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Matthews-López, Joy L.Best Practices and Technical Issues in Cross-Lingual, Cross-Cultural Assessments: An Evaluation of a Test Adaptation
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2003, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)

Test adaptation is a process by which a test (or assessment instrument) is transformed from a source language and/or culture into a target language and/or culture. This dissertation includes a description of the development of GMAT® Verbal en Español, a Spanish-language adaptation of the verbal section of GMAT®, and looks closely at timing issues in the context of test adaptation.

A set of operational guidelines for producing adapted instruments, built on the foundation of recommendations from the International Test Commission and other researchers is presented. Issues of differential item functioning (DIF) and equating are addressed, including a synthesis of available literature. A discussion of other operational issues, such as the use of an international steering committee, including suggestions for forming and managing the committee, is presented. Concrete examples of adapted items are included as is an annotated set of operational guidelines. Timing issues are specifically addressed within the context of adapted instruments.

Committee:

George Johanson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Test Adaptation; Cultural Adaptation; Linguistic Adaptation; Cross-Cultural Assessment; Fairness; Validity

Gigante, Bethany MarieSALINE ADAPTATION OF THE MICROALGA Scenedesmus dimorphus FROM FRESH WATER TO BRACKISH WATER
Master of Science in Environmental Science, Cleveland State University, 2013, College of Sciences and Health Professions
The fresh water microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus is of interest in the microalgae to biofuel field. With a 26% dry weight as lipid content and a potential doubling time of 60-70 hours, it is a viable candidate for biofuel production. Recent studies have focused on optimizing the growth rate and lipid content of S. dimorphus by finding ideal light, carbon-dioxide flow rates, nutrient composition of media, pH, temperature, and implementation of various stresses in the growth environment. Adaptation of S. dimorphus to a saline environment would make it a viable biofuel stock world-wide. This saline adaptation experiment was conducted in two stages, using TSG as a unit of measurement for salt density of the growth environments. The goal for the first stage of this study was to determine if S. dimorphus was capable of adapting to increased salinity levels in a closed environment, where competition with other algal species and bacteria were limited to non-existent. The second stage of experimentation determined if the adapted S. dimorphus could survive in a large scale open, marine system. Adaptation of S. dimorphus from fresh water to brackish water was successfully completed after a 220 day semi-batch process. Adaptation to brackish water environments yielded no significant difference in growth rates when compared to fresh water environments. Adapted S. dimorphus obtained a growth rate of 0.47 ±0.14 day-1 in a 1.015 TSG small-scale, closed system environment, while the freshwater control obtained a growth rate of 0.56 ±0.05 day-1. Adapted S. dimorphus obtained a growth rate of 0.35 ±0.15 day-1 in a 1.015 TSG large-scale, open system environment, which was not statistically different from that of freshwater S. dimorphus in freshwater media, with growth rate of 0.61 ±0.31 day-1. Lipid content in the 1.015 TSG small-scale, closed system was calculated to be 23 ±10%, with the large scale, open system yielding lipid content results of 15±9%. The microalga S. dimorphus is capable of adaptation to brackish water environments with slight, but insignificant decreases in growth rate and lipid content.

Committee:

Julie Wolin, PhD (Advisor); Joanne Belovich, PhD (Committee Member); Bilal Bomani, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Biology; Botany; Environmental Science; Experiments; Sustainability

Keywords:

Scenedesmus dimorphus; salt stress; lipid; saltwater adaptation; brackish water adaptation; algal adaptation; freshwater algae; algal biomass; semi-batch; closed system; open system; growth rates; contamination

Grooms, Heather RTeam Adaptation and Mindful Boundary Management: The Dynamics of Internal and External Balancing
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Management
Teams must constantly balance internally focused interactions through Adaptation and externally focused processes of spanning boundaries to facilitate change. This dynamic of team Adaptation has not been studied. In empirical studies on team Boundary Management or Adaptation, attention is given to laboratory based experiments and field studies of new product development teams in high-tech industries. This research focuses on continuous quality improvement (QI) teams which are comprised of a dynamic and shifting set of members otherwise attuned to their professional daily activities not directly related to the project. The teams of interest operate in highly institutionalized and regulated service industries of healthcare. The overarching research question in this study asks what factors influence team adaptation and how do teams effectively achieve internal and external balance in their QI projects, and to what extent does this contribute to project success. To answer this question, a developmental sequential mixed methods study is conducted that utilizes qualitative analytics through grounded theory based theme development and thematic analysis as well as quantitative analytics of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Structural Equation Modeling. The first study is a mixed methods design utilizing a grounded theory approach for theme development followed by QCA to articulate complex causal interactions among identified factors influencing Adaptation. The sample includes 23 physicians / physician leaders / and hospital administrators who provide 39 team project examples for evaluation. The second study is a Quantitative design utilizing factor analysis to discern factors identified in study one in order to assess internal and external factor effects on Adaptation. A survey resulted in 215 responses for analysis from an expanded sample of team members in institutionally structured organizations. The third study is a Qualitative design utilizing thematic analysis to expand an understanding of the dynamic nature of Boundary Management mechanisms and team Adaptation patterns. The sample includes 13 team members providing 15 team project examples from 15 hospitals some of which are high performing teams and others are not. This research reveals that effective quality improvement project teams demonstrate Adaptation versatility by using combinations of several strategies to connect to the surrounding organization. By doing so this research contributes to the team literature as it expands descriptions of Boundary Management and Adaptation; it combines factors that have not been previously studied together and finds them to contribute to Adaptation. It also focuses on teams in situ in a context with previously limited attention. For management practice, the study provides practical explanations for team Adaptation as a process that can be mindfully guided through mechanisms of Boundary Management.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen, PhD (Committee Chair); Corinne Coen, PhD (Committee Member); David Aron, MD (Committee Member); J.B. Silvers, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management

