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Borchers, AndreaEmployment Maintenance Among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Nursing: Nursing - Doctoral Program
Intimate partner violence (IPV), is a major public health problem in the United States, with a lifetime prevalence of nearly 1 in 3 women (Black et al., 2011). Negative outcomes of IPV affect women’s ability to attain and maintain stable employment. However, workplace formal and informal supports have been shown to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of negative outcomes for these women (Coker et al., 2002). Although IPV prevalence and its effects on employment and health are well documented, how women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that describes and explains the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain stable employment. Understanding this process is central to determining effective strategies to promote health and safety among this at-risk population. Grounded theory methods based on symbolic interactionism, guided the exploration of this psycho-social process. Thirty four women who had previously experienced IPV, as well as five community members, familiar with IPV and employment, were recruited by posting flyers in community settings throughout west central Ohio, and interviewed regarding this phenomenon. Charmaz’s (2006) approach was used to analyze data gathered through these interviews. Initial, focused, axial and theoretical coding was used to develop a theoretical framework that describes and explains the process of attaining and maintaining employment. Analysis of the transcripts suggests that women who have experienced IPV are able to attain employment; however, they have difficulty maintaining employment. Results suggest that women cannot have true job security and satisfaction while in an abusive relationship. All of the women experienced a period of time when the work itself was used as a source of control by the partner resulting in the intertwining of work and IPV. Initially, women attempted to maintain employment while in the violent relationship. Repeated attempts were made to separate the work and the IPV. Eventually, maintaining work and the relationship became impossible because the work and IPV were not just intertwined, they were entangled. All of the women in the study described ways in which work and IPV were entangled including the perpetrator controlling her appearance, sabotaging work, interfering with work and controlling finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV resulting in work being under her control, affording job security and satisfaction. This unravelling of work from IPV was described as a dynamic process with periods of re-entanglement. The study provides in-depth insight into how women who have experienced IPV attain and attempt to maintain employment which can be used to guide future research and interventions.

Committee:

Donna Martsolf, Ph.D. R.N. (Committee Chair); Bonnie Sue Fisher, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rebecca Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Occupational Safety

Keywords:

Intimate Partner Violence;Women and Employment;Women and Health;Women Maintaining Employment;Women Attaining Employment;Women and Employment Maintenance

Chen, Shiuan Sanna¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Zuo Yue Zi Sitting the Month in Taiwan: Implications for Intergenerational Relations
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Anthropology

This dissertation attempts to find what factors play a key role in women’s ability to control their own lives by studying women’s postpartum practices, specifically women’s intergenerational relations as these are played out during traditional postpartum practices of ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿, Sitting the Month, in Taiwan using the strength of anthropological methods. Using semi-structures questionnaires and participant observation, three key questions are to be answered by this dissertation: 1) Where and how are women sitting the month currently in Taiwan? How is this different or the same from 15-20 years ago? 2) What are some of the factors enabling or hindering their stated ideals/goals in how they sat the month? 3) How have intergenerational relations between Chinese women in the family changed or remained the same in Taiwan? If there are changes, can they be attributed to economic variables, or are there other factors to be considered?

This study found that sitting the month in Taiwan has becoming increasingly commercialized, extending the business of Chinese women’s postpartum globally into mainland China and in the US. The conclusions from this study seem to point to social relationships and not economics as being key factors in women’s ability to control their own lives. Women sitting the month currently seem to enjoy an increased autonomy if they are separated from their mothers-in-law. Living with their mothers-in-law translates to lesser freedom of choice, regardless of their income or education. Young women’s status has increased so that they are able to make their own decisions regarding their family, their bodies and their lives, but this change in their autonomy is not absolute and varies depending on family circumstances. Variables such as income and education had little to do with women’s satisfaction and decision-making in their day to day lives, but residence patterns were significant in the young women’s power and authority over their own lives. The findings of this study do not attribute this increased women’s autonomy to changes in income or education. The important variable for consideration is social relationships.

