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Wu, Ya-LiThe Use of Technology during Academic Acculturation: Case Studies of Chinese-Speaking International Doctoral Students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Teaching and Learning
The number of international students who pursue higher education in Western countries, such as the US, increases yearly. Asian international students are a significant proportion of international students from different countries. Numerous researchers have identified various challenges encountered by this group of international students, including difficulties in adjusting to new linguistic and academic environments (Scheyvens, Wild,& Overton, 2003; Yeh & Inose, 2003), struggling to learn Western styles of academic writing (Silva, 1992), inadequately participating in class discussions (Currie, 2007; Liu, 2000; Morita, 2004), being isolated from faculty and peers (Le & Gardner, 2010; Trice, 2003), and lacking the knowledge of local culture (Scheyvens et al., 2003). Some researchers also discovered that the use of technology could assist international students in developing their L2 competence (Bakar & Ismail, 2009; Kessler, Bikowski, & Boggs, 2012), increasing their participation in course-related discussions (Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Kim, 2011), and making connections with people from the identical ethnic group (Cao & Zhang, 2012; Fan, 2008; Kim, 2010; Kim et al., 2009) and from the target culture (Fan, 2008; Hodis & Hodis, 2012; Kim, 2010; Kim et al, 2009) in a foreign country. Nevertheless, a few studies (e.g., Hughes, 2013) have investigated the influence of technology use on international students' discipline-specific learning. This present study, therefore, examined the role of technology during Asian international doctoral students' acculturation to their particular academic disciplines. Vygotsky's (1978) sociocultural theory, Lave and Wenger's (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998) communities of practice, and Casanave, Li, and other scholars' academic acculturation (Casanave, 2002; Casanave & Li, 2008) were adopted to design this research, collect and analyze data, and interpret findings. Participants were three Chinese-speaking international students who studied in different doctoral programs but in the same institution in the Midwestern US. The data were gathered through a survey, interviews, weekly journals, and field notes. Case study was utilized to present data analysis. The finding shows that the participants acculturated to not only their academic disciplines but also the English environment and the Western academic culture. During the process, they confronted various academic difficulties, such as challenges of clearly expressing own ideas in speaking and writing in academic English. The result also indicates that overall technology serves as an assistive role during their academic acculturation processes. They utilized assorted technologies (e.g., academic search engines, social interactional software, citation software, and online lexical resources) to surmount some academic challenges they encountered, participate in discipline-specific communities of practice (e.g., undertaking research), and accomplish varied academic tasks (e.g., fulfilling course requirements and writing conference proposals in English). However, their use of technologies could not completely enhance their academic English competence, discipline-specific knowledge, and research ability. Moreover, exclusively employing technology could not help them adjust to the Western academic culture and socialize into their disciplines. Attaining these goals necessitates sufficient guidance and support from more experienced members and/or experts of the Western academic communities and their discipline-specific communities. Otherwise, they might legitimately but peripherally participate in communities of practice. Additionally, their use of some technologies was problematic and which could hinder them from socializing into the Western academic culture and their discipline-specific communities. For instance, some of the participants solely utilized one search engine (Google Scholar) to look for academic articles for their research and for acquiring discipline-specific knowledge. Nevertheless, each academic search engine has its own advantages and disadvantages (e.g., only including academic articles from certain journals or not including scholarly works published latest). Employing multiple academic search engines might counterbalance an individual search engine's weaknesses.

Committee:

Keiko Samimy (Advisor); Alan Hirvela (Committee Member); Francis Troyan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Technology; English As A Second Language

Keywords:

international students; international doctoral students; Chinese-speaking international students; academic acculturation; graduate students socialization; international students use of technology; international students academic challenges

Alsaddah, Ala SamirHow Does Knowledge and Utilization of Nutrition Labels Differ Among International and Non-international College Students?
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
The purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge and utilization of nutrition labels among international versus non-international college students. It was expected that there would be a difference in knowledge of the nutrition labels between the international and non-international college students. Also, it was expected that there would be a difference in utilization of nutrition labels among international and non-international college students. An electronic questionnaire was completed by undergraduate and graduate students at Kent State University (n=176). Descriptive statistics were utilized to describe frequencies, standard deviations, and means of all participants’ responses. A t test was used to compare the means of the three subscales (nutrition knowledge, nutrition label use, and attitude toward nutrition labels) among the demographic variables. A P-value was selected a priori 0.05 for significance. Correlation between age and the three scales was used to analyze the relationship between age and scores on each of the three scales. A significant difference was demonstrated in the summed total knowledge scores between non-international and International students (P=.001). This study demonstrated a lack of overall nutrition label knowledge and use among college students, suggesting nutritional-related educational strategies for college students are needed.

