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Ziswiler, Korrin M.Predicting Student Engagement by Disability Type at Four-Year Baccalaureate Higher Education Institutions Using Self-Reported Data
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2014, Educational Leadership
The number of students with disabilities accessing higher education continues to increase, yet persistence and graduation rates for this population of students are considerably lower than those of students without disabilities. Previous research suggests that a key factor in improving post-secondary outcomes is increasing the level with which students engage in educationally purposeful activities on college campuses. It is with this in mind that this study set out to examine the connection between disability type and student engagement using data from the 2009-2010 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Four purposes guided this study. First, this study aimed to build a profile of students with disabilities at baccalaureate higher education institutions. The second purpose was to determine whether the four disability categories (sensory, mobility, learning, and mental) identified in The College Student Report relate to responses to questions in the five NSSE benchmarks of effective educational practice (Level of Academic Challenge, Active and Collaborative Learning, Student-Faculty Interaction, Enriching Educational Experiences, Supportive Campus Environment), as well as institutional enrollment size. The third purpose was to determine how well disability category, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and enrollment size of the institution predicted student engagement for part-time and full-time, first-year students. The final purpose was to examine how well disability category, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and enrollment size of the institution predicted student engagement for part-time and full-time, senior-level students. The samples consisted of 361 part-time and 5,927 full-time, first-year students, as well as 1,197 part-time and 6,016 full-time, senior-level students with disabilities at four-year baccalaureate higher education institutions. Pearson correlation analyses results indicated that relationships did exist between the disability categories, institutional enrollment size and student engagement for all samples in this study. The relationships uncovered were weak in strength, and mixed in direction. Multiple regression results were significant for all samples besides first-year, part-time students at the p = .01 level. Regression results for full-time, first-year students showed that the sensory disability category, mental disability category, age, gender, and institutional enrollment size significantly contributed to the model. In the case of part-time, senior-level students, results indicated that the regression model including the mental disability category, gender, and institutional enrollment size was significant in predicting student engagement. For full-time, senior-level students, the regression model containing mental disability category, gender, age, institutional enrollment size, African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Other race was significant in predicting student engagement of students with disabilities. Yet, these models only accounted for between 1.9% - 4.5% of the variance in student engagement. Due to the relationships uncovered, this study has implications for practice and future research in the quest to gain understanding of the experiences of students with disabilities in higher education.

Committee:

Barbara De Luca, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jack Ling, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Molly Schaller, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michele Welkener, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Students with Disabilities in Higher Education; Student Engagement; Student Engagement of Students with Disabilities; National Survey of Student Engagement

Williams, Michael StevenExploring Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Sense of Belonging and Student Engagement for Black Collegians
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this study was to estimate the relationship between student engagement and sense of belonging for Black collegians. Using data from the NSSE, multivariate analyses were conducted to examine how student engagement affects Black collegians’ sense of belonging at a four-year institution of higher education and to probe for similarities and differences along sex lines. Independent samples t-test results suggest that there are no significant differences in reported sense of belonging for Black male and Black female collegians. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses on (a) the aggregate analytic sample of Black collegians (N = 500), (b) a Black male subsample (N = 178), and (c) a Black female subsample (N = 322), respectively, suggest that measures of student engagement are statistically significant predictors of sense of belonging for Black collegians. Results also show that the influence of measures of student engagement on sense of belonging and the total variance explained by these measures differs by sex. In the final aggregate regression model, six variables were statistically significant predictors of sense of belonging. Gender, academic engagement, engagement with faculty and engagement with diverse peers were positive, significant predictors of sense of belonging. College classification, enrollment status, and engagement in active and collaborative learning were all negative, significant predictors in the aggregate model. Overall, the model accounted for 27% of the variance in Black collegians’ sense of belonging. In the final regression model based on the Black male subsample, three variables were statistically significant predictors of sense of belonging. Transfer status and engagement with faculty were positive, significant predictors of sense of belonging. Age was a negative, significant predictor in the Black male model. Overall, the model accounted for 73% of the variance in Black male collegians’ sense of belonging. Five statistically significant variables were predictors of sense of belonging in the final Black female regression model. Academic engagement, engagement with faculty and engagement with diverse peers were positive, significant predictors of sense of belonging. Transfer status and engagement in active and collaborative learning were both negative, significant predictors in the Black female model. Overall, the model accounted for 23% of the variance in Black female collegians’ sense of belonging. This study highlights the importance of engagement with faculty for Black male and female collegians’ sense of belonging. It underlines the positive contribution of academic engagement and engagement with diverse peers to Black female collegians’ sense of belonging. It also explores the way engagement in active and collaborative learning appears to detract from Black female collegians’ sense of belonging. Overall, the results of this study suggest that student engagement is important for fostering a sense of belonging for Black collegians at PWIs. However, the value and impact of various forms of engagement differ for Black male and female collegians. Implications for praxis, future research and theory are discussed.