Keywords:

Team Adaptation; Cognitive and Affective Adaptation Patterns; Team Boundary Spanning; Mindful Boundary Management Mechanisms; Strategic Alignment; Systems Thinking; Quality Improvement; Healthcare

Toole, Andrew J.The Effects of Forced Vergence Cover Tests and the Burst Vergence Response on Phoria Adaptation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Physiological Optics

Symptoms associated with binocular vision disorders are attributed to stress on the disparity vergence system. This system is composed of an open-loop burst signal that initiates changes in the ocular vergence angle, and a closed-loop sustained response that completes and maintains this angle. Disparity vergence also contains an adaptable component known as phoria adaptation (PA). The ability of the sustained response to generate PA has been extensively studied, however little is known regarding the burst signal's contribution to PA.

The phoria is the ocular angle in the absence of a disparity vergence response. However the time course for depleting PA makes measuring the true phoria challenging and is typically done by extended periods of monocular occlusion. As these extended periods of occlusion are not practical in a clinical setting, two forced vergence cover test (FVCT) procedures have previously been proposed for rapidly depleting PA and revealing the true phoria. In a series of experiments, this study evaluated these FVCT procedures and the burst vergence contribution to PA.

The FVCTs were performed before and after significant PA was generated by fifteen minutes of binocularly viewing through base-out prisms. Pre- and post-adaptation FVCT results were significantly different (p<0.01) indicating that the procedures did not eliminate existing phoria adaptation.

In a second experiment, PA generated in response to three over-convergence adapting scenarios was measured. These scenarios consisted of 30-seconds of steady fusion (steady), 3-seconds of fusion (quick-step), 27-seconds of a flashed target presentation (flash) that repeatedly presented the stimuli binocularly when subjects were under-converged, and monocularly when subject's vergence angle was near that required of the stimuli; the flash period concluded with 3-seconds of fusion. The flash period was designed to generate repeated burst vergence responses with minimal influence from the closed-loop response. Greater PA was generated by the flash period than the quick-step (p=0.025). Equivalent PA was found following the flash and the steady periods.

In conclusion, currently described FVCT procedures do not eliminate PA and thus are unlikely to reveal the true phoria. Additionally, the burst vergence response can generate significant PA.

Committee:

Nicklaus Fogt, PhD (Advisor); Thomas Raasch, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Earley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ophthalmology

Keywords:

phoria; phoria adaptation; vergence; vergence adaptation; cover test; forced vergence cover test; burst vergence response

Ross, Genesis R.Teacher Stress, Burnout and NCLB: The U.S. Educational Ecosystem and the Adaptation of Teachers
Master of Science, Miami University, 2010, Family and Child Studies
Teacher stress and burnout (TSB) studies have revealed that TBS has become progressively worse. Researchers have offered explanations as to why TSB has persisted and provided suggestions to manage and cope with TBS. Seemingly, even with the magnitude of attention dedicated to TSB; the prevalence is growing faster than solutions work. In response, this study took a holistic approach that included TSB within the context of influences (e.g., federal policy, individual districts and schools). This study is guided by Ecological Theory and builds on existing explanations and prevailing suggestions for coping with and managing TBS. Finally, this study is timely because of its specific exploration of TSB within the context of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). In this study, regular and special education teachers were interviewed regarding their observations and experiences with TSB. These interviews were analyzed for themes related to Ecological Theory and the Ecosystem of Education.

Committee:

Elisa Radina, PhD (Advisor); Paula Saine, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Alfred, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Elementary Education; Higher Education; Law; School Administration; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Teacher; Teacher Stress; Burnout; NCLB; U.S. Education; Educational Ecosystem; Adaptation of Teachers; Teacher Adaptation; Teacher Stress and Burnout; TSB

Nader, Alexander C"Infinite Earths": Crossmedia Adaptation and the Development of Continuity in the DC Animated Universe
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Popular Culture
This thesis examines the process of adapting comic book properties into other visual media. I focus on the DC Animated Universe, the popular adaptation of DC Comics characters and concepts into all-ages programming. This adapted universe started with Batman: The Animated Series and comprised several shows on multiple networks, all of which fit into a shared universe based on their comic book counterparts. The adaptation of these properties is heavily reliant to intertextuality across DC Comics media. The shared universe developed within the television medium acted as an early example of comic book media adapting the idea of shared universes, a process that has been replicated with extreme financial success by DC and Marvel (in various stages of fruition). I address the process of adapting DC Comics properties in television, dividing it into “strict” or “loose” adaptations, as well as derivative adaptations that add new material to the comic book canon. This process was initially slow, exploding after the first series (Batman: The Animated Series) changed networks and Saturday morning cartoons flourished, allowing for more opportunities for producers to create content. References, crossover episodes, and the later series Justice League Unlimited allowed producers to utilize this shared universe to develop otherwise impossible adaptations that often became lasting additions to DC Comics publishing. Concepts developed in this paratextual universe became popular enough to see recursive adaptation in DC Comics ongoing comic book universe and other media, emphasizing the importance of cross-media connections. The continued popularity and success of comic book media is reliant on cross-media synergy and shared universes.