Committee:

Karen Gordon, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. (Advisor); Natalie Caine-Bish, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. (Committee Member); Amy Miracle, Ph.D. R.D., CSSD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Food Science; Health; Health Sciences; Nutrition

Keywords:

nutrition labels; nutrition; utilization of nutrition labels; food labels; nutrition facts; healthy; college students; international students; American students; university students; food label use; new food labels; foreign students; immigrant students

Krismer, Marianne ZwickAttibutes and Support Systems That Promote Resilience and Achievement for “At Promise” Community College Students
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Education : Educational Foundations
This qualitative study of five first generation community college students and four faculty who participated in high school to college bridge program(s) was undertaken in order to determine the attributes and personal and community support systems accessed by successful students. The students in the study all had significant academic and social barriers to their success. This study was grounded in resilience theory that is based upon 25 years of study, primarily on children, that suggests the nature of the human is to self-right, and with adequate support, the majority will be able to overcome adversity and achieve educational success. Interviews of students and faculty provided data that described the perceptions of attributes and support systems that promote resilience and achievement. Data was abstracted and coded for common themes for attributes, personal support systems and community support systems that foster resilience and achievement. There was significant agreement among the students and faculty in most categories, with individual stories illustrating how these successful students plan, overcome obstacles, and utilize resources to achieve success. Findings indicated that social competence, autonomy, goal setting, high expectations, teacher belief, identifying someone who cares and utilization of multiple individual and community support systems were key characteristics identified by these successful students and faculty who interact with “at-promise” students. The results of this study indicated that the personal attributes and support systems accessed by this young adult population are congruent with those accessed by successful children. Since this study is focused on achievement and resilience of a population that is typically identified as “at-risk”, it was determined to identify these students as “at-promise” promoting the positive concept that resilience is ordinary and achievable for the majority. Implications arising from this study include the need to provide intentional opportunities for students to develop their own attributes and identify and utilize support systems effectively. High school-to-college bridge programs were affirmed as being supportive of resilience and achievement. Bridge programs constructed to include caring, supportive teachers with high expectations; opportunities to develop social competence, autonomy, resources, and strategies to effectively re-right after failure will maximize success and provide connections for “at-promise” students.

Committee:

Dr. Mary Pitman (Advisor)

Keywords:

at-promise students; at-promise community college students; at-risk community college students,; resilience and community college students; achievement and community college students

Shavers, Marjorie C.“I’m a Finisher. I Can’t Quit, Won’t Quit, Got to Get it Done”: Voices of African American Female Doctoral Students at Predominately White Institutions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
This qualitative study used Black Feminist Thought as the interpretive lens to investigate the perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions. Semi-structured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and the influences these experiences had on their academic persistence and overall well-being. Fifteen participants were interviewed, and their responses were analyzed to identify the emerging themes. The following seven themes emerged from the data: (a) outsider, (b) perception of tokenism, (c) shifting: the academic mask, (d) prove-them-wrong syndrome, (e) part of a bigger whole, (f) expectations versus reality, and (g) discouragement versus encouragement. A summary of findings is presented, as well as specific recommendations to specific individuals.

Committee:

James Moore III, PhD (Advisor); Anika Anthony, PhD (Committee Member); Antoinette Miranda, PhD (Committee Member); Kisha Radliff, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; African American Studies; African Americans; Counseling Education; Higher Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

African American women; Black female students; doctoral students; African American doctoral students; Black female doctoral students; higher education; shifting

Shidaker, Chelsey N.THE EFFECTS OF GO 4 IT…NOW! STRATEGY INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ PARAGRAPH WRITING IN AN INCLUSIVE SECONDARY LANGUAGE ARTS CLASSROOM
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Educational Studies
Writing is a crucial skill that people need to successfully communicate thoughts and information. Writing proficiently is essential to function in many activities of every day life, including school, the workplace, relationships, and the community at large. In school, students are regularly asked to demonstrate their academic knowledge through written communication. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a strategy instruction approach, GO 4 IT…NOW!, in an inclusive secondary Language Arts classroom. Specifically, this was a descriptive study using multiple probes across participants to assess the quality of participants’ writings after implementing GO 4 IT…NOW! strategy instruction. All students demonstrated strong improvement in paragraph writing skills after the implementation of the GO 4 IT…NOW! strategy. Limitations, future directions, and implications for practice are provided in the discussion.

Committee:

Ralph Gardner, III / Ph.D (Advisor); Moira Konrad, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Secondary Education; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

SRSD; students with SLD; students with academic risk; GO 4 IT - NOW; strategy instruction; writing instruction; paragraph writing; Special Education; secondary education; secondary students; high school; writing strategy