Committee:

Dr. Charlotte Ikels, PhD (Committee Chair); Dr. Jill Korbin, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Atwood Gaines, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Elizabeth Damato, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

intergenerational relations; women's studies; women's health; postpartum; Chinese women; Taiwan; women's status; zuo yue zi

Robinson, Marsha R.Crossing the Strait from Morocco to the United States: the transnational gendering of the Atlantic World before 1830
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, History
This world women’s history is a comparative legal study tracing two thousand years of cultural contact through 1830 between the Saharan-based, gynecentric, Berian culture foundational to the Maliki Islam of the Berbers, Southern Arabs and Iberians, and the Mesopotamian and eastern Mediterranean patriarchy foundational to West Asiatic Islam and Western Christianity. The work explores the female-friendly Berian values common to the Saharan salt marsh diaspora and Almoravid Andalusia and North Africa, correcting patriarchal Sassanid influences upon Abbasid and Almohad omissions of female politicians from their imperial histories of the Maghrib. The European patriarchal bias began during Isabel I’s Reconquista Spain when the Spanish Inquisition attempted a purge of Berian matriliny. It continued with British harem envy, hyper-virility and political jealousy as Anglo-Americans engaged Barbary states. Western Christian philosophers, Freemasons, politicians and ministers used misperceptions of the harem to limit Western women’s economic and legal rights. In the U.S., this resulted in the simultaneous rise of domesticity, left-handed marriages, and de facto American polygyny. The Berber cultural influence on the U.S. occurred in the 1833 U.S. v. Percheman decision when the Supreme Court adopted married women’s property rights from the Siete Partidas after the Florida cession.

Committee:

Claire Robertson (Advisor)

Keywords:

Women's History; Atlantic World; Morocco - Women; United States - Women; Malik Ibn Anas; Islam - Women; Andalusia; Almoravid; Almohad; Marriage; Reconquista; Castile; Isabel I; Urraca; Alfonso VI; Alfonso X; Domesticity

Derringer, Sherri LynnWomen’s Campaign for Culture: Women’s Clubs and the Formation of Music Institutions in Dayton, Ohio 1888-1933
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2007, Humanities
This thesis is about the Women’s Club Movement in Dayton, Ohio, using the music clubs as a case study. The dates encompassed range from the formation of the Mozart Club in 1888 to the formation of the Dayton Philharmonic Orchestra in 1933. The formation of women’s clubs, by both white and black women, was a national phenomenon, and Dayton exemplified what was going on throughout the United States. This thesis traces the roots of women’s activism and association building from the early benevolent and religious reforms of the early nineteenth century to the formation of clubs, and finally the establishment of major cultural institutions, including orchestras. The research was collected by using primary sources such as local club records and nineteenth century women’s memoirs, as well as secondary sources on the women’s club movement and women’s activism. The significance of this research reveals an interesting story about Dayton, and the major impact women had on fostering a love of culture in their city.

Committee:

Ava Chamberlain (Advisor)

Keywords:

women's club movement; women's clubs; african american women's clubs; music; women; Dayton, Ohio

Abu Sarhan, Taghreed MahmoudVoicing the Voiceless: Feminism and Contemporary Arab Muslim Women's Autobiographies
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, American Culture Studies/Ethnic Studies
Arab Muslim women have been portrayed by the West in general and Western Feminism in particular as oppressed, weak, submissive, and passive. A few critics, Nawar al-Hassan Golley, is an example, clarify that Arab Muslim women are not weak and passive as they are seen by the Western Feminism viewed through the lens of their own culture and historical background. Using Transnational Feminist theory, my study examines four autobiographies: Harem Years By Huda Sha'arawi, A Mountainous Journey a Poet's Autobiography by Fadwa Tuqan, A Daughter of Isis by Nawal El Saadawi, and Dreams of Trespass, Tales of a Harem Girlhood by Fatima Mernissi. This study promises to add to the extant literature that examine Arab Muslim women's status by viewing Arab women's autobiographies as real life stories to introduce examples of Arab Muslim women figures who have effected positive and significant changes for themselves and their societies. Moreover, this study seeks to demonstrate, through the study of select Arab Muslim women's autobiographies, that Arab Muslim women are educated, have feminist consciousnesses, and national figures with their own clear reading of their own religion and culture, more telling than that of the reading of outsiders.