Committee:

Jeffrey Brown, PhD (Advisor); Becca Cragin, PhD (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

American Literature; American Studies; Comparative Literature; Fine Arts; Literature; Mass Media; Modern History; Modern Literature; Multimedia Communications

Keywords:

comics; comic books; DC; batman; superman; justice league; intertextuality; adaptation; adaptation studies; paratext; intertext; DC Animated Universe; DCAU; arkham; cross-media; shared universe; comics studies; marvel cinematic universe; harley quin

Komey, Audrey N. K.Institutional Adaptation to Climate Change and Flooding in Accra, Ghana
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
In the wake of climate change and flood severity in Ghana, the government of Ghana has developed a ten year adaptation strategy document (National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy) to assist institutions and stakeholders in addressing the impact of climate change in various sectors of the country. Institutional role has become necessary in tackling flood simply because the success of any adaptation strategies in part depend on the institutional arrangement in place and studies have been conducted to affirm this argument (Agrawal, McSweeney & Perrin, 2008; IPCC 2013). This thesis focuses on an analysis of the document and how it addresses flooding in the wake of climate change. Flooding forms a major disaster that the country as a whole faces annually but focus is on the Greater Accra region specifically the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA). The study documents the strengths and weaknesses of the document as a national adaptation document. It establishes that though the document exists, it is not available to the institutions and the assembly members for implementation of the strategies. Further, in relation to local institutions, the research finds that assembly members are more committed to addressing flood problems and taking the initiatives to undertake minor projects in their communities to minimize the effects of flooding. These minor projects such as de-siltation and clean ups are in themselves adaptation strategies (Linham & Nicholls 2010). The study also finds that lack of communication among institutions, limited resources, lack of institutional leadership and social connection in accessing resources were barriers to successful planning and implementation of adaptation strategies.

Committee:

Edna Wangui (Advisor); Geoffrey Dabelko (Committee Member); Harold Perkins (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Studies

Keywords:

Institutional adaptation to climate change; Flooding in Accra, Ghana; National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

Bolton, Matthew E.A Rhetorical Approach to Adaptation: Effects, Purposes, and the Fidelity Debate
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, English

"A Rhetorical Approach to Adaptation" seeks to transform the longstanding debate in adaptation studies about the proper way to conceive of the relation between adaptations and their sources. More specifically, it draws upon key insights of the rhetorical theory of narrative to move beyond the debate between traditional advocates of formal fidelity to source material and more recent arguments that both sources and adaptations are infinitely intertextual. Despite their differences, both of these critical positions are content to compare events, characters, and techniques. In contrast, my rhetorical perspective closely attends to the multi-layered purposes-—thematic, affective, and ethical—-of both source and adaptation. By providing a new framework for understanding adaptation—-source and target may use different means in service of similar purposes, similar means to achieve different purposes, and so on—-I reposition fidelity as only one possible purpose for any adapter, while also detailing different kinds of intertextuality and what they accomplish in the work’s own terms. My dissertation moves past the original debate by showing that adapters may consider differences not only in media, but also in historical situation, audience, and authorial vision. As a result, my rhetorical approach provides both better evaluations and better analyses of adaptations and their sources.

"A Rhetorical Approach to Adaptation" combines its theoretical case for a fresh conception of adaptation with a series of new readings of modern and postmodern narratives. I have chosen narratives that foreground tricky problems of adapting print sources to film, specifically: how to deal with the shift in authorship in filming an autobiography (Susanna Kaysen’s "Girl, Interrupted" and Harvey Pekar’s comic series "American Splendor"); how to deal with different conceptions of—and expectations about—flesh-and-blood audiences (Annie Proulx’s “Brokeback Mountain”); how to set up and deliver an effective twist ending (Ian McEwan’s "Atonement"); and how to convey the ethical dimension of a narrative that depends as much on its narration as on its events (Toni Morrison’s "Beloved" and Russell Banks’s "The Sweet Hereafter"). From these case studies emerges a new theoretical approach to adaptation, one which recognizes the fundamental differences between different media while also comparing them in fruitful and incisive ways.

Committee:

Brian McHale, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); James Phelan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Frederick Aldama, PhD (Committee Member); Sean O'Sullivan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; British and Irish Literature; Film Studies

Keywords:

adaptation; rhetorical theory; narrative theory; fidelity; film adaptation; ethics

Jansen, Rebecca M.Finite Element Model of Shape and Density Adaptation in Engineered Bone
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2008, Biomedical Engineering
A finite element method is combined with control theory and used to model bone’s shape and density adaptations. The model is implemented using Simulink (The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA) along with functions from MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA) and COMSOL (COMSOL Inc., Burlington, MA). Regulators of shape and density adaptations are user-definable as a function of time or as a function of a mechanical signal such as strain. The described technique is used to simulate the adaptations in a tissue engineered bone graft, or bone flap. First, the functionality of each of the remodeling rules is demonstrated. Then, shape and density remodeling is combined to replicate the bone flap’s adaptations and compared to experimental data. Finally, the model is used to theorize how the bone flap may behave when reimplanted during a maxilla reconstruction.