Partridge, Cynthia EThe Impact of TRIO Upward Bound Program Participation on Student Outcomes: TRIO Upward Bound Case Study
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
TRIO Upward Bound is the flagship U.S. Department of Education pre-college program designed to assist potential future college students who are low-income, first-generation, or at high risk for academic failure in pursuing and completing postsecondary education. The word TRIO was used by the federal government in the late 1960s for the three original educational opportunity programs: Upward Bound; Student Support Services; and Educational Talent Search. Six additional programs were added by 1998, totaling nine TRIO programs. This qualitative research study examined the impact of TRIO Upward Bound participation length and level on participants’ high school completion, college enrollment and success, civic participation, and citizenship practices. The study results revealed that former students found TRIO Upward Bound to be an effective program that not only helped them with the academic and social skills necessary to graduate from high school and complete postsecondary education, but also led to civic engagement and good citizenship practices, such as voting, paying taxes, abiding by the law, postponing parenthood, employment, and community service. In addition, I found that students who remained in the program the longest, completed the Bridge Program (the second level and final phase of the program), and officially graduated from TRIO Upward Bound obtained their Bachelor and Associate degrees at much higher rates than those with less program participation length and level. They also received the highest level of program benefits, which included the bachelor’s degree and full time employment.

Committee:

Samuel Stringfield, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Vanessa Allen-Brown, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Roger Collins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy

Keywords:

TRIO Programs;Upward Bound;College Preparatory Programs;First Generation Students;Low Income Students;High School Students

Fleming, DaNine J.African-American Students’ Perceptions of the Impact of Retention Programs and Services at Predominantly White Institutions
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2007, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership

There is an expanding body of literature on the retention of students in higher education through programmatic efforts, but there is limited research on African-American students’ perceptions of the impact of retention programs and services at predominantly White institutions. Programs and services are created by administrators, faculty and staff on college and university campuses for the purpose of increasing the retention of African-American students and a diverse student body, but many are based on the professionals’ perceptions of students’ needs. Rarely are programs and services created through dialogue from the student population that will be served or by what I call “listening to the voices” of the students.

The premise of this qualitative study is to ascertain if African-American students find retention programs and services beneficial to their persistence on their respective campuses. This study explores the experiences of African-American junior and senior, traditional-aged, full-time, undergraduate students with a grade point average of 3.0 or below exclusively at four predominantly White institutions in Pennsylvania. The experiences of African-American students are different from other groups, including White males, white females and other minority groups. The use of focus groups permits dialogue that enables a researcher to be able to hear first-hand from African-American students giving voice to their personal feelings of the impact of retention programs and services at predominantly White institutions.

Committee:

Robert Beebe (Advisor)

Keywords:

African-American student retention; higher education/African-American students; African-American students perceptions; support programs/services; African-American students

Reynolds, Jamie L.A Case Study Analysis of Reinstated Students' Experiences in the Learning to Establish Academic Priorities (LEAP) Reinstatement Intervention Program
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
Limited qualitative research has been conducted on academically reinstated students. The purpose of this naturalistic case study was to identify factors influencing the decision to apply for reinstatement and to examine how participation in an academic intervention program assisted academically reinstated students to succeed. Six reinstated students participating in an academic intervention program participated in this study. A social constructivist perspective was assumed, relying on the participants’ perspectives to cultivate meanings of their experiences. This research offered a better understanding of the needs and experiences of reinstated students, provided evidence of resources, interventions, and programs that might be helpful for future reinstated students. The findings of this study could enhance attrition and retention of this student population.

Committee:

Susan V. Iverson, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Mark Kretovics, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); William Kist, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

"at-risk students; reinstated students; probationary students; higher education; colleges and universities"

Anible, Floyd RussellEffects of intervening work experience on undergraduate persistence
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Human and Community Resource Development
The years following high school are often characterized by uncertainty with regard to career and education decisions. The literature reviewed during this study suggested that a period of meaningful work experience between secondary and post-secondary education might reduce this uncertainty. The literature reviewed suggested that students who choose to leave full-time, formal education temporarily often return later with a greater sense of direction and motivation. The purpose of the study was to explore the association, if any, between work experience preceding college and persistence to degree completion. Data was extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Data (NLSY79), sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor, and managed under contract by the Center for Human Resource Research (CHRR) at The Ohio State University. Predictor variables were analyzed for their effects on undergraduate persistence using binary logistic regression. The dependent variable was whether or not subjects earned a baccalaureate degree. The predictor variables included: (a) an intervening work experience between high school and college, (b) income, (c) dependents, (d) years required to attain the bachelor’s degree, (e) age at the time of earning the degree, (f) gender, (g) race, (h) SAT/ACT scores, and (i) military experience. The likelihood of persistence of those who did not have the intervening work experience was about 12 times greater than that of those who had the work experience. Subjects who had no active duty military experience were nearly 10 times more likely to persist. The single predictor variable that appeared to validate the literature was the variable that referred to the number of years it took a subject, from the time of first entry into college, to earn a bachelor’s degree. With the addition of each such year, it appeared that subjects were approximately 2.3 times more likely to persist to eventually earn a bachelor’s degree. This suggested that many non-traditional students reach their bachelor degree goals through combinations of entry, departure, and reentry into undergraduate studies, interspersed or combined with periods of full-time and part-time work and study.