Committee:

Ellen Berry, PhD (Committee Chair); Vibha Bhalla, PhD (Other); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member); Erin Labbie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Ethnic Studies; History; Religion

Keywords:

Arab Muslim Women; Transnational Feminist Theory; Contemporary Arab Muslim Women's Autobiography; Third World Women; Western Feminism; Women's Movement in the Arab Muslim World

Brown, Emily BatesHer Money, My Sweat: Women Organizing to Transform Globalization
Bachelor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2007, School Of Interdisciplinary Studies - Interdisciplinary Studies
Women who live in Third World nations are disproportionately negatively affected by globalization. Moreover, theorizations of Third World women's economic hardships are often characterized in terms of their victimization and helplessness even within Western feminist literature. Such characterizations have been intensely criticized in the last two decades by Third World and postcolonial feminist theorists who have effectively exposed the dangers of representing Third World women as a homogenized group. Western feminist discourse on gender, globalization, and Third World cultures has since made inroads toward addressing the specificity of identity issues such as race, class, and nationality, and in bridging the gap between the objectives of Western and non-Western women's groups. Within discussions of the inequities of globalization and in efforts to organize women around globalization issues, negotiating similar identity issues and goals is a constant challenge. With an emphasis on the intersection of theory and practice, this thesis argues that for transnational feminist networks to organize constructively on globalization issues in the Third World, the agency and experience of local actors must be regarded as a primary source of legitimate knowledge. Only in this way will transnational feminist networks, which operate across both geographical and intangible borders, be successful in empowering local actors and in producing more viable, counter-hegemonic economic opportunities than currently exist under processes of globalization. Through the empowerment of local actors, more sustainable, long-term projects that resist globalization can develop without, or with less, dependence on First World actors and the transnational networks themselves. The Women's International Sewing Cooperative of Nueva Vida, Nicaragua provides a practical example of successful transnational organizing that legitimates and accounts for local experience and knowledge. The result is a more viable economic opportunity than those presently offered by globalization, and is one that empowers Third World women and grants them the agency to define and determine their economic futures, thus demonstrating the real power implicit in crafting strategies from both theory and practice.

Committee:

William Newell (Advisor)

Keywords:

women and globalization; women and economics; international women's organizing; Latin American cooperatives; worker-owned free trade zone; Women's International Sewing Cooperative

Schuttey, Kirsten C.Recognition at Last: The Woman's Building and the Advancement of Women at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Art History
The 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition offered America an opportunity to showcase her cultural, intellectual, and scientific progress to the world. For the citizens of Chicago especially, the exposition provided the means to demonstrate that their city was an advanced metropolis at a time when many deemed it to be second rate. To achieve this goal, many forward-thinking women throughout the United States were successful in ensuring that the exposition included a separate exhibition space for women to showcase their talents in art and industry. The 1893 Woman’s Building was not the first to exist at a world’s fair, but it was the first that visibly symbolized women’s advancement. Unlike former women’s buildings, this Woman’s Building was built by and controlled by women. This thesis explores the specific strategies that were used to make this building a success. It also draws attention to the fact that while the Woman’s Building was only temporary, it was the first museum dedicated to women artists and it laid the groundwork for the National Museum for Women in the Arts in Washington D.C., which functions as a separate, but equal museum representing women in the arts.

Committee:

Kimberly Paice, PhD (Committee Chair); Kristi Ann Nelson, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Harris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

1893 World's Columbian Exposition;Woman's Building and World's Columbian Exposition;Women in the Arts;Women's Advancement in the Arts;Women and Museums;Women's Museums

Steinke, KorineMadwoman, Queen, and Alien-Being: The Experiences of First-Time Women Presidents at Small Private Colleges
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Higher Education Administration

This study examined the experiences, challenges, and transitions of eight college and university presidents who were the first women senior executives at their respective institutions. A qualitative research method, following the principles of the constructivist paradigm, was used as the underlying framework. Two in-depth sequential interviews were conducted with each president. Case studies were created for each participant and were aggregated to form the basis for these results.

Most of the participants in this study did not plan to become presidents. Usually the role emerged as a possibility later in their careers, while priorities—such as being with their families, remaining professionally challenged, and serving others—shaped their career directions. Although cognizant of gender, most did not believe that it significantly impacted their presidencies; yet because in each case, a woman, instead of a man, was appointed for the first time, several changes and adjustments occurred. In their view, the influence of gender was essentially peripheral, meaning that it affected major operations and concerns less than smaller matters located on the edge of their agendas. The professional demands of the presidency inevitably affected their personal lives, and finding a balance between professional and personal responsibilities often proved challenging. Several factors, such as individual management strategies or the kinds of external services employed, impacted the personal demands placed on them. The greatest challenges frequently related to the state of the institution when they assumed the office, addressing various leadership issues, and resolving intrapersonal issues. The participants recommended that presidential candidates be articulate and adept regarding financial and philanthropic issues, acquire a broad understanding of higher education, prepare for the magnitude of the position, and gain various leadership skills.

