunities for international education as they seek to make themselves more competitive in the job market. This study uses Foucauldian discourse theory and the concept of governmentality to analyze how the growing importance of study abroad is illustrative of the larger trends of neoliberalism and neocolonial mentalities within U.S. higher education and dominant society. The findings of this study indicate that while the more nefarious aspects of governmentality are in play in study abroad, there are also opportunities for transformative international and cross-cultural learning if particular care is put into program design and content.

Committee:

Tatiana Suspitsyna, Ph.D. (Advisor); Susan Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jen Gilbride-Brown, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Higher Education

Keywords:

study abroad; internationalization; policy analysis; discourse analysis; Foucault; textually oriented discourse analysis; TODA; higher education; critical theory; poststructuralism

Roberts, Alexander NelsonThe Construction of Illness Categories in Medicine and Public Policy: AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and the Problem of Reification
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Public Policy and Management
Medical diagnoses constitute the basic problem definitions around which many health-related policies are built. Among other things, they inform disease prevention efforts, help direct funding of biomedical research, and can determine who is and is not eligible for disability benefits. In recent years, a number of medical scientists have cast a critical light on “fibromyalgia,” “chronic fatigue syndrome,” and certain other diagnoses, arguing that they medicalize what are really psychosocial problems and have led to counterproductive policy interventions. Unfortunately, our capacity to evaluate this argument is limited. Policymakers tend to defer to medical scientists in interpreting illness. However, because medical scientists generally operate in the biomedical paradigm, they do not necessarily have the resources needed to fully evaluate or act on the critics’ arguments. In the first part of this dissertation, I argue that we can approach this problem from a different angle. Instead of asking what kind of problem “fibromyalgia” itself really is, we can ask whether our adoption of that problem definition was appropriate in the first place. As I demonstrate, there are standards endogenous to medico-political discourse that are supposed to govern how individual diagnostic labels are used. By formalizing these standards, and examining health policy practices in light of them, we can modulate our commitment to “fibromyalgia” and other illness definitions. This basic approach, I argue, is one that policy analysts might use in other situations involving highly unstructured problems. In the second part of this dissertation, I use this framework to evaluate the medical and policy uses of “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS), an illness construct originally defined by the CDC in 1988. Drawing on a multi-layered content analysis of about 300 medical and policy documents, and using AIDS as a comparison case, I examine whether the ways in which CFS has been used in policy discourse and practice have been consistent with the standards on illness label use. I find that often they have not been. Among other things, “CFS” has been used as an explanation for patients’ symptoms, portrayed as the cause of various social problems, and made a basis for disability benefits despite lacking the etiological content that would have justified these uses of the label. In part three, I take up the question of how it is CFS came to play this role in policy. I argue that it was through a slow process of reification. The CDC originally defined CFS as a research construct that would have to be validated later with physical findings. As medical and policy actors made repeated use of this construct, however, it became embedded in new discursive patterns that dramatically weakened the specificity of its conceptual relationship to nature. This made it possible to treat CFS as an objectively existing disease and make causal claims about it despite its lack of etiological content. This dissertation makes a number of contributions. In terms of policy recommendations, it suggests that CFS has been significantly overused as a mechanism for structuring the policy response to chronic fatigue. To prevent similar situations from arising in the future, the CDC and medical community should consider creating formal mechanisms to encourage adherence to the standards on illness label use. On a theoretical level, my findings expand our understanding of how science and politics interact in the policy process. Whereas we might think of basic scientific facts and objects as things that ground science-politics interactions, the case of CFS shows that this relationship can be reversed, with dysfunctional results.

Committee:

Jos Raadschelders (Committee Chair); Anand Desai (Committee Member); David Landsbergen (Committee Member); Alex Wendt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Medicine; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Policy

Keywords:

public policy; health policy; policy analysis; chronic fatigue syndrome; AIDS; medical diagnoses; discourse analysis; content analysis

Next Page