Committee:

Robert Birkehnolz (Advisor)

Keywords:

nontraditional students; reentering students; reentry students; stopouts; dropouts; persistence

Cortner, Laquetta K.THE PERCEPTIONS OF INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MULTICULTURAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM ADVOCATES OF DIFFERENCES IN RETENTION INITIATIVES AND SUPPORT BY GRADUATION RATE
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Higher Education (Education)

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of institutional members of the National Association of Multicultural Engineering Program Advocates of differences in retention initiatives and support by graduation rate. Specifically, this study examined the perceived effectiveness of retention initiatives, the impact of attrition issues and the effectiveness of retention resources to support the retention of multicultural engineering students. Completed in the winter 2007, this study was distributed electronically to institutional NAMEPA members and resulted in a 28% response rate. The survey instrument was developed by the researcher and consisted of five-point Likert scale items that examined the effectiveness of retention initiatives and attrition issues. Open response questions examined retention rates, unit goals, successful retention practices, practices not occurring at respondent institutions and factors impacting graduation rates. Information was also collected on time spent on retention initiatives, financial resources to support multicultural engineering student retention and personnel resources to support multicultural engineering student retention. Data was analyzed using Independent Samples T Test to test for statistical significance of retention initiatives and attrition issues by graduation rate group. Chi Square analysis was used to test for relational significance of time spent on retention initiatives, financial resources and personnel support by graduation rate group. This examination of institutional perspectives on retention initiatives did not find significant differences of these variables by the graduation rate groups established for this study. Data collected on successful practices, practices not occurring at the institutions, unit goals for retaining multicultural engineering students and graduation rate factors did support the retention initiatives and attrition issues evaluated in this study. Further studies can be done to collect student perspectives on these issues and to further examine each of the retention initiatives and attrition issues evaluated in this study.

Committee:

Valerie Conley (Advisor)

Keywords:

Multicultural Engineering Students; Retention of Multicultural Students; Retention of Engineering Students

Koch, Cassandra M.The impact of age on intermediate students' self-selection of literature
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Reading

It is a well-supported fact that students who have an internalized motivation to read will engage in literacy-related practices throughout life. Because of this, teachers must strive to help students develop intrinsic desires to become avid readers. However, this is not always a simple task, especially when concerned with intermediate-level students who face the impending “fourth-grade slump.” The encouragement of avid reading requires implementation of fundamental aspects of motivation: choice, access, and self-selection of literature.

This study focused primarily on the self-selection strategies utilized by third and sixth grade students attending a nearby intermediate school. Little is known about how self-selection methods alter as students age. To avoid the decline in motivation that most students encounter around fourth grade, educators must be aware of how students choose texts to provide them with appealing literature, successful selection strategies, and guidance to promote autonomy.

To determine how third and sixth grade students choose recreational literature, participants responded to a 12-question survey. A variety of questions were used to collect information related to students’ reading habits, preferences, and self-selection processes. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed to determine the degree to which age is a factor in the self-selection processes exercised by students in intermediate grades.

The findings of this study indicate that no methodology of choosing literature is specific to a certain grade level. Despite this, it was acknowledged that both third and sixth graders were likely to implement a variation of the same three steps first when choosing texts: reading the title, identifying the author, and surveying the cover design. Although there were similarities found between the surveyed age groups, it was concluded that age is a factor in relation to the number of steps students take when choosing a book, the degree of importance related to a book’s topic, and the frequency to which each strategy is used. Despite whether age has an impact or not, evidence from this study indicates that students need continuous support from both the school and home to encourage the development of successful self-selection strategies that will lead to life-long reading.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Chair); John Sorg, EdD (Committee Member); Mark Earley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Literacy; Reading Instruction; Teaching

Keywords:

self-selection; intermediate students; age; students' age; pleasure reading; self-selection process; self-selection strategies; recreational reading; reading; adolescent reading; adolescents; literature; choice; books; teachers; parents; students

Williams, Sheila Y. Guinier ClarkeASIAN INDIAN SOJOURNERS: AN INQUIRY INTO THE PROBASHI–“AWAY FROM HOME” EXPERIENCE OF GRADUATE STUDENTS AT A MID-WESTERN UNIVERSITY
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Counselor Education (Education)

Data indicate that the number of international students at U.S. institutions of higher learning has been rising. From 2002 to 2007 India has sent more students to U.S. colleges ad universities than any other country. Previous researchers have found many of the problems of international students unique and perhaps more pressing than those faced by other student populations, yet this pattern is not reflected in their use of counseling facilities (e.g. Pederson, 1991). Counseling center records at one mid-western university indicate that international graduate students use counseling center services proportionally less than any other group of students.

This study is an inquiry into the experiences of Asian Indian graduate students, the largest segment of the international graduate student population at this mid-western university. Through this study, I attempted to understand how these students make sense of their experiences at the university, what problems they perceive themselves to have, and how they go about resolving those problems they deem significant. I employed a qualitative methodology in pursuing this study and I used an interpretive/constructivist paradigm to conceptualize my work. In-depth interview data were analyzed for recurrent themes and patterns. Four primary themes emerged: transitional issues, sources of support, counseling and mental health, and cultural beliefs and practices. The identified themes were shared with some participants during a second round of interviews to glean feedback and validate the findings.