Committee:

Terrell Strayhorn, PhD (Advisor); Tatiana Suspitsyna, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Glassman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Social Psychology

Keywords:

sense of belonging; student engagement; Black collegians; Black women; Black men; higher education; student affairs; National Survey of Student Engagement; NSSE

Hague-Palmer, Toycee A.Academic and Campus Experiences of African American Males: Implications for Collegiate Satisfaction and Student Engagement
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the student engagement variables most likely to predict the academic success and satisfaction of African American male college students. Research suggests that African American males who are actively engaged in campus life gain more from the college experience and are more likely to succeed academically (Harper, 2012; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, 2005; Strayhorn, 2008b). This investigation used the National Survey of Student Engagement questionnaire to survey 3,000 students to learn what relationships existed between five student engagement variables and the students’ perceived satisfaction with their overall college experience. There is a plethora of research that has examined the college experiences, engagement and academic success of minority students in totality (Fleming, 1984; Outcalt & Skewes-Cox, 2002; Strayhorn & DeVita, 2010; Watson & Kuh, 1996; Watson, Terrell, Wright, Bonner, Cuyjet, & Gold, 2002); however limited research exists specifically targeting the correlation between engagement factors and the academic success and college satisfaction of African American males (Greene, 2005; Harvey-Smith, 2002; Kimbrough & Harper, 2006; Outcalt & Skewes-Cox, 2002; Palmer, Davis, & Maramba, 2010). Utilizing a conceptual theory of student involvement based on the work of Astin (1984, 1999) this investigation employed multiple regression analysis to explore the relationship between five student engagement factors (Academic Challenge, Collaborative Learning, Faculty Interaction, Supportive Campus, and Enriching Experiences) and African American males’ academic success and overall satisfaction with their college experience. Four research questions directed this study relative to the student engagement factors and institutional characteristics that best predict African American male satisfaction with their college experience. The results indicated that three variables significantly predicted the overall college satisfaction of African American males; Supportive Campus, Faculty Interaction, and Academic Challenge. Additionally, African American males attending private institutions reported a significantly higher mean score relative to their overall satisfaction with their college experience than those attending a public college or university, while no significance was found between African American males attending an historically Black institution as opposed to a predominately white institution. Conclusions drawn from the study lead to further questions surrounding how student engagement is defined and perceived by African American college students and higher education institutions. Further the study draws attention to the need to address and incorporate academic and co-curricular initiatives, services and policies in culture of higher education institutions that will enhance the college experience and ensure academic success, retention and matriculation of African American males.

Committee:

Judy Jackson May (Advisor); Paul Johnson (Committee Member); Frederick Polkinghorne (Committee Member); James Moore, III (Committee Member); Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black History; Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education

Keywords:

African American Males; Student Engagement; College Satisfaction; Academic Success; Historically Black Colleges and Universities, National Survey of Student Engagement

Kurt, LaylaEvaluation of Professional School Counselor Led Interventions on Test Scores for Attachment, Engagement, and Empowerment with At-Risk Truant High School Students
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, College of Health Sciences

Professional school counselors (PSCs) can play a vital role to help keep truant students in school by providing school-based interventions that target the personal barriers of attachment, engagement, and empowerment that may limit success in school. ASCA national standards encourage PSCs to demonstrate accountability for student outcomes. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) emphasizes the role of the school counselor in assisting students with academic performance and social and emotional well-being.

Based on attachment, engagement, and empowerment theories, this study seeks to understand the relationship between PSC led treatment and student (a) social bonds and support systems (engagement), (b) social skills development (attachment), (c) academic monitoring skills (engagement), and (d) personal self-awareness and self-regulation skills (empowerment) with at-risk high school students as defined by truancy. To this end, attachment, engagement, and empowerment have been measured before and after the implementation of PSC led school-based interventions.