Committee:

Richard T. Hart, PhD (Advisor); Alan S. Litsky, ScD, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

finite element; bone flap; shape adaptation; density adaptation;

Hall, Stefan“You’ve Seen the Movie, Now Play the Game”: Recoding the Cinematic in Digital Media and Virtual Culture
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, American Culture Studies/Communication
Although seen as an emergent area of study, the history of video games shows that the medium has had a longevity that speaks to its status as a major cultural force, not only within American society but also globally. Much of video game production has been influenced by cinema, and perhaps nowhere is this seen more directly than in the topic of games based on movies. Functioning as franchise expansion, spaces for play, and story development, film-to-game translations have been a significant component of video game titles since the early days of the medium. As the technological possibilities of hardware development continued in both the film and video game industries, issues of media convergence and divergence between film and video games have grown in importance. This dissertation looks at the ways that this connection was established and has changed by looking at the relationship between film and video games in terms of economics, aesthetics, and narrative. Beginning in the 1970s, or roughly at the time of the second generation of home gaming consoles, and continuing to the release of the most recent consoles in 2005, it traces major areas of intersection between films and video games by identifying key titles and companies to consider both how and why the prevalence of video games has happened and continues to grow in power. By looking at a wide variety of games – those found in arcades; on home consoles and home computers; for portable devices included dedicated gaming units, cell phones, and other personal digital assistants; and games that exist in other forms, such as those found in web browsers or as bonus features on digital video discs – this dissertation illuminates a complex history that intertwines technological development, economic forces, and aesthetic considerations of visual and narrative design.

Committee:

Ronald Shields, PhD (Committee Chair); Donald Callen, PhD (Committee Member); Lisa Alexander, PhD (Committee Member); Margaret Yacobucci, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Cinematography; Communication; Comparative; Film Studies; Mass Media; Motion Pictures; Multimedia Communications

Keywords:

video games; transmedia; film adaptation; digital media

Zhang, MingcaiThe Role of New Mutations in Evolution: Identifying the Deleterious Effect of Heterozygotes and the Beneficial Effect on Adaptation to Salt-Stressed Environments in Drosophila Melanogaster
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Biological Sciences

Mutation and selection are responsible for major evolutionary changes in all organisms. Whether evolutionary processes are mainly driven by selection on preexisting genetic variation or by selection on new mutations is still debatable. In this research, by making use of a highly interbred Drosophila melanogaster stock, the role of new mutations in evolution was investigated in two experiments addressing the following questions: 1) does fitness significantly decline due to the accumulation of new deleterious mutations in heterozygotes? 2) Do new advantageous mutations quickly improve adaptation to a novel environment?

In the first experiment, the second and third chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster were maintained as heterozygotes in males without recombination for forty-nine generations. We observed that in smaller population sizes fitness decreased significantly as a consequence of new deleterious mutations accumulated in heterozygotes, whereas in larger populations, fitness was not significantly changed. In the second experiment, a homozygous stock of D. melanogaster evolved quickly to resist a previously toxic level of dietary salt as the result of newly arisen beneficial mutations. Hence, the outcomes of these studies demonstrated that the accumulation of new mutations (both deleterious and advantageous) have significant consequences for the persistence of small populations and the process of adaptation to new environments.

Committee:

Ronny Woodruff, PhD (Advisor); Juan Bouzat, PhD (Committee Member); Moira Staaden, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Drosophila; new mutations; evolution; deleterious effect; beneficial effect; adaptation; heterozygotes

Benjamin, StephenTartuffe: A Modern Adaptation
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2013, Theatre Arts
This thesis takes a close look at the process of adapting Molieres Tartuffe for the high school stage. The decisions regarding the use of rhyme verses prose, artistic liberties, casting considerations, and cuts are discussed in great detail. The paper also examines the history of Tartuffe translations and adaptations since it was first performed in 1664. Noted Moliere translators including Richard Wilbur, Donald Frame, Morris Bishop, and John Wood are discussed along with an examination of their methodologies. Modern translators of Tartuffe are also examined including Ranjit Bolt, Christopher Hampton and Prudence Steiner along with the choices they made when adapting Moliere for a modern audience.

Committee:

James Slowiak (Advisor); Durand Pope (Committee Member); Maria Adamowicz-Hariasz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature; Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies

Keywords:

Tartuffe; Moliere; translation; adaptation; Garfield Heights; Richard Wilbur; rhyming; Cleante; Donald Frame; Ranjit Bolt; Christopher Hampton; Morris Bishop; Prudence Steiner; Panulphe; Cairncross; Walter Benjamin; Stephen Benjamin; Malleson; raisonneur

Parsley, Christopher M.Anticipating Change: Integrating Off-Site Fabrication With Adaptable Design Strategies
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)

Our expectations for a building’s usefulness have become less permanent. As user needs change rapidly, buildings often outlive their intended use. Buildings that are purpose-built are difficult to adapt and costly to renovate; conventional construction methods yield results that are too permanent. Demolition and new construction is costly, time consuming, and detrimental to the environment. Off-site fabrication provides greater efficiency by cutting waste and on-site construction time.

Buildings - like the neighborhoods they occupy - are not static and need adjustment to remain attractive, safe and useful. Buildings must be planned and constructed differently to adapt for changing functions, standards of use and modification.

The aim of this research is to offer potential solutions and demonstrate the benefits of integrating off-site fabrication with adaptable design strategies. The project is a high-rise building in an urban context that tests the integration of these two methods.