Participants in the study typically faced challenges with a pragmatic approach. They reported a preference for using previously established support networks, such as family and friends (even newly made friends) rather than formal counseling. Typically, they were unaware of counseling services and reported being unlikely to use services for other than pragmatic issues e.g. help with adjusting to a new educational system.

In addition, it was clear that cultural beliefs and practices continued to play a part in their current life experiences. Implications of these findings for the practice of mental health counseling on university campuses are discussed.

Committee:

Thomas Davis (Advisor)

Keywords:

international students; graduate students; Indian students; qualitative research; sojourners; counseling; psychology; ; ;

Harris, Angela L.Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for African-American College Students
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2013, School of Professional Psychology
There is limited research on African-American college students and their participation in group psychotherapy in a university counseling center setting. This study examined the barriers to group psychotherapy for African-American college students. A 61 item survey was designed to obtain African-American college students’ views on their willingness to participate in group therapy, expectations of group psychotherapy, expectations of group members, expectations of group leaders, coping skills when in distress, and multicultural considerations relating to group psychotherapy. Data collected from a sample (N = 108)was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results of the this study found that coping strategies for African-American college students were predominantly based around family and friends, facing their problems directly, faith and religion and group psychotherapy was seen as a method less desirable than many other coping methods. Results also found that barriers to group psychotherapy included fear of being judged, fear of being discriminated against, fear of being stereotyped and a number of other salient factors. More should be learned about the barriers to group psychotherapy for African-American college students so as to identify effective ways to effectively recruit and retain African-American college to group psychotherapy.

Committee:

Martyn Whittingham, PhD (Committee Chair); James Dobbins, PhD (Committee Member); Daniela Burnworth, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Psychology

Keywords:

African-American; Black; College; College students; Group; Group therapy; Group psychohtherapy; Barriers; Barriers for African-American college students; Barriers for Black Students; Barriers to Group Psychotherapy

Wilkins, Julianne GKnowledge and Perception of College Students Toward Genetic Testing for Personalized Nutrition Care
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
Nutrigenomics is a rapidly developing field of study involving the relationship between genetics and nutrition. Multiple companies are now offering personalized dietary advice based on the results of genetic testing. College students, who are educated and more familiar with new technology may provide valuable information about perceptions toward nutrigenomic technology while it is still in its early stages of development. The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and perception of college students toward genetic testing for personalized nutrition. Participants in this study were college students from Kent State University who completed an online survey administered through Qualtrics. The survey assessed perception toward nutrigenomics along with basic genetics knowledge. Analysis of the data revealed a general lack of genetics knowledge among college students. In addition, only 25% of participants had ever heard or read about nutrigenomic testing. The overall perception toward these developments was more positive than negative. There were significant differences in genetics knowledge and perception of nutrigenomics among various class ranks and majors. In addition, findings indicate a significant relationship between participation in college level nutrition and/or genetics courses, higher genetics knowledge and more positive perceptions toward nutrigenomics. Individuals who scored higher on the genetics knowledge assessment also displayed a more positive perception toward nutrigenomics. More research is needed to understand how college students perceive nutrigenomics and what factors affect their attitude toward these scientific developments. Future studies with a valid and reliable questionnaire are needed to confirm the findings of this study.

Committee:

Eun-Jeong (Angie) Ha, PhD (Advisor); Natalie Caine-Bish, PhD, RD, LD (Committee Member); Nancy Burzminksi, PhD, RD, LD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Biochemistry; Biology; Education; Ethics; Food Science; Genetics; Health; Health Care; Health Education; Health Sciences; Medicine; Nutrition; Public Health Education; Science Education

Keywords:

Nutrigenomics; personalized nutrition; genetic testing; nutrigenetics; college students; genomics; knowledge of college students; perception of college students; perception of nutrigenomics; knowledge of nutrigenomics; gene test; nutrition; genes

Spanner Morrow, MinervaA Comparison of Approaches to Closing the Achievement Gap in Three Urban High Schools in Ohio.
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2017, College of Education
This dissertation addresses approaches to closing the achievement gap for urban public high schools. High school graduation rates have been increasing, both nationally and in Ohio; however, this is not the case for all students. The problem addressed in this research is that graduation rates of African-American and Hispanic students in Ohio were not increasing at the same rate as those of White students within the past decade. The literature review indicated that poverty was not always a predictor of lack of academic success. Through qualitative case study methodologies, this research explored how three urban public schools in Ohio made significant gains in improving the graduation rate of African-American and Hispanic students. Eighteen individuals were interviewed during the course of this study and their testimonies show that instructional strategies, academic interventions and building strong relationships with students were important in closing the achievement gap. The findings of this research include specific strategies and approaches that led to increased graduation rates. Additionally, this study provided participants, including African-American and Hispanic students, their parents, community leaders, and educators, an opportunity to voice their opinions and concerns, and make valuable recommendations on how to continue to improve the education of underperforming African-American and Hispanic students in Ohio. The personal experiences of the participants in this study may help other public school district educators in the nation serving similar ethnic groups, gain a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities to closing the achievement gap.

