Search Results (1 - 5 of 5 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Paris, MelanieRepatriated Africans from Cuba and Brazil in nineteenth century Lagos
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1998, African-American and African Studies

During the late nineteenth century, primarily between the 1840s and 1860s, a significant repatriation movement to Africa took place among ex-slaves from the Latin American countries of Cuba and Brazil. Since most of these repatriates were of Yoruba descent, they chose to resettle in Yoruba-populated areas along the West African coast. Some of these Cuban and Brazilian repatriates resettled in Ouidah and Porto Novo in the present-day country of Republic of Benin. However, many of the returnees established themselves in West Africa’s largest port city of Lagos in what is now known as Nigeria.

It was also during the nineteenth century that British colonialists began to aggressively launch their quest for total domination and annexation of Yorubaland and the hinterland areas of “Nigeria”. In order to facilitate this agenda, the British used the Cuban and Brazilian repatriates as mediators between themselves and the local Yoruba population. Consequently, in order to secure the repatriates’ cooperation, the British elevated the Cuban and Brazilian returnees to an elite status in colonial Lagos.

This thesis examines the economic and social status of repatriated Africans from Cuba and Brazil in Lagos, and the social and economic conditions that served as an impetus for their drastic transition from slavery. More specifically, this study focuses on the relationship between the repatriates and British colonialists during the nineteenth century, and the elite position that the returnees assumed in the Lagos community as a result of this association.

Committee:

Abiola Irele (Advisor)

Keywords:

Agudas; Lagos; Yoruba; slaves; returnees; CUBA; CUBA AND BRAZIL

Waite, Renée B.African Concepts of Energy and Their Manifestations Through Art
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of the Arts / School of Art
For my thesis I have explored African concepts of energy and the ways in which it is manifested through their arts. I focus on four different cultures being: Yoruba, Bamana, Kongo, and Luba. For each culture I have discussed their beliefs about energy and the ways in which it pervades specific items that can be used to help heal, guide, cleanse, and even seek retribution upon wrong doers. I have found that in most cases there are general overlaps in their concepts as well as the types of objects made. The objects I have researched are all composed of natural materials. The art ranges from wooden masks and divination tools, to woven garments and amulets. Each of the four cultures examined have found a way to tap into the occult powers and energy of their deities, spiritual realm, and ancestors. Their consciousness of this ability has enabled them to guide their communities out of times of hard ship and show to other cultures the significance of these devices.

Committee:

Fred Smith (Advisor); Diane Scillia (Committee Member); John-Michael Warner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; African Studies; Energy; Spirituality

Keywords:

Energy; Nyama; Ashe; Ase; Bamana; Kongo; Luba; Yoruba

Carter-Enyi, AaronContour Levels: An Abstraction of Pitch Space based on African Tone Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Music
Based on data from two years of fieldwork in Nigeria, a new methodology for contour analysis is presented with two motivations: 1) extend contour theory into an applied computational approach appropriate for a wide range of symbolic and recorded music; 2) develop a new discretization of pitch, similar to solmization but without an association to a scale or tonal qualia, that can be used to measure pitch prominence (or markedness) in both music and speech. As an alternative to the conventional contour matrix for a segment of cardinality n which compares pitches at all degrees of adjacency up to n-1, a continuous matrix is introduced, with unspecified cardinality and a fixed number of degrees of adjacency. The continuous matrix is a series of contour slices. Each slice compares a pitch to the pitch before and after up to the degrees of adjacency. The elements in each contour slice (a column in the continuous matrix) can be summed creating a measure of relative pitch height, a contour level. The analysis implementation is based on a relationship between contour recursion and segmentation of pitch series. Thematic unity, as provided by contour recursion, is presumed to be intentional on the part of the producer and salient to the receiver. Non-overlapping iterations of a highly recursive contour are both semiotically and structurally important in a wide variety of monophonic signals. The analysis is made more robust by searching for transformations and using reductive processes that make it possible to compare segments of different cardinalities. Contour level analysis is applied to the phenomenon of “tone-and-tune”, wherein a single pitch series carries both linguistic and musical or paralinguistic communication. First the concept of a toneme (a pitch contrast in speech) is explored. Phoneticians and phonologists have described the toneme with paradigmatic (context-independent) and syntagmatic (context-dependent) features, but neither seems to satisfactorily formalize phonological equivalence of tone. Shortly before he died, prominent linguist Nick Clements asked “Do we need tone features?”, concluding that if we do, the ones we have are not working. A cue is taken from the folk heuristic and widely used pedagogical device for the Yoruba language: Low-Mid-High tones are called Do-Re-Mi. It quickly becomes clear that the comparison with solmization has nothing to do with a tonal system and everything to do with relative pitch. Contour levels are proposed as a formal heuristic for the toneme that captures the relevant pitch relativity of the do-re-mi folk heuristic, while freeing it from the misleading Western tonality association. The rich oral poetry tradition of Southwestern Nigeria is explored using this approach.