Committee:

Elizabeth Riorden (Committee Chair); Gerald Larson (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

adaptable; prefab; prefabrication; design for disassembly; Open Building; off-site fabrication; building adaptation

Brooks, Evan ThomasThe Adaptive Media Strategy of Greenpeace in China
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, East Asian Languages and Literatures

Greenpeace, one of the world’s largest environmental organizations, has existed for more than 40 years on the Quaker principles of “bearing witness” and “non-violent, direct action.” Its roots lie in North America during the. Based on the aforementioned principles, and those of ecological and social equity, this international non-governmental organization eventually expanded across the globe.

Nearly 10 years ago, Greenpeace made it to mainland China. Nevertheless, Greenpeace found that its stalwart tactics of bearing witness and direct action were much more difficult to implement. Greenpeace needed to adapt to the nuances of Chinese society. This caused Greenpeace to take a slightly more indirect stance with its media strategy; rather than its traditional and rather direct approach of exposing scandals and staging elaborate media stunts.

This paper aims to analyze Greenpeace’s media strategy and the adaptations it required to achieve any sort of success in China. It will look at the foundation of Greenpeace’s thinking, its perceived methods for affecting positive change and the results of that work. This paper will show that Greenpeace places great value in its existence in China and is willing to learn more and adapt accordingly to China’s society in order to achieve its goals.

Committee:

Galal Walker, PhD (Advisor); Jianqi Wang, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Studies; International Relations; Language; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Greenpeace; China; media strategies in China; environmentalism in China; adaptation to Chinese society

Fernandes, Alicia BorgmanDesign Issues in the Development of a Distributed Adaptive Planning System for Airport Surface Management
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering

Departure demand routinely exceeds capacity at several airports in the United States. Under traditional “first-come, first-served” approaches to airport surface management, demand exceeding capacity can cause longer departure queues than necessary to maintain efficient traffic flow. Long queues can lead to longer taxi out times and greater fuel burn than necessary, and can increase uncertainty and limit flexibility for flight operators while increasing workload for air traffic control personnel. Departure metering is one alternative approach that controls access to the active movement area relative to expected departure capacity and the desired number of aircraft in the departure queue (or similar measures). While the main goal is to control the number of aircraft in the departure queue, metering also can increase flexibility, reduce emissions, and improve information about the time a flight is likely to take off.

Managing a departure metering procedure is a new role that is an example of a distributed adaptive planning task. This research examined human-centered design concepts for supporting people responsible for such tasks. In particular, the project developed information requirements and prototype displays to support a human agent(s) responsible for managing a departure metering procedure. These information requirements are intended to support proactive efforts to adapt a surface management plan under evolving conditions, appropriately modifying the plan, and scheduling implementation of the new plan. Departure metering procedure management requires re-planning in response to events that impact the departure process (such as an unexpected temporary runway closure). It also may require adapting the plan before any change in the departure process takes place and when information indicating the trajectory of the departure process is uncertain (such as a forecast change in weather conditions). Rather than always implementing the new plan immediately, a person may schedule the new plan to take effect at a later time.

The research included two related studies. The first had two main objectives. One was to develop a realistic set of airspace constraints and surface management strategies that could be used in follow-on simulation studies. The second was to determine more generally what surface management strategies should be supported in a departure metering procedure and to evaluate their implications for the design of software to support surface management. Key components of surface management strategies were identified, including evidence that air traffic control tower personnel automatically transform mental representations of departure constraints between airspace-centric and surface-centric domain representations in order to develop and implement airport surface management plans.

The objective of the second study was to explore information requirements for supporting a human agent(s) responsible for managing a departure metering procedure and to evaluate display concepts. Participants performed the departure metering procedure management task in a simulated environment and provided feedback on the departure metering procedure concept and on the usefulness of the displays. Participants provided feedback that can inform industry efforts to refine departure metering procedure design concepts as well as designs for displays and other tools to support these distributed adaptive planning systems.

Committee:

Philip Smith, PhD (Advisor); David Woods, PhD (Committee Member); Emily Patterson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Systems Design; Transportation

Keywords:

distributed adaptive planning; airport surface management; air traffic management; planning; monitoring; adaptation; cognitive systems engineering; departure metering; departure reservoir management; departure reservoir coordinator

RENFRO, MARL KTEMPERAMENTS: A CRITIQUE OF EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Arts and Sciences : Philosophy
This thesis is devoted to examining Leda Cosmides and John Tooby’s use of evolutionary psychology as a heuristic framework for explaining human social behavior. Cosmides and Tooby are among the most vocal advocates of a now popular version of evolutionary psychology. They argue that the functional complexity of human reasoning can be best explained within the framework of adaptationism and that knowledge of the evolutionary environment of adaptiveness is essential to a scientifically satisfying explanation for why humans behave as they do. I first discuss the design logic of evolutionary psychology, and the methodology Cosmides and Tooby use. I then discuss the consequences of not adhering to standard scientific practice and whether Cosmides and Tooby’s adhere to standard scientific practice in developing and testing their models.

Committee:

Robert Richardson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Religion, Philosophy of

Keywords:

evolutionary psychology; evolutionary explanation; scientific explanation; scientific modeling; adaptation

Zhang, ZhipengMAGNETIC TWEEZERS: ACTUATION, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL AT NANOMETER SCALE
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Mechanical Engineering

This dissertation presents the development of quadrupole magnetic tweezers, which are capable of actuating, measuring, and controlling biological samples at nanometer scale. Magnetic force, with the advantages of biocompatibility and specificity, is employed as the actuation force for biological manipulation. Quadrupole magnetic tweezers are designed and implemented to realize force generation in arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) directions. To characterize the relationship between the applied currents to the coils and the resulting magnetic force on the magnetic probe, a lumped parameter model with magnetic monopole approximation is employed to describe the magnetic field generated by the magnetic poles. The magnetic force model is then developed based on this approximation. According to the force model, the magnetic force exerted on the magnetic probe is nonlinear with respect to the applied currents to the coils and is position dependent.