Committee:

Harold E. Wilson, PhD (Committee Chair); James Olive, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Judy Alston, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Educational Leadership; Hispanic Americans; Multicultural Education; Secondary Education

Keywords:

Achievement gap; graduation rate; African American students; Hispanic students; high school students; equity; diversity; inclusion; disparities; Critical Race Theory; academic achievement; Ohio public schools; Florida public schools; civil rights

Rehner, Teresa H.The interweaving of reading as a mode of learning and mathematics as a way of knowing in geometry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Theory and Practice
This study focused on reading as a mode of learning and mathematics as a way of knowing. Reading literature was interwoven into a mathematics geometry classroom over an entire school year. Two books, Flatland by Edwin A. Abbott and its sequel Sphereland by Dionys Burger, were selected and used because rich mathematics is interwoven throughout the stories. This study examined the effect interweaving had on students’ beliefs about and attitudes towards mathematics as a discipline and their perceptions of their performance. The participants were all young women from a single-sex high school, primarily sophomores along with several freshmen. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. In order to gather data about their attitudes, beliefs and perceptions, a grounded survey was administered in September and May to two groups: a treatment and a non-treatment group. Various student documents available only for the treatment group were analyzed. The thrust of the study was to compare within the treatment group from September to May and to compare between groups. The students who experienced the interweaving of literature into their geometry class expanded their view of mathematics. Mathematics was now a process, a way of knowing. They saw an increase in the relevancy of mathematics to the real, everyday world. They felt an increase in value for their ideas in mathematics, more so than in English. Attitudes towards, beliefs about, and perceptions of mathematics became more positive as a result of the union of mathematics and English. There was a constant and continuing transaction taking place among the learner, the text, and the context. Each contributed to the other in an on-going process and none of them remained unchanged in the process. Through the transactions, students explored the nature of mathematics, mathematics as a process and mathematical concepts. The result was reading was a mode of learning and mathematics was a way of knowing in geometry.

Committee:

Douglas Owens (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Mathematics

Keywords:

MATHEMATICS; non-treatment group; students; mathematics and English; students in the treatment group; READING; students in the treatment

Long, Leroy L.An Investigation into the Relationship between Technology and Academic Achievement among First-Year Engineering Students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, EDU Teaching and Learning
In order to increase the number of American STEM degree recipients, it is important for academics to develop ways to improve students’ interest, retention, and success in fields like engineering. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between first-year engineering students’ (FYES) perceived (a) knowledge, (b) usefulness, as well as (c) frequency and nature of use of technology and their academic achievement (i.e., grades). This investigation focused on the specific types and uses of educational technology by FYES, while also analyzing differences by race/ethnicity and gender. Previously, scholars have employed a broad definition of technology to describe hardware such as cell phones and computers or software for word processing and web-based applications. Such definitions have been used to understand how collegians, instructors, and professionals interact with technology. In the present study, educational technology signified specific computer and information technology such as computer hardware (e.g., desktops, laptops), computer software (e.g., Microsoft Word/Excel, MATLAB, SolidWorks), electronic devices (e.g., cellphones, tablets, E-readers), and the Internet (e.g., websites, course management systems). Rogers’ (1995) technology adoption theory was chosen for the current study as it related well to the present research questions. A multi-step approach (i.e., descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, hierarchical linear regression) was used to analyze survey data from nearly 500 students. Results from the present study determined there were significant racial/ethnic differences in FYES’ perceived usefulness as well as frequency and nature of use of technology. There were also significant gender differences in FYES’ perceived knowledge and usefulness of technology. Furthermore, FYES’ background characteristics significantly predicted their final course grades in the second of two Fundamentals of Engineering courses. Findings have important implications for practice, research, and theory surrounding FYES and educational technology.

Committee:

Paul Post, PhD (Advisor); Terrell Strayhorn, PhD (Advisor); Lin Ding, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Gustafson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Technology; Engineering; Technology

Keywords:

Technology; Educational Technology; Technology Adoption; Academic Achievement; First-Year Students; First-Year Engineering Students; Underrepresented Students; Engineering Education;

Yang, JianxiangA CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF SELF-PERCEPTION AMONG AMERICAN AND CHINESE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2007, Educational Psychology
Self-perception of school-aged students has a strong interaction with their academic achievement, social relationship, and emotional well-being. The present study explores the grade, gender, and cultural difference in self-perception among Chinese and American students using a Cultural-Probe-Approach self-perception instrument that incorporates values emphasized by both American and Chinese cultures. Self-report data were acquired from 77 American students and 510 Chinese students from grades 4, 6, 8, and 10. The results display some revealing grade, gender, and cultural differences in students’ self-perception at overall and domain-specific levels. Implications for education and mental health services are also discussed.