More attention needs to be paid to the mentoring and leadership opportunities women receive, while governing boards require education regarding non-traditional career paths. Before assuming a presidency, women need to examine their support systems, while assumptions about the position need to be analyzed. Further research should consider how the presidency affects personal relationships and explore the impact of institutional context, race, and generational influences on the experiences of first-time women college presidents.

Committee:

C. Carney Strange (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

women college and university presidents; first-time women presidents; higher education administration; presidential leadership; gender studies; private higher education; career paths of women presidents; challenges of women presidents

Coleman, Julianna MQue cuenten las mujeres/Let the Women Speak: Translating Contemporary Female Ecuadorian Authors
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2016, English
This thesis consists of the English translations of five short stories originally written in Spanish by contemporary female Ecuadorian authors. It also includes a critical introduction discussing the politics and ethics of translation and the specific responsibilities involved in translating works by contemporary Ecuadorian women. This thesis was written after several months of traveling, researching, and interviewing authors in Ecuador. The stories translated were chosen for their compelling prose and their salient female voices, and address topics like infidelity, identity, captivity, sexuality and legacy.

Committee:

Katarzyna Marciniak (Advisor); Betsy Partyka (Other)

Subjects:

Fine Arts; Foreign Language; Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Literature; Mental Health; Modern Language; Modern Literature; Personal Relationships; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Ecuador; Ecuadorian women; women writers; translation; Latin America; infidelity; identity; captivity; gender violence; sexuality; desire; older women; legacy; black women; Afroecuadorian; racism; short story

Williams, Yhana J.Educated African American Women: Educational Expectations and Outcomes
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
The purpose of this study is to depict the personal narrative of African American women as central to understanding how life experiences, gender, race and culture intersect to impact their educational expectations. To establish context, the broader purpose of this study is to understand the belief system and ideologies African Americans as a cultural group associate with education. Cultural group beliefs are important to address as these beliefs may factor into the motivation, efficacy and human agency of African American women who attain graduate degrees.

Committee:

Vanessa Allen-Brown, PhD (Committee Chair); Roger Collins, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Sunderland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

african american women employment;black women and employment;african american women employment;african american women education;educational outcomes;race and education;

Muente, Tamera LenzRepose, Reflections, and “Girls in Sunshine”: Frederick Carl Frieseke’s Paintings of Women, 1905–1920
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Art History
American Impressionist Frederick Carl Frieseke (1874–1939) lived and worked in France for approximately forty years and achieved international success with his paintings of women in domestic interiors and gardens. In this thesis I examine three themes in Frieseke’s oeuvre – women at rest, women reflected in mirrors, and the female nude – and explore how his reception in both the French and American art markets influenced his work. I decode the pictorial meanings in these images and demonstrate how they document and construct notions of womanhood around the turn of the twentieth century. This thesis contributes to the ongoing scholarly discussion of images of women in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century art. The study also augments current scholarship on Frieseke, placing his paintings of women within a socio-historical context.

Committee:

Dr. Theresa Leininger-Miller (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

art; American art; women in art; Frederick Carl Frieseke; American Impressionism; Giverny Group; women in paintings; women in American art; women in Impressionism; Impressionism; neurasthenia; rest cure; mirrors in art; nude

Warren, Barbara JonesConstructing a model for depression in middle class African- American women by exploring relationships between stressful life events, social support, and self-esteem /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1995, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Health Sciences

Keywords:

African American women;Depression in women;Life change events;African American women;Self-esteem in women