Three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking algorithm based on microscope off-focus images is developed to measure the motion of the magnetic probe. Subnanometer resolution in all three axes at 400 Hz sampling rate is achieved using a high speed CMOS camera in bright-field illumination. At each sampling, the lateral position of the particle is first estimated by the centroid method. The axial position is then estimated by comparing the radius vector, which is converted from the off-focus 2D image of the probe with no information loss, with an object-specific model, calibrated automatically prior to each experiment. By normalizing the radius vectors, the algorithm becomes a shape-based method, thus invariant to image intensity change and robust to photobleaching. The algorithm is therefore updated and utilized to measure the 3D position of fluorescent particles by analyzing the fluorescent images acquired by a high sensitivity CCD camera. Furthermore, according to a detailed analysis of measurement noise, variance equalization and correlation-weighted optimization are employed to enhance the measurement resolution by achieving the best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE) of the axial position.

Feedback control is then established to realize a stable trapping of the magnetic probe. The inverse force model is first derived to cancel the nonlinearity and the position dependency in magnetic force generation. Linear controllers are then designed to regulate the motion of the probe. The force gain, the damping coefficient, the system time delay, as well as the maximum current that can be applied without saturating the magnetic materials are calibrated using the results of proportional control. The accuracy of the force model is also verified using experiments. Furthermore, a minimum variance controller is designed and implemented to minimize the thermal fluctuation of the bead in water.

To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed system, experiments with living cells are performed. A modified setup is developed to improve the accommodation of living cells. Magnetic beads are attached on cell membrane through the specific binding between fibronectin and integrin, and magnetic forces are applied through the magnetic beads to the cells. Mechanical properties of the cells can be estimated from the cells’ response to applied forces. The cellular response anisotropy and cell adaptation to forces are also investigated.

Committee:

Chia-Hsiang Menq (Advisor); Krishnaswamy Srinivasan (Committee Member); Marcelo Dapino (Committee Member); Junmin Wang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Magnetic tweezers; magnetic monopole; magnetic force model; inverse force model; minimum variance control; Brownian motion control; 3D particle tracking; three dimensional sensing; computer vision; cellular response; cell adaptation; cell manipulation

Dobrucki, Wawrzyniec L.Nitrogen and Oxygen Radicals in Ischemic and Hypoxic Injury of the Brain
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2003, Chemistry (Arts and Sciences)

The purpose of this work was to examine the role played by a deficit in nitric oxide (NO) and overproduction of superoxide (O2‾) and peroxynitrite (ONOO‾) in contributing to the large cerebral infarcts seen in hypertensive and/or old animals. The role of NO-mediated mechanism in hypobaric hypoxia has been also studied. Additionally, the positive effect of the hypoxic adaptation on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) has been demonstrated.

Cerebral infarction was produced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion. Studies were performed in animals of different age, genotype (spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone), animals subjected to NO synthase blockade, and animals subjected to hypobaric hypoxia followed by adaptation process (30 days at 5,000 m above sea level).

NO and O2‾ released in the brain were monitored using a set of specially designed microsensors with a 1 nM detection limit for both NO and O2‾.

The direct relationships between: ONOO‾ concentration and infarct size, age and infarct size, and between altitude and both NO and O2‾ concentrations released from the brain, have been established. Moreover, new evidence has been presented that Neuroprotective properties of adaptation to hypoxia are solely due to an increase in bioactive NO.

Committee:

Tadeusz Malinski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Chemistry, Analytical

Keywords:

Nitric Oxide; Brain Ischemia; Brain Hypoxia; Stroke; Adaptation

D'Mello, Cheryl A.The Influence of New Communication Technologies on the Acculturation of Bhutanese Refugees in an American Community
Master of Applied Communication Theory and Methodology, Cleveland State University, 2010, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences

This study examines the Bhutanese refugees, who are the newest group of refugees to arrive in the United States. It provides a detailed account of this community in the Cleveland-Akron area in Ohio. Research on this refugee population has only just begun, and they have been surveyed at an early time in the acculturation process. In 2007, their resettlement in the United States from camps in Nepal began, and by 2012, a total of 60,000 are expected to arrive in the United States.

The research questions examine to what extent new communication technologies and media (ethnic and host) help the Bhutanese refugees in their acculturation in the United States and to what extent this helps them keep in touch with their native culture. A questionnaire with 106 items was given to 116 Bhutanese refugees who began arriving in Ohio in 2008, after living for about 17 years in refugee camps in Nepal. The study primarily refers to Young Yun Kim’s theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation and examines the influence of various new and old communication technologies since their arrival in the United States.

The results indicate that the Bhutanese refugees are anxious to settle and make new American friends while remaining in close contact with other Bhutanese, whether across the street, the country, or around the world. As hypothesized, age was negatively associated with using technology to maintain ties with the home country and other Bhutanese. The use of American media was positively related to adjustment to the host culture. Also, the use of American media to learn about American culture was positively related to adjustment, as was frequent interpersonal communication with non-Bhutanese.