Committee:

Aimin Wang (Advisor)

Keywords:

CHINESE; SELF-PERCEPTION; Chinese students; Grade Difference; AMERICAN AND CHINESE; STUDENTS; schoolwork

Jenkins, Dawn D.The Self-Efficacy of First-Generation College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Counselor Education (Education)
This qualitative research explored the experiences of first-generation college students. This study sought to determine how self-efficacy affects the level of academic and social success of first-generation college students, as well as learn how first-generation college students defined personal success. Ten traditional-aged undergraduate students at Ohio University, a predominantly White institution, were interviewed. A demographic questionnaire gathered information regarding students’ backgrounds, academic standing, work/family commitments, financial resources and parent’s level of education. The data analysis revealed three emergent themes: family, transitional issues, and success. Results indicated that FGC students’ higher levels of self-efficacy contributed to their academic success. Other factors, such as family expectations and support, and first-year transitional issues were also found to be contributing factors.

Committee:

Dana Levitt (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

First-Generation College Students; Self-Efficacy; Underrepresented Students; Grounded Theory

Parkins, Jason M.Teachers' Understanding of Chronic Pain and its Impact on Students' Functioning
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2012, School Psychology
Chronic pain is a widespread and complex concern, which affects students academically, emotionally, and socially. Teachers' knowledge about meeting the academic, emotional, and social needs of children with chronic pain needs is essential. Previous findings indicate that attention and relief from responsibility may reinforce and maintain functional disability; however, teachers may not be properly educated about ways to help students manage chronic pain. This study assessed regular education teachers' understanding of chronic pain. One hundred and five teachers from a midwestern school district completed a survey rating their understanding of chronic pain. The majority of teachers reported no knowledge about chronic pain and had not received any formal training. Most of the teachers, however, indicated that they have previously had a student with chronic pain whose academic, emotional, and social functioning was somewhat affected. Teachers did not vary significantly in their perceptions of impact of pain on functioning based on their school type. Future research should focus on specific chronic pain conditions and the effectiveness of interventions to improve teacher knowledge of working with students with chronic pain. School systems should ensure that teachers understand medical conditions associated with chronic pain in order to provide effective interventions.

Committee:

Susan Davies, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Chronic pain; students' chronic pain; teachers' understanding of students' chronic pain

Wahome, SamathaAin’t I a Girl: Black Girls Negotiating Gender, Race, and Class
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Teaching and Learning
This study sought to address the lack of research on young Black girls’ experiences in schooling and in their relationships with peers by exploring the experiences and perspectives of three second-grade Black girls, Adrianna, Raell, and Mariah. The particular goal of the study was to examine the ways that they were positioned and the ways they positioned themselves within the peer cultural discourses of the classroom and the prominent sociocultural discourses they drew from to explain their perceptions of these peer cultural discourses. Additionally, I was interested in the way in which discourses of difference, including discourses of race, class, and gender, were taken up within their perceptions and experiences. The results indicated that each girl had similar, yet distinctly different positionings within the larger sociocultural discourses of the classroom and their peer cultural worlds. Their perspectives were imbued with the sociohistorical, political, familial, and personal worlds that were a part of their experience. I began to theorize across each of these cases in the final chapter, revealing the complexity and commonalities of their perspectives and agency.

Committee:

Barbara Seidl, PhD (Committee Chair); Cynthia Dillard, PhD (Committee Member); Laurie Katz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black Studies; Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Sociology; Gender; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Identity; Black girls; Black students; African American students; Early Childhood; Elementary Education; Peer Culture; African American girls; Race; Class; Gender; Black feminism; Endarkened feminism; Peer relationships; Sociocultural

Stoll Turton, Elizabeth Buffy A.First-generation college seniors navigating tension between home and school at a four-year, residential institution: A narrative study
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2015, Educational Leadership
One in six students at American four-year universities is a first-generation student. First-generation students, defined in this study as those whose parents did not attend a four-year university, encounter unique tensions as they navigate the disparate worlds of home and school. This constructivist narrative study of first-generation student experiences explores the success stories of eight diverse first-generation seniors at Miami University – a selective, four-year, residential institution in Oxford, Ohio. The study resists a deficient perspective on first-generation students, instead telling the stories of participants who have successfully navigated tension between the worlds of home and school, and accomplished their goal of graduating from college. Though nearly all research in this area focuses on first-generation students’ transitions to college, this study found that tension between home and school persisted throughout participants’ college experiences. This persistent tension is identified and described in three non-linear realms: tension of transition, tension of identity, and tension of success. The study describes how participants experienced a temporal dimension of tension between their past and future worlds within these realms, and identifies participants’ commitment to a college future as a powerful source of motivation for persistence amidst home/school tension. Implications for practice underscore the importance of validation for first-generation students from campus peers, faculty, and staff; the value of safe space for building authentic connections with others in their college world; and the responsibility of four-year institutions to transform institutional culture in order to provide such validation and support for first-generation students as they negotiate tension between the worlds of home and school. Particular implications for practice include targeted outreach for first-generation students in the areas of pre-semester transition programs, career exploration and development, and study abroad.