Quinlan, ColleenWomen's Career Development: The Lived Experience of Canadian University Women Presidents
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education
As of July 2011, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) reported 17 of Canada’s 95 universities were led by women. While this represents considerable change from 1974, when Pauline Jewett became the first woman president to lead a co-educational Canadian university, progress for women climbing the educational leadership ladder to the office of the university president in Canada has been slow. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the lived experience of Canadian university women presidents as they developed their career paths to the presidency. This was accomplished through an examination of the women’s own perceptions and experiences about the development of their careers specifically related to personal and professional opportunities and barriers, the role of gender, the integration of their work and non-work lives, and their advice to women who aspire to become university presidents. The participants included eight women presidents of Canadian universities and data were collected through individual, semi-structured interviews. The findings showed that each of the women journeyed through a unique path to the presidency, yet their stories shared common themes. Personal characteristics, family background, educational experiences, and mentoring relationships were identified as critical influences on their career development experience. Challenges stemmed from the struggle to balance career goals with caring responsibilities, cope with the inherent difficulties of the role of a university president, and navigate gender issues. Advice for women aspiring to become university presidents, included (a) advice based on personal development and (b) advice based on professional development.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Canadian Studies; Educational Leadership; Gender Studies; Higher Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women and leadership; women and higher education; women's career development; women academic presidents; canadian higher education

Miller, Paige LynnBarriers Preventing Access to Health Care Services for Women in Rural Samoa
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2005, International Studies - International Development Studies
This study investigates and identifies the barriers preventing access to public health care services for women living in rural villages of Samoa. One hundred one women ages 20 years and older participated in personal interviews. The interviews probed the women's use of traditional medicine, their sociocultural status, their perception of the quality of services, and the affordability and availability of health care services. The results indicate that a limited knowledge of available services, the utilization of traditional medicine, the high cost of prescription drugs, and younger age are barriers to the use of public health care services. The findings also reveal that older age, a high fertility rate, and a low education level contribute to a greater number of illnesses. Implications for improving the infrastructure of the public health care system and increasing communication between traditional healers and the public health care system are discussed.

Committee:

Jacqueline Wolf (Advisor)

Keywords:

Samoa; Women's health; Access to health care services; Women in developing countries; Rural women; South Pacific

SMITH, JACQUELINE R.THE INFLUENCE OF UPWARDLY MOBILE AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN'S RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT ON ANTICIPATED SATISFACTION OF COUNSELING SERVICES
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : Counselor Education
Changing population trends and the diversification of the United States population have prompted mental health professionals to reevaluate the efficacy of strategies and approaches used in counseling. The heavy focus of research on Blacks of lower socioeconiomic status raises serious questions about generalizing findings to all African Americans without regard for possible intra-racial differences. This study explored whether upwardly-mobile, African American women's satisfaction of counseling methods, counselor ethnicity, and racial composition of counseling group membership was associated with their level of racial identity. One hundred and twenty three African American women completed a survey using the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 to rate their anticipated satisfaction of a specifically described counseling service. Participants also completed the Black Racial Identity Research Scale Revised. Results revealed that racial identity did not influence satisfaction on any of the variables investigated. There was a significant difference between anticipated satisfaction with a Black counselor and a White counselor. There were no significant differences between anticipated satisfaction of individual counseling and group counseling or between racially heterogeneous and racially homogeneous counseling group memberships. Findings of this study underscore previous research stating that African Americans prefer same-race counselors. The results also suggest that the type of counseling and composition of counseling groups may not be as salient to African American women as counselor-client racial similarity. Implications of this research suggest that the visual and physical presence of African American counselors within mental health and counseling agencies could make professional counseling more attractive, accessible, and credible for African American women. In addition, counselor-client racial matching may also reverse the underutilization of mental health services among people of color seeking professional counseling.

Committee:

Dr. Robert Conyne (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

racial identity development; counseling satisfaction; counseling middle-class African American women; African American women; middle-class African American women

Roberts, Chadwick LeeConsuming Liberation: Playgirl and the Strategic Rhetoric of Sex Magazines for Women 1972-1985
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, American Culture Studies/Communication

This dissertation considers how heterosexual women’s sexual pleasure was negotiated in the popular and underground press in the 1970s, focusing particularly on two virtually unexamined parts of U.S. culture: sex magazines for women and woman-authored underground comics. Publications such as Playgirl, Viva, and Foxylady reveal essential differences between sex magazines for men and those for women, particularly how each type of publication addressed its readers through editorial content as well as advertising and marketing. Through the marketing of male centerfolds for women, women were asked to consider their sexual appetites for men’s bodies as equivalent to those of heterosexual men for women’s bodies. This project argues that sex magazines for women offered an evolving narrative of sexual liberation that was intrinsically wedded to, and in constant conversation with, the women’s movement. Playgirl and its competitors strategically embraced some of the tenets and language of the women’s movement while generally refusing to support the movement as a whole. This dissertation examines how the visibility and cultural influence of the women’s movement encouraged male magazine publishers to employ women editors as spokespersons. These women wrote often of sexual liberation, but they avoided engaging in any systematic critique of male power in society or heterosexual relationships.