Results of this study can impact how future waves of Bhutanese refugees from Nepal and also other immigrants and refugees can use communication technologies to adjust and cope in a new environment. Any person interested in this refugee population will obtain information from this study about their background, habits, culture, media usage, and adjustment to life in the United States. Best practices for acculturation emerging from this research can enable those working with this population and other refugees to help expedite their acculturation to life in the United States and other countries.

Committee:

Leo Jeffres, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Ray, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Skalski, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

refugees; immigration; acculturation; assimilation; adaptation; new communication technologies; Bhutanese

Bernsmeier, JordanFrom Haunting the Code to Queer Ambiguity: Historical Shifts in Adapting Lesbian Narratives from Paper to Film
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Film (Fine Arts)
This thesis provides a historical approach to the question of how lesbianism is made visible in Hollywood film adaptations of lesbian narratives from the 1930s to 2011. Chapter one examines Code censorship and haunting absences in Rebecca (1940), These Three (1936) and The Children's Hour (1961). Chapter two analyzes ambiguous lesbian representation as a type of dual marketing approach designed to appeal to both heterosexual mainstream audiences and queer audiences in The Color Purple (1985), Fried Green Tomatoes (1991), and Orlando (1992). Chapter three culminates in an examination of the location of queerness in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009, 2011) focusing on the character of Lisbeth Salander as a queer force aimed at destabilizing heterosexist assumption. It is through my examination of the historical shifts in the process translating lesbianism from a verbal description to a visible depiction on screen in Hollywood adaptations that the social and cultural significance and impact of these historical shifts becomes apparent.

Committee:

Ofer Eliaz (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Gender; History; Literature; Mass Media; Modern Literature; Scandinavian Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Lesbian; adaptation; queer; classical Hollywood; censorship; The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; Rebecca; The Childrens Hour; Fried Green Tomatoes; Orlando; The Color Purple; Hitchcock; Spectatorship; Film Theory

Buis, Katelyn JSurviving Antigone: Anouilh, Adaptation and the Archive
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Theatre
The myth of Antigone has been established as a preeminent one in political and philosophical debate. One incarnation of the myth is of particular interest here. Jean Anouilh's Antigone opened in Paris, 1944. A political and then philosophical debate immediately arose in response to the show. Anouilh's Antigone remains a well-known play, yet few people know about its controversial history or the significance of its translation into English immediately after the war. It is this history and adaptation of Anouilh's contested Antigone that defines my inquiry. I intend to reopen interpretive discourse about this play by exploring its origins, its journey, and the archival limitations and motivations controlling its legacy and reception to this day. By creating a space in which multiple readings of this play can exist, I consider adaptation studies and archival theory and practice in the form of theatre history, with a view to dismantle some of the misconceptions this play has experienced for over sixty years. This is an investigation into the survival of Anouilh's Antigone since its premiere in 1944. I begin with a brief overview of the original performance of Jean Anouilh's Antigone and the significant political controversy it caused. The second chapter centers on the changing reception of Anouilh's Antigone beginning with the liberation of Paris to its premiere on the Broadway stage the following year. Additionally, I examine the changes made to Anouilh's script by Lewis Galantiere and the ramifications of such alterations. In the third chapter, and final part of my examination of Jean Anouilh's play, I approach Antigone through the lenses of archival theory, performance studies, and adaptation theory.

Committee:

Cynthia Baron, PhD (Advisor); Jonathan Chambers, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies

Keywords:

Theatre; History; Antigone; Archive; Adaptation; Myth; France; Paris; Jean Anouilh; World War II

Hubbell, Zachariah RandallDevelopmental Mechanobiology of the Metaphyseal Cortical-Trabecular Interface in the Human Proximal Tibia and Proximal Humerus
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Anthropology
The significance of the microstructural interface between trabecular and cortical bone in the long bone metaphyses as a mechanically-adapted feature of skeletal morphology is largely unexplored, despite the role of these structures as critical for the transmission of axial loads from the trabecular network to the cortical diaphysis. These cortical-trabecular junctions (CTJs) are studied here within the context of bone ontogeny and from the perspective of mechanobiology, which seeks to interpret skeletal morphology as a product of its mechanical-functional demands. Aligned to the theoretical paradigm of bone functional adaptation, which states that bone adapts to its mechanical environment during life, this study tests several hypotheses regarding various associations between body mass and age on the one hand and various measures of CTJ structure on the other, including elements of cortical-trabecular connectivity and bone volume distribution. Anatomical site variability and mechanical adaptability in CTJ ontogeny was further addressed by examining these skeletal features in two separate skeletal elements with vastly different mechanical functions. This study was performed conducted using the Norris Farms (NF) No. 36 skeletal series, an archaeological sample of skeletons derived from a late-prehistoric group of Oneota Native Americans living in present day west-central Illinois ca. 1300 A.D. Micro-computed tomography was used to acquire high-resolution images of NF adult and sub-adult tibiae and humeri for non-invasive and non-destructive analysis of internal bone microstructure. Two computer image analysis programs (Avizo Fire 8.1.1 and ImageJ 1.49v) were used to isolate and quantify volumes of interest, and all statistical analyses were carried out in SPSS v.22. Results show a complicated picture of CTJ ontogeny in which mechanical adaptability appears to be an important driver of CTJ structural development, but not to the exclusion of other, less clear factors. CTJs display a certain degree of mechanical sensitivity during the growth period that appears to disappear shortly following attainment of skeletal maturity. Pervasive differences regarding various characteristics of CTJ structure in the tibia versus humerus lend further support to the importance of anatomical site-specificity and local mechanical environment for shaping the cortical-trabecular interface. CTJ development is likely both guided and constrained by growth phenomena such as metaphyseal trabecular coalescence, which is itself an element of the broader mechanism of mechanically-sensitive endochondral ossification. Cessation of these processes following skeletal maturation is attributed to the view of relatively unchanging CTJ microarchitecture during adulthood.