Committee:

Martin Ritchie, PhD (Advisor); Kathleen Salyers, PhD (Committee Member); Nick Piazza, PhD (Committee Member); Edward Cancio, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Education; School Counseling

Keywords:

professional school counselor; attachment; engagement; empowerment; truancy; Student Engagement Instrument; Research Assessment Package; Strengths Difficulties Questionnaire; school-based interventions

Rashid, Lorenzo AAfrican American Urban Public High School Graduates’ Experiences Concerning Mathematics
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
This interpretive qualitative study explored African American urban public high school graduates’ experiences concerning mathematics, how these experiences may play a role in the choice to further their mathematics education, and how the Model of Academic Choice (MAC) may facilitate in the understanding of the experiences. It examined the lived experiences of seven African American urban public high school graduates concerning their mathematics education. Through criterion-based sampling, the seven participants selected had graduated from a public high school located in Northeast Ohio school districts having similar characteristics. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that explored participants’ kindergarten through post-secondary mathematics experiences. Vignettes chronicled each of the participants’ mathematics experiences and an analysis of emerging themes from within and across vignettes were presented. The emerging themes were tediousness in learning mathematics, student engagement in the classroom, educational trajectory, reality check regarding the effectiveness of one’s kindergarten through grade twelve experiences in preparation for college, persistence, classroom environmental conditions, feelings about learning mathematics, behaviors resulting from feelings about learning mathematics, expectations of self and others, attributions of success and/or failure, one’s sense of self as a student and one’s self-concept of ability in mathematics. These themes parallel with the MAC constructs of cost, participant’s task specific beliefs, participant’s goals and general self-schemata, past events and related experiences, persistence, cultural milieu, affective reactions and memories, expectancies, participant’s interpretation of past events, and self-concept of ability, respectively. The MAC proved to be a good theoretical framework for explaining the participants’ experiences. The results of this study may be instrumental in having educators and policy makers alike reflect upon their practices to improve the academic outcomes of African Americans in mathematics education. This research contributes additional lived experiences of African Americans to the bank of qualitative research to help in understanding factors that may promote or hinder the participation of African Americans in STEM-related courses.

Committee:

Joanne Goodell, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Roland G. Pourdavood, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Mathematics; Mathematics Education; Secondary Education

Keywords:

African American; Model of Academic Choice; urban public high school; Northeast Ohio; student engagement; academic outcomes of African Americans in mathematics education; African Americans in STEM-related courses; persistence

Miller, Karen CA National Study on Student Satisfaction with and Importance of College Environment Variables as Predictors of Spring-to-Spring Retention
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Higher Education
As accountability for America’s community colleges is at the forefront of conversation nationwide, it is now more important than ever that leaders in higher education determine the right combination of interactions and practices that matter most in engaging, retaining, and graduating community college students. The purpose of this research was to utilize the results of the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory for Community and Technical Colleges from 22 community colleges across the country to determine if student satisfaction with and importance of college environment variables are predictors of spring-to-spring retention. As research indicates a connection between student satisfaction and retention, this study seeks to fill the gap in the literature also connecting importance with satisfaction. Using Vincent Tinto’s Theory of Student Departure as the framework, and Alexander Astin’s I-E-O model as a data analysis framework, this study seeks to determine the connection between levels of satisfaction and importance on the variables and spring-to-spring retention. The results of this study will fuel discussion around future interventions and policy implications to promote retention and success for community college students across the country.

Committee:

Ronald Opp (Committee Chair); Debra Harmening (Committee Member); Sunday Griffith (Committee Member); Jennifer Spielvogel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

community college retention; student satisfaction; retention; student engagement

Rizek, CourtneyA Close Teacher Makes a Better Student: The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationship on Adolescents' Academic Motivation
Honors Theses, Ohio Dominican University, 2012, Honors Theses
High quality teacher-student relationships increase engagement and academic performance and decrease drop-out (Finn & Rock, 1997). There has been relatively little research on this topic in adolescence. The present study examines adolescents' perception of their relationship with teachers and how this relationship affects their intrinsic academic motivation as a potential mediator between connectedness and academic performance. Forty-two high school students enrolled in a writing course completed the Inventory of Teacher-Student Relationship, Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, and Student Perceptions of Control Questionnaire. Student interest in the course topic predicted quality of the relationship with teacher. Overall, students who reported a higher quality relationship with their teacher also perceived themselves to be in greater control and to put forth more effort than students reporting a relatively lower quality relationship. Two relationship dimensions “high trust and low alienation“ appeared to account for these findings.