The final chapters take a broader view of the publishing industry and women’s sexuality in the 1970s. They examine representations of women’s sexuality in woman-authored underground comics, publications with titles such as Tits and Clits and Wet Satin, and the impact of these representations on sexual culture in the United States. It argues that woman-authored underground comics exemplify approaches to sexual imagery and women’s sexuality that emerged out of feminist consciousness. The authors of these comics negotiated their own brand of feminist sexuality and their work is indicative of what is possible when women’s bodies are oriented as the center of women’s sexual universe. The concluding chapter examines the ways in which the model of female sexuality proposed by Playgirl continues to engage with and influence discussions of women’s sexuality and the place of sexual imagery in U.S. culture.

Committee:

Leigh Ann Wheeler (Advisor); Gary Oates (Committee Member); Vivian Patraka (Committee Member); Donald McQuarie (Committee Co-Chair); William Albertini (Committee Member)

Keywords:

Helen Gurley Brown; Burt Reynolds; pin-up; advertising; feminism; women's movement; women in publishing; underground press; male nudity; Playgirl; Playboy; Cosmopolitan; popular culture; consumerism; sexuality; women's sexuality; magazines; 1970s

Hart, EvanBuilding a More Inclusive Women's Health Movement: Byllye Avery and the Development of the National Black Women's Health Project, 1981-1990
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Arts and Sciences: History

This dissertation examines the National Black Women's Health Project (NBWHP), the first organization devoted solely to the health of black women. The Project was a unique organization because it was one of the first which argued black women, because of the multiple jeopardies of racism, classism, and sexism, must fight the forces negatively impacting their emotional, physical, and spiritual health. These forces, Project members argued, included their white counterparts in groups such as the National Women's Health Network, the Project's mother organization. Troubled by the lack of information on black women's health issues, NBWHP founder Byllye Avery sought to remedy the situation by hosting a national conference on black women’s health issues at Spelman College in 1983. It was at this conference that black women demanded the formation of an independent health organization, not just a program of a predominantly white health group, a group which too often glossed over the health concerns of women of color.

NBWHP leaders insisted they needed their own organization which addressed their health issues. Many of the founders had been involved on some level with white women's health organizations, and most continued to have friendly relationships with white activists. However, none of the founders felt that the larger Women's Health Movement did enough to improve the health status of black women The movement did not adequately integrate women of color's health care issues into their programs. Their insistence that there was a universal female experience erased the unique health concerns of women of color. Black women, through the guidance of the NBWHP, began writing their own agenda and developing their own programs.

In crafting a new agenda, the Project created a space where women of color could articulate their own needs and ideas. This space was necessary for black women to analyze their experiences and develop responsive programs. As NBWHP members noted again and again, black women's lives were quite different from white women. The movement's emphasis on self-exam, for example, was not as important to black women who fought for their lives on a daily basis. Their priorities simply did not match. White health feminists wanted an inclusive movement, but it did not appear that interracial organization in women's health groups helped achieve this goal.

Project members were not interested in separation, however, which suggested a clean break from other organizations. Rather, the Project sought independence from white organizations. Independence meant that Project members could write their own agenda, but it left room for inter-organizational alliances. For Project members and other women of color, inclusion did not mean that they had to join white women's groups. On the contrary, inclusion meant that all women, regardless of their race, would be able to organize themselves while building alliances and coalitions with each other. The explosion of health activism amongst women of color after the Project's founding shows that the time was ripe for women of color to organize themselves around their group's health issues, making the movement more inclusive and responsive in the process.