Committee:

David Clampitt (Advisor); David Huron (Committee Member); Udo Will (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Acoustics; African Studies; Linguistics; Music

Keywords:

music theory; contour theory; music cognition; ethnomusicology; Yoruba; Igbo; Niger-Congo languages; tone languages; phonology; Nigeria; poetry; choral music; popular music; African music

Van Der Meer, TonySpiritual Journeys: A Study of Ifá /Òrìṣà Practitioners in the United States Initiated by Nigeria
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2017, Leadership and Change
The purpose of this study is to understand the culture of one of the newest branches of traditional Yorùbá Ifá /Òrìṣà practice in the United States from practitioners born in the United States that were initiated in Nigeria, West Africa. The epistemology of the Ifá /Òrìṣà belief system in the United States has been based on the history and influence of Regla de Ocha or Santeria that developed out of Cuban innovation and practice. This is an ethnographic and auto-ethnographic study that pulls from participant observation, field notes, interviews, and photos as data. The central question of this dissertation is what are the challenges and opportunities for this branch of practitioners in the United States who were initiated in the Ifá /Òrìṣà practice in Nigeria? Some of the main findings indicate that the opportunities include: opening doors intellectually and spiritually about African philosophical thought and ethics were that: it instills a sense of spiritual discipline; it lays the foundation, giving confidence that one can achieve what they set their minds to; and, it offers spiritual technologies and systems that are liberating and relevant in the Unites States in terms of identity, direction, and purpose. Some of the challenges included: a rugged Nigerian experience, and cultural change; a transformative experience from the initiation rituals; understanding and learning the Yorùbá language; and, the contradiction of Africa being the idea of utopia. The challenges in the United States also included: understanding and learning the Yorùbá language; understanding the different systems of practice in the Ifá /Òrìṣà belief system; the role of women as Ifa priests; ecological concerns in disposing ritual sacrifices; accessibility to traditional (African) ritual items; issues of acceptance, inclusion, and exclusion on the basis of race, gender, and sexual identities from other systems of Ifá /Òrìṣà practice; and, developing new communities of practice base on the experiences of this newest branch of practitioners.This dissertation is available in open-access at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd and AURA:Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/

Committee:

Philomena Essed (Committee Chair); Laura Morgan Roberts (Committee Member); Tim Sieber (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Black Studies; Caribbean Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Divinity; Epistemology; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

African Belief Systems; Ifa; Orisa; Orisha; Orisha Vodo; Santeria; Lucumi; Regala de Ocha; Traditional Yoruba Belief System; Transformational Spiritual Practice; Ethnography; Methodology; Leadership Studies; Leadership and Change; Religion; Spirituality

Diebold, PaigeYoruba Applique Lappets
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis explores Yoruba applique lappets. These cloth panels are heavily adorned and highly regarded for their expense, beauty and power. They can be found on the costumes of Egungun and Gelede masquerades, and also on the skirts of Sango devotees. In each of their contexts, the symbolic associations of the appliqued lappets are related. These relationships are explored, as is the formal and historical origin of the lappets through empire expansion, trade, textile and leatherwork traditions.

Committee:

Fred Smith, PhD (Advisor); Diane Scilla, PhD (Committee Member); Carol Salus, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Textile Research

Keywords:

Yoruba; applique; textiles; cloth; Egungun; Gelede; Sango; Shango; Fon; Nigeria; Republic of Benin