Committee:

John Marazita, Dr. (Advisor); Marlissa Stauffer, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Teacher-Student Relationship; Academic Performance; Academic Motivation; Student Engagement;

Roy, MamtaTeacher Preparation and Professional Development: Competencies and Skill Sets for the Online Classroom.
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the competencies and skill sets of participating K-12 online teachers in Ohio through an online survey based on relevant standards issued by specialized organizations, such as the North American Council for online Learning (NACOL), National Education Association, and Southern Regional Educational Board. The survey items helped identify the self-reported competencies and skill sets of ninety-eight participating K-12 online teachers in Ohio. The findings of this study indicated that the subjects in this research project need technical support systems in place to work effectively in the online environment. Additionally, the participants required further training in using technology in terms of assistive technologies for special needs students. Moreover, these virtual environment instructors would benefit from having more hours of both face-to-face and hybrid professional development customized to their specific online teaching needs, designed to form collaborative communities of practice.

Committee:

Marius Boboc, PhD (Committee Chair); Joanne Goodell, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Jeremy Genovese, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Harper, PhD (Committee Member); Adam Sonstegard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Education; Educational Technology

Keywords:

Teacher Preparation; Professional Development; Competencies; Skill sets; Communities of practice; student engagement; motivation

Duncan, Robin AStudents' Perceived Value of the Community College Experience: A Mixed Methods Study
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2018, Leadership and Change
The purpose of this study was to explore students’ perceived value of their community college experience and its relationship to other factors often related to student persistence in college, namely satisfaction, academic quality, service quality, and engagement. The research was guided by three focused questions: How do students describe and define perceived value of community college; what components emerge from exploratory factor analysis of items designed to measure perceived value; and how, if at all, is a student’s perception of the value of a community college experience different from related measures such as satisfaction, engagement, or quality? Data were collected from students enrolled at, primarily, three Massachusetts community colleges, employing a three-phased, mixed methods exploratory sequential approach. Phase 1 consisted of focus group interviews with students from one of the participating colleges to identify the themes and language for developing the perceived value construct. Phase 2 consisted of an online survey targeting currently enrolled community college students. Factor analysis identified key components of the perceived value scale and multiple regression analysis determined the relationship between perceived value and other control variables. Phase 3 consisted of a virtual post survey focus group with voluntary survey participants from Massachusetts community colleges to discuss and clarify the quantitative results and narrative survey responses. The dominant theme emerging from the findings was that students described perceived value as “I am valued” by the college. Results also indicated that the perceived value construct was different from other measures and suggested promising ways for further exploring and measuring student persistence. As a result of the study’s findings, a conceptual framework in the form of a Perceived Value Wheel was proposed with recommendations to community college leaders and practical contribution to higher education leadership and change. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohiolink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Committee:

Jon Wergin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ruth Slotnick, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Business Administration; Business Education; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Management; Marketing; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Perceived Value; Service Quality; Academic Quality; Satisfaction; Student Engagement; Involvement; Student Experience; Higher Education; Two Year Colleges; Community College; Students; Mixed Methods; Regression; Factor Analysis; Persistence; Retention

Gerhardt, Brenda SingletonWhy do they stay? A case study of an urban charter school
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
This qualitative case study explored the practices, programs, and processes within one urban charter high school. The school has been in existence for ten years and has a history of attracting and retaining students who have been described as “at risk” of academic failure. The study was designed to provide an in-depth, rich understanding of the procedures and routines which support student success and retention within this single school. Further, it utilized comprehensive focus groups, individual interviews, surveys, and demographic questionnaires to elucidate the motivation of students, families, and staff members in their selection and persistence at this particular school. Three major themes emerged from participant responses: (a) people and relationships; (b) school climate and culture; and (c) student centered curricula. Recommendations for practical applications and future research are offered.