Committee:

Clark Larsen (Advisor); James Gosman (Committee Member); Amanda Agnew (Committee Member); Paul Sciulli (Committee Member); Sam Stout (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology; Archaeology; Biomechanics; Human Remains; Physical Anthropology; Soil Sciences

Keywords:

mechanobiology; bone functional adaptation; cortical-trabecular junctions; ontogeny; bone; micro CT

Wang, WenboAutomatic Emotion Identification from Text
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2015, Computer Science and Engineering PhD
People's emotions can be gleaned from their text using machine learning techniques to build models that exploit large self-labeled emotion data from social media. Further, the self-labeled emotion data can be effectively adapted to train emotion classifiers in different target domains where training data are sparse. Emotions are both prevalent in and essential to most aspects of our lives. They influence our decision-making, affect our social relationships and shape our daily behavior. With the rapid growth of emotion-rich textual content, such as microblog posts, blog posts, and forum discussions, there is a growing need to develop algorithms and techniques for identifying people's emotions expressed in text. It has valuable implications for the studies of suicide prevention, employee productivity, well-being of people, customer relationship management, etc. However, emotion identification is quite challenging partly due to the following reasons: i) It is a multi-class classification problem that usually involves at least six basic emotions. Text describing an event or situation that causes the emotion can be devoid of explicit emotion-bearing words, thus the distinction between different emotions can be very subtle, which makes it difficult to glean emotions purely by keywords. ii) Manual annotation of emotion data by human experts is very labor-intensive and error-prone. iii) Existing labeled emotion datasets are relatively small, which fails to provide a comprehensive coverage of emotion-triggering events and situations. This dissertation aims at understanding the emotion identification problem and developing general techniques to tackle the above challenges. First, to address the challenge of fine-grained emotion classification, we investigate a variety of lexical, syntactic, knowledge-based, context-based and class-specific features, and show how much these features contribute to the performance of the machine learning classifiers. We also propose a method that automatically extracts syntactic patterns to build a rule-based classifier to improve the accuracy of identifying minority emotions. Second, to deal with the challenge of manual annotation, we leverage emotion hashtags to harvest Twitter "big data" and collect millions of self-labeled emotion tweets, the labeling quality of which is further improved by filtering heuristics. We discover that the size of the training data plays an important role in emotion identification task as it provides a comprehensive coverage of different emotion-triggering events/situations. Further, the unigram and bigram features alone can achieve a performance that is competitive with the best performance of using a combination of ngram, knowledge-based and syntactic features. Third, to handle the paucity of the labeled emotion datasets in many domains, we seek to exploit the abundant self-labeled tweet collection to improve emotion identification in text from other domains, e.g., blog posts, fairy tales. We propose an effective data selection approach to iteratively select source data that are informative about the target domain, and use the selected data to enrich the target domain training data. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art domain adaptation techniques on datasets from four different domains including blog, experience, diary and fairy tales. Finally, we apply the proposed research to analyze cursing, an emotion rich activity, on Twitter. We explore a set of questions that have been recognized as crucial for understanding cursing in offline communications by prior studies, including ubiquity, utility, contextual dependencies, and people factors.

Committee:

Amit Sheth, Ph.D. (Advisor); Keke Chen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Haas, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ramakanth Kavuluru, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Emotion Identification; Emotion Classification; Emotion Adaptation; Self-labeled Data Creation; Emotion Analysis

Shields, William MichaelPhilopatry, inbreeding, and the adaptive advantages of sex /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1979, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Adaptation

Cifranic, Jaclyn ChristineSexual Politics: A Modern Adaptation of William Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure"
Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
There has always been a sense of timelessness in the plays of William Shakespeare; while the language and the stories are rooted in time and place, the stories, plots, and themes are easily accessible for all audiences. “Measure for Measure” observes and comments on sexual mores and politics of Renaissance-era Venice, resulting in a script that is progressive and problematic when compared Shakespeare’s other works. The following script modernizes the themes of “Measure for Measure” by examining contemporary sexual politics: sexual identity, sexual fluidity, and government oversight of sexual activity. The adapted story is that of a married gay man, Claudio, who is arrested under the outdated antisodomy law of his city, now being enforced by Deputy Mayor Angelletti in the absence of Mayor Vince Patterson. Claudio’s sister, an asexual woman named Isabella, is sexually blackmailed by Angelletti when she attempts to dispute the arrest. The two siblings have to fight to protect their sexual freedom, helped along the way by their genderfluid friend Lucky, the “undercover” Vince, the district attorney, and Angelletti’s estranged wife. The result is a comedic examination of the contemporary sexual experience in Western society that stays true to its Shakespearean origins.

Committee:

Mike Geither, M.F.A. (Advisor); Caryl Pagel, M.F.A. (Committee Member); Mary Biddinger, M.F.A., Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Todd, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Language Arts

Keywords:

theatre, play, Shakespeare, Measure for Measure, Sexual Politics, adaptation, stageplay,

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