Committee:

Wendy Kline, PhD (Committee Chair); Rebecca M. Kluchin, PhD (Committee Member); Holly McGee, PhD (Committee Member); Tracy Teslow, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

Women's Health Movement;National Black Women's Health Project;Feminism;African American Women;Byllye Avery;;

Barbieri, Julie LautKamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, Anti-Imperialist and Women's Rights Activist, 1939-41
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2008, History
This paper utilizes biographies, correspondence, and newspapers to document and analyze the Indian socialist and women's rights activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya's (1903-1986) June 1939-November 1941 world tour. Kamaladevi's radical stance on the nationalist cause, birth control, and women's rights led Gandhi to block her ascension within the Indian National Congress leadership, partially contributing to her decision to leave in 1939. In Europe to attend several international women's conferences, Kamaladevi then spent eighteen months in the U.S. visiting luminaries such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Margaret Sanger, lecturing on politics in India, and observing numerous social reform programs. This paper argues that Kamaladevi's experience within Congress throughout the 1930s demonstrates the importance of gender in Indian nationalist politics; that her critique of Western "international" women's organizations must be acknowledged as a precursor to the politics of modern third world feminism; and finally, that Kamaladevi is one of the twentieth century's truly global historical agents.

Committee:

Judith Zinsser, PhD (Advisor); David Fahey, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Fredrickson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Womens Studies

Keywords:

Chattopadhyaya; All Indian Women's Conference; International women's organizations; Indian Socialists; Kamaladevi; Inter-war women activists; transnational feminist; Indian National Congress;

Suter, Lisa KayThe American Delsarte Movement and The New Elocution: Gendered Rhetorical Performance from 1880 to 1905
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2009, Composition and rhetoric
This dissertation analyzes the American Delsarte movement—a largely white, upper- and middle-class women’s performance phenomenon from the 1880s to 1905—as well as Delsartists’ work in creating what they called the “New Elocution.” Scholars of rhetorical history such as Nan Johnson and Robert Connors have touched on the Delsartists in their research and have begun the work of analyzing women’s participation in the American elocutionary movement; nevertheless, extensive turf remains wholly unexplored concerning women’s study of oratory in this era, in particular, considering why these women thought it the most vital discipline to study. My research therefore consists largely of a recovery project, bringing archival evidence to light and arguing that in the midst of what elocutionists called this “oratorical Renaissance,” American women were flocking in surprisingly large numbers to the study of expression and elocution—not as a “social grace,” as Leila McKee, one President of a woman’s college of oratory put it in 1898, but as a means of “social power.” Turn-of-the-century women believed that this power was theirs for the taking if they knew how to speak with more eloquence and confidence in public; this motive has been overlooked, I argue, as has the means by which women meant to procure oratorical ability—by the study and practice of what I term “rhetorical performance.” This dissertation defines and analyzes the concept of rhetorical performance as it occurred within three different Delsarte-influenced sites: competition in oratorical contests, the demonstration of elocutionary skill via public recitals, and finally the use of rhetorical drama to advance arguments regarding women’s rights.

Committee:

Dr. Cindy Lewiecki-Wilson, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dr. Katharine Ronald, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dr. Katie Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Charlotte Newman Goldy, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education History; Rhetoric; Womens Studies

Keywords:

American Delsarte movement; rhetorical performance; women's rhetoric; women's college education; nineteenth-century women's history; physical culture; rhetorical drama

Oestreich, Mary AnneLife patterns of middle-aged, working-class women : implications for adult education /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1984, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Working class women;Middle-aged women;Adult education of women

Shaw, Stephanie J.Black women in white collars : a social history of lower-level professional black women workers, 1870-1954 /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1986, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Black Studies

Keywords:

African American women;Women in the professions;African American women

Musandu, Phoebe ADaughter of Odoro: Grace Onyango and African Women's History
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2006, History
Since the eighties, the Academy has produced a modest amount of scholarship on African women’s history. A number of these works at have been limited demographically to allow for in-depth culture-specific analysis. They trace the various spaces in which women exercised power and authority, the various ways in which that agency was confronted by colonial-era challenges and how women struggled to adapt to those challenges with varying levels of success. However, works of African women’s history produced thus far are limited in ethno-geographic scope and even within those ethnic groups and geographical areas they have touched, there are more issues requiring historical research. This project is thus a contribution to the process of recovering women’s history in what is today Kenya. It will engage historical and ethno- historical data to demonstrate Kenyan female socio-economic and political agency, with a focus on the latter and with greater emphasis on Luo women.