Committee:

James Moore III, Ph.D. (Advisor); R. Michael Casto, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Marks, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

School Counseling; Secondary Education

Keywords:

charter school; student engagement; dropouts; relationships; trust; school climate; school counseling; individualized curriculum

Tornero, Stephen AMotivating young adolescents in an inclusion classroom using digital and visual culture experiences: An action research
MA, Kent State University, 2015, College of the Arts / School of Art
This research focuses on the motivation of adolescent students, including several with special needs, in an art classroom to create artworks through the use of digital and Visual Culture experiences. Action research was conducted in two different classroom settings over several months in a public school. Each class period was recorded with audio and video to analyze the students’ responses to Visual Culture stimuli with structured discussion questions and relevant studio production. To blend this study with Narrative inquiry, other field texts collected as data included research notes, written and audio-recorded critical reflections on teaching, and photographs of students’ artworks. Students involved in the study were part of inclusion classrooms including students with special needs, and students who are identified as gifted. All the students went through a unit of lessons that centered on artworks created as responses to Visual Culture experiences from the student’s lives. Interpretations of student art production indicated that all of them were similarly motivated, though students had different responses to Visual Culture experiences that ranged from strong likes and dislikes of celebrity images and enjoyment of humorous personified animal images. Capitalizing on their fascinations with popular images such toys, video games, and animals, Visual Culture can serve as a bridge between students of varying cognitive and academic backgrounds, allowing them to create art as a community rather than as individuals. Research findings concurred with a pilot study which also found that students both collect Visual Culture as a way to construct their identity, and that Visual Culture can be a language through which students can communicate. Though in this study the Visual Culture studied was carefully curated to benefit the lessons taught, the students showed their interests in many other varied experiences that surfaced during the implementation of this pedagogy. One of the research conclusions is to recommend that teachers should never assume to know about the Visual Culture experiences of students without first questioning and discussing these in the classroom.

Committee:

Koon-Hwee Kan, PhD (Advisor); Linda Hoeptner-Poling, PhD (Committee Member); Juliann Dorff, MAT (Committee Member); Jeanne Ruscoe-Smith, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education

Keywords:

Art Education; Action Research; Visual Culture; Digital Culture; Memes; Student Engagement; Early Adolescent; Collecting Visual Culture; Culture Capital; Inclusion Classroom

Hartz, Barry C.Cultivating Individual Musicianship and Ensemble Performance Through Notation-Free Learning in Three High School Band Programs
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Music Education
Playing by ear is a time-honored and effective means of music learning in many musical genres. Learning without notation has been a principal means of acquiring musical skills for generations of jazz, popular, and folk musicians. The sound to sign approach to music learning has been incorporated into classroom music instruction through the methodologies of Jacques-Dalcroze, Kodaly, Orff, Suzuki, and Gordon. At the same time, instruction in American school bands has remained predominantly reliant on notation at every stage of learning and performing music. There is a distinct lack of research regarding learning without notation in high school concert bands. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the use of notation-free learning (NFL) in three high school concert band programs to develop the musical skills of individual students and promote excellence in ensemble performance. The research was guided by four questions: (a) What aspects of musical performance do participating conductors address through notation-free learning (NFL)?, (b) How do participating conductors communicate and develop musical vocabulary without standard notation?, (c) What challenges and benefits of learning without notation do participants identify?, and (d) What personal and contextual factors affect the implementation of notation-free approaches? I spent three days at each of three high schools located in Texas, New York, and Ohio, collecting data through observation, individual interviews with conductors, focus group interviews with students, and document collection. Data analysis involved transcribing recorded interviews, generating and applying codes, and identifying emergent themes. Reports on individual cases were completed prior to conducting cross-case analysis. Themes generated by the research questions included aspects of musical performance, communicating and developing musical vocabulary, challenges and benefits of NFL, and factors influencing implementation. I asserted that fundamentals of ensemble performance can be effectively developed without notation in concert bands and that students experienced notation-free learning as more mentally engaging than learning from notation. More research is needed to determine the role of notation-free learning in helping students develop mental models and to develop ways of supporting individual musical skill acquisition in the absence of notation.

Committee:

Lisa Koops, Ph.D. (Advisor); Nathan Kruse, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Matthew Garrett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kathleen Horvath, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Miller, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music; Music Education

Keywords:

band; music notation; band pedagogy; music literacy; aural skills; ensemble skills; listening skills; music improvisation; intonation; student engagement; mental representations; music education; music learning