Committee:

Elisa Abes (Committee Chair); Kathleen Goodman (Committee Member); David Perez, II (Committee Member); John Jeep (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Families and Family Life; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

first-generation college students; first-generation student success; narrative; tension; validation theory; first-generation college seniors; low-income college students; four-year universities; residential universities

Riepenhoff, Mary ECOLLEGE ASPIRATIONS TO COMPLETED APPLICATIONS: A STUDY OF INTENTIONAL HIGH SCHOOL PRACTICES DESIGNED TO INCREASE POST-SECONDARY ENROLLMENT
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), University of Findlay, 2016, Education
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the intentional practices which promoted or increased post-secondary enrollment of Ohio high schools who predominantly serve underrepresented students. Many studies have examined the disconnect existing between the college aspirations and actual college enrollment of low socioeconomic, first-generation college and minority students. This study examined the support during the college enrollment process provided by high schools serving a majority of poverty students, first-generation college and/or minority students to determine what practices were instrumental in promoting actual college enrollment. It also examined the role of school personnel in supporting the enrollment process, especially for underrepresented students. While there was no silver bullet discovered during this study, no one single program, practice, or person who made college enrollment a reality for underrepresented students, there were many programs, practices and personnel found to be instrumental in promoting post-secondary opportunities for students of low socio-economic status, first-generation college, and/or minority students in the Ohio high schools participating in the study. Overwhelmingly, the high schools delivered whatever was necessary to support individual students throughout their high school career. Their differentiated approach with underrepresented students translated to a better than average college enrollment in Ohio. The practices identified and described in this study could serve to support other high schools’ efforts to promote and increase the post-secondary opportunities of underrepresented students. With the current emphasis on increasing post-secondary enrollment, this study illuminated the need for intentional practices in high schools that reach deeper into the student population who need further support in navigating the path from college aspirations to completed applications.

Committee:

Rahman Dyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Joanne Kerekes, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Scoles, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Teacher Education; Teacher educati; Teaching

Keywords:

college readiness; low socioeconomic students; first-generation college students; college aspirations; college enrollment; steps to college enrollment; FAFSA; college-going culture; college knowledge; college enrollment process

Ouckama, Michael PatrickAn exploratory investigation of attitudes toward separatism among black high school students as related to selected variables /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1975, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

African American students;Students;Black nationalism

Kim, Jeung DeokThe Influence of Reading-Writing Connections on Korean EFL College Students’ Reading Process and Reading Comprehension during a Summarization Task
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, EDU Teaching and Learning
In spite of the increasing number of studies examining the reading-writing connection since the 1980s, little research has been conducted on how integrated reading-writing summary tasks in an L2 affect learners’ reading abilities. The complexity of the L2 learning context – two languages and two different sets of literacy practices – as well as the large number of English learners worldwide proves the need for more studies examining the relationships between reading and writing in the L2 context. Further evidence of the need for such studies can be found in Korea. Although integrated reading-writing tasks have become part of the official curriculum in Korea, little is known about reading and writing connections among the country’s L2 learners. Thus, the current study examined Korean college students’ reading and writing processes while performing a summary writing task, the relationships between these processes, and the resulting changes in students’ reading comprehension. Throughout the study, L2 proficiency was analyzed as a factor that may affect these processes. Methodologically, the study relied mainly on think-aloud verbal protocols, supplemented by two interviews, a Reading Strategies Questionnaire, written summaries, and recall protocols. The study revealed that L2 proficiency seems to make a difference in the processes learners use during the reading-only stage and the writing stage of a summary task. Whereas high proficiency Korean EFL learners tended to use a top-down, meaning-oriented approach, low proficiency learners were more likely to depend on a bottom-up decoding approach. Interestingly, low proficiency Korean EFL learners shifted their style of reading to a more interactive approach in the review reading stage. Additionally, L2 proficiency seemed to make a difference with regard to the methods learners employed to improve their reading, their areas of focus in the writing stage, and the way the source text was used in the writing stage. With a combination of contextual variables, the present study revealed L2 proficiency greatly influenced which processes a learner used during an integrated task. This study’s research findings suggest the need for considering both language learners’ L2 proficiency and their cultural context in order to best examine their approach to an integrated reading-writing task.

Committee:

Alan R. Hirvela (Advisor); George E. Newell (Committee Member); Francis J. Troyan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; English As A Second Language; Social Research; Teaching

Keywords:

Reading-Writing Connections; reading process; reading comprehension; Korean students; college Students; summary task; integrated task; writing-to-read approach; ELF context; L2 context

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