Committee:

Osaak Olumwullah (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, African

Keywords:

African Women's History; Kenyan women; Luo oral traditions; Luo women; Grace Onyango; Mayor of Kisumu

Reekie, Shirley H. M.A history of sport and recreation for women in Great Britain, 1700-1850 /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1982, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Recreation

Keywords:

Women;Women;Sports for women

Demiri, LirikaStories of Everyday Resistance, Counter-memory, and Regional Solidarity: Oral Histories of Women Activists in Kosova
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2018, Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
Narratives of Albanian women activists involved in different forms of local, national as well as regional activism have continuously been excluded from official historical accounts in Kosova. This thesis, by focusing on the oral histories of 10 women activists, contributes to a deeper understanding of women’s subjectivities, who in one way or another were engaged in the social and political processes in Kosova. Drawing from memory studies, oral history, and local feminist research in Kosova, I analyze how the life stories of these women intersect with broader events that characterize the history of the second half of the 20th century in Kosova. I particularly trace the ways how these women construct their subjectivity and civic engagement as women’s rights activists in relation to nationalist movements, civil as well as armed resistance against the regime of Milosevic, war-time experience, and post-war period in Kosova. In this regard, I pay attention to forms of counter-memories that their life stories enact, which oppose both male-dominated historical accounts in post-war Kosova and the pejorative Serbian media discourse about Albanian women in the former Yugoslavia.

Committee:

JIll Bystydzienski, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Gender Studies; History; Sociology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women activism; counter memory; oral history; former Yugoslavia; women agency; women subjectivity; Kosova;

Mwangi, E. WairimuCorrelates of HIV/AIDS Vulnerability: A Multilevel Study of the Impact of Agricultural-Consumption Regimes on Women's Vulnerability in Kenya
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Human and Community Resource Development

The recognition that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a major threat to sub-Saharan Africa’s economic development has prompted researchers to focus on the economic impacts of the disease. In particular, given the importance of agriculture for livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), researchers have investigated the impact of HIV/AIDS on agriculture. Relatively little research has focused on the role agriculture plays in fueling the spread of HIV/AIDS. This study addresses this gap in the literature and examines how agricultural contexts in Kenya influence women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The study uses a regional analysis of Kenya using districts (similar to U.S counties) as administrative units and employs multilevel analysis to examine the impact of the regional agricultural context on women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

This study refers to regional agricultural contexts as agricultural-consumption regimes (ACRs). The term agricultural-consumption regimes (ACRs) draws from longstanding literature which examines how agricultural development in developing countries impacts women’s agricultural productivity, hence their ability to fulfill the consumption needs of their households. ACRs encompass the key production-related factors in the women and development literature - agricultural commercialization (cash crop versus food crop production), land tenure, access to credit, and access to extension services. ACRs also include household survival strategies that women employ to counter constraints in agricultural production such as opportunities for wage employment, membership in cooperatives, and women’s organizations. In examining the impacts of ACRs on women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, the study also takes into account women’s decision-making autonomy and household food security. There is consensus in the HIV/AIDS literature that power imbalances in the household are a major factor driving women’s vulnerability to this disease in sub-Saharan Africa, thus, the importance of examining the links between women’s decision-making autonomy and HIV/AIDS. Regarding household food security, researchers have suggested that people who are food insecure are less likely to act on their knowledge about HIV to prevent infection. Greater household food insecurity may thus increase women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

This study assesses the extent to which ACRs influence women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS net of individual and household-level characteristics such as women’s decision-making autonomy and household food security.

The study finds that at the contextual level, after taking into account women’s decision-making autonomy and household food security, women’s tenure security, land holding sizes, cash crop production and membership in women’s is associated with lower vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By contrast, wage employment, access to credit (proportion of households that were able to access credit in the district) and land titling (proportion of household in the districts with title to land) is associated with women’s increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

The study shows that claims made in the women in development (WID) cross-national literature that context matters for women’s well-being are supported at the sub-national scale, although some relationships are not consistent in all directions with the aforementioned literature. In terms of policy, efforts to safeguard women’s rights to property such as land may be an important component not only for poverty alleviation, but also for HIV/AIDS prevention strategies.

Committee:

Linda Lobao, PhD (Advisor); Mark Erbaugh, PhD (Committee Member); David Kraybill, PhD (Committee Member); Kristi Williams, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Health; Sociology

Keywords:

women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa; agricultural development; household food security; women in development (WID); women's decision-making autonomy; gender inequalities

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