Kashou, Hussam HExamining University Students’ Use of Mobile Technology, Online Engagement, and Self-Regulation & Metacognitive Tendencies Across Formal and Informal Learning Environments.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, EDU Policy and Leadership
Mobile technology and online engagement have rapidly increased in access and use and have become embedded aspects of students’ daily lives (personal, social, and academic) due to ubiquity and capability for personalized online interactions; and may have a positive or negative effect on students’ use across formal and informal learning environments and students’ overall academic success. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the frequency of students’ use of mobile technology for academic and non-academic purposes as well as frequency of students' online engagement in non-academic activities across formal and informal learning environments (e.g. while in class, while studying, and during personal leisure time) and their overall relationship to students’ self-regulation & metacognitive tendencies and academic achievement/success. In addressing this purpose five groups of research question were developed. To inform my investigation of post-secondary students’ mobile technology use, I developed a conceptual framework that connects three fields of study: (a) Educational technology, (b) Educational psychology, and (c) Student engagement in higher education. The conceptual framework was informed by Bandura’s (1986) social cognitive theory and triadic reciprocal causality model which was developed focusing on personal, behavioral, and environmental factors that constantly interact and influence one another. This study is among the first to explore connections between these various areas and factors in regards to students’ mobile technology use and online engagement across formal and informal learning environments. Participants consisted of 604 students from a large Midwestern university. I developed the Student Mobile Technology Experience (SMTE) Survey. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, one-, two-, and three-way ANOVAs, and various factorial repeated measures ANOVAs (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found across several variables. Likewise, significant differences were found across formal and informal learning environments, frequency of students’ use of mobile technology for academic and non-academic purposes, and frequency of students' online engagement in non-academic activities. The results of this study have provided insights on personal, behavioral, and environmental factors in regards to students' use of mobile technology and online engagement. It has also provided quantitative data on relationships between students’ technology use and regulation tendencies in various learning settings and how they may influence student academic achievement/success. Study findings may inform students’, educators’, and universities’ efforts to improve student engagement, metacognitive awareness, self-regulation, and ultimately, student achievement/success, in a mobile digital era.

Committee:

Anika Anthony (Advisor); Richard Voithofer (Committee Member); Kui Kui (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Technology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Information Technology; Instructional Design

Keywords:

Mobile Technology; Mobile Devices; Online Outlets; Online Engagement; Student Engagement; Formal and Informal Learning Environments; Self-Regulation; Self-Regulated Learning; Self-efficacy for SRL; Metacognition; Student Success; Teaching; Learning

Werry, Tasha K.Increasing Shared Understandings between Educators and Community Members through Intentional Collaborative Interactions
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2016, Educational Administration (Education)
This study examines the experiences of the teachers and community business representatives that have partnered in a community engagement initiative to address career exploration for students. The goal of this collaboration is to bridge the gap between education and employment. This qualitative study uses a phenomenological approach and gathers data through a series of three interviews with five participants from the community engagement process. Data collected are coded and analyzed through a phenomenological lens in order to extract the textural and structural essence of the process. Data revealed that boundary crossing by the educators and business representatives increased shared understandings due to shared participation in community engagement activities. The research provides an intimate look at the approaches used to directly connect teachers and community members. These findings are beneficial to educational leaders and community leaders.

Committee:

Dwan Robinson, Ph.D (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

community engagement; K-12 education; education and business partnerships; social networks; student engagement; educational leadership; sociocultural learning

Huff-Franklin, Clairie LouisaAN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF VALUE-ADDED AND ACADEMIC OPTIMISM OF URBAN READING TEACHERS
Doctor of Education, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF VALUE- ADDED AND ACADEMIC OPTIMISM OF URBAN READING TEACHERS The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between state-recorded value- added (VA) scores and academic optimism (AO) scores, which measure teacher self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The sample for this study is 87 third through eighth grade Reading teachers, from fifty-five schools, in an urban school district in Ohio who have VA scores. Teachers were given an AO survey to find out through quantitative methods what relationship exists, if any, between value-added and academic optimism scores. The findings of this study is that no correlation was found between AO and VA. However, by exploring other confounding variables, other concepts were confirmed. The question driving this research may promote discussion about what teacher characteristics are actually effective and desirable and whether a district would like their teachers to duplicate them or not.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere (Committee Chair); Molly Morehead (Committee Member); Andrew Saultz (Committee Member); William Boone (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Education History; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Tests and Measurements; Educational Theory; Elementary Education; Hispanic Americans; Middle School Education; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Special Education

Keywords:

Value Added; Academic Optimism; Positive Psychology; urban youth; minority students; achievement gaps; student engagement; SES; teacher effectiveness; teacher impact; education legislation; ESEA;A Nation At Risk;NCLB; Race to the Top; ESSA

Curtis-Chávez, MarkHispanic Male Success in the Community College as Measured by Cumulative GPA
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Higher Education
The majority of Hispanics select community colleges as their higher institution of choice, but studies on what contributes to their success, especially Hispanic males, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence, if any, of environmental variables on the cumulative GPA of Hispanic males attending community college. Employing Astin’s Theory of Student Involvement, data from the CCSSE’s 2012 – 2014 survey were used to conduct a multiple regression analysis. The study’s sample included 5,615 Hispanic males attending community college. The final model identified 15 variables that were significantly related to the cumulative GPA of Hispanic males attending community college, and explained 15.6% of the variance. Student effort and active and collaborative learning variables emerged as the strongest predictors of Hispanic male GPA. This study provides educators with additional resources to improve Hispanic male academic success in the community college, and informs future research, theory, policy, and practice.

Committee:

Ron Opp (Committee Chair); Snejana Slantcheva-Durst (Committee Member); Sunday Griffith (Committee Member); J. Michael Thomson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Community Colleges; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups

Keywords:

Hispanic males; Hispanic male GPA; Latino males; Latino male GPA; community college; Hispanic male performance; Latino male performance; Hispanic male academic success; Latino male academic success; Community College Survey of Student Engagement

Leiken, Susan MDoes Dental Hygiene Student Engagement While Enrolled in the Dental Hygiene Program Influence Academic Achievement?
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Higher Education
An Abstract of Does Dental Hygiene Student Engagement While Enrolled in the Dental Hygiene Program Influence Academic Achievement? by Susan Leiken Submitted to the Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Education The University of Toledo August, 2015 Expansion of the scope of dental hygiene responsibilities reflected in state Dental Boards’ Dental Hygiene Practice Acts have led U.S.-based dental hygiene programs to intensify their curricula while investigating ways to improve student success. Using an original survey electronically distributed to 12,000 dental hygiene students by the American Dental Hygienists’ Association (ADHA), this study investigated dental hygiene student engagement activities, both in the dental hygiene program and in student chapters of the ADHA, with student success measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). Four predictors were found to influence student success: the quality of faculty interactions; highest degree attained; race- Black or African American (a negative predictor); and, the quality of program director’s interactions. This study may encourage educators to focus on improved strategies for delivering dental hygiene education through strong leadership and revitalized policies and practices. Future research may review enhanced student engagement practices as they relate to student success.

Committee:

Ron Opp, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Dentistry; Higher Education

Keywords:

dental hygiene education; student engagement activities; Astin Student Involvement A Developmental Theory for Higher Education

Malik, Alana JayneInstitutional Resource Allocation, Student Engagement, and Student Satisfaction at Ontario Universities
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Higher Education Administration
This study examined the relationship between institutional expenditures in student services, levels of student engagement, and measures of student satisfaction across 18 (out of 19) universities in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Information regarding these variables for each institution was assembled from four extant datasets: (a) the 2006 Common University Dataset of Ontario; (b) the 2006 COFO-UO Financial Report of Ontario Universities; (c) the 2006 National Survey of Student Engagement; and (d) the 2007 Toronto Globe and Mail University Report Card. Indices of student engagement included the benchmarks of academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student interactions with faculty, enriching educational experiences, and supportive educational environments. The core research question pursued was whether higher per capita expenditures in student services predicted higher levels of student engagement and greater degrees of student satisfaction with various aspects of the university experience among graduates. Descriptive statistics were used to generate and compare demographic profiles of each university within a framework of institutional types. Among the universities sampled, eight were categorized as primarily undergraduate, five comprehensive, and five medical/doctoral institutions. Correlational techniques and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were applied to the data for purposes of assessing relationships between the sets of variables embedded in the research question. Correlational analyses yielded significant inverse relationships between per capita expenditures in student services and only select benchmarks of student engagement, relative to active and collaborative learning and student interactions with faculty. Strong positive correlations also were observed between multiple measures of student satisfaction and student engagement benchmarks of enriching educational experiences and supportive campus environments. Regression analyses did not sustain per capita expenditures in student services as a significant predictor of the student engagement or student satisfaction outcomes. However this study did find that select student engagement benchmarks, especially those items related to student-faculty interaction and supportive campus environments, predicted significantly measures of student satisfaction. Consideration was given to implications of these data for post-secondary policies and practices in Ontario, as well as suggestions for future research on the topic.

Committee:

C. Carney Strange, PhD (Committee Chair); William Knight, PhD (Committee Member); Rebecca Mancuso, PhD (Committee Member); Carolyn Palmer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Student Engagement; Student Satisfaction; Student Services; NSSE; Ontario; Expenditure; College Students

Detwiler, Robert R.Assessing Factors Influencing Student Academic Success in Law School
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Higher Education

The literature on student academic success of law students is limited to mostly single institution studies, and as such, a nationwide, multi-institutional empirical study of the factors that predict student academic success is greatly needed by higher education scholars, law school admission officers, faculty, and administrators. This dissertation analyzed what effect, if any, undergraduate GPA and LSAT scores, in addition to environmental variables, has on cumulative law school GPA among full-time third-year law students in the United States responding to the 2008 Law School Survey of Student Engagement. A regression analysis revealed five input measures, one between-college characteristic, and fifteen environmental measures were significant predictors of cumulative law school GPA among third-year law students (n=1,756).

The intended outcomes of the dissertation are twofold. First, law school faculty and administrators can use this information to promote student involvement that has been shown through this dissertation to influence students’ GPA, which is well known in the legal education environment to be critical in the internship and job search process. Second, future studies of law students and other fields of professional education are encouraged to examine what role, if any, student involvement has on outcomes.

Committee:

Ronald Opp, PhD (Committee Chair); Llewellyn Gibbons, JD (Committee Member); Debra Gentry, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Yonker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Law schools; student involvement; graduate and professional education; involvement theory; assessment; Law School Survey of Student Engagement; law school GPA; IEO Model; graduate enrollment management; Alexander Astin

Whitmore, Carleton LeeBUSINESS PLAN FOR CLUBHUB101.COM LLC
BBA, Kent State University, 2018, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Organizations throughout the country struggle to communicate with prospective members, current members, and other interested parties, including other organizations . Even with organizational fairs and existing social media, organizations often have difficulty attracting new members, promoting events, and marketing themselves to their schools and communities. Currently, no standardized platform exists to enable organizations to use to communicate. Instead, they rely on a non-standardized communication variety of tools. Clubhub101.com will provide a standardized platform in the form of a central website and mobile application for organizations, allowing them to easily connect and share information with interested parties across the country.

Committee:

Denise Lee (Advisor); Don-John Dugas (Committee Chair); Jennifer Wiggins (Committee Member); Mary Heidler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Business Costs; Entrepreneurship; Finance; Marketing

Keywords:

Social media;student engagement;student involvement;organizations;clubs;business administration;marketing;entrepreneurship;Clubhub101;

Righi, Rebecca A.The Impact of Laptop Computers on Student Learning Behaviors as Perceived by Classroom Teachers
Master of Education, University of Toledo, 2012, Educational Administration and Supervision
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of laptop computers on student learning behaviors. Each student and teacher was equipped with a laptop computer in which they had 24/7 access. Qualitative research methodology was used in this study and the data consisted of classroom observations, a review of the teachers’ lesson plans, and in-depth interviews with five classroom teachers. The results of this study revealed that laptop computers had a positive impact on student learning behaviors. Students were engaged in the learning process, produced higher quality work, and had improved communication with their teachers when they had access to laptop computers. Through analysis of the data, the researcher suggested that the changes in student behavior occurred because of personalized learning for each student, access to multiple materials and media, and the laptop computer serving as assistive technology.

Committee:

Cynthia Beekley, PhD (Committee Chair); Nancy Staub, PhD (Committee Member); Deb Gentry, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Technology

Keywords:

one-to-one program; laptop computers; learning behaviors; student engagement; deep learning

Morris, Deborah EileenReconsidering Teacher Commentary As Interactive And Collaborative Dialogue: Implications For Student Writing And Revising
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This dissertation focuses on teacher commentary as formative assessment and as collaborative dialogue that actively engages both teacher and student writers in conversations about the writing. Student voices are emphasized throughout this teacher research study of two classes at a Midwestern community college, a study that explores what the FYC student writers want and value in teacher commentary as they write and revise. With a particular research project acting as the contextual &#x201c;center&#x201d; of the dialogue, multiple data collection instruments were employed, including: student-generated texts and self-assessments, pre-and post-project questionnaires, personal interviews, and personal observations and reflections from teacher and students. Analysis of this data draws upon feminist theory, grounded theory and an ethnographic perspective to discover, describe, and assess the multiple and varied contexts surrounding student writing and revising as well as student values within these complex contexts. I argue that students do value the collaborative dialogue, interactions and formative assessment found in commentary that gives the students a voice in their own writing and revising, and I further argue that this intentional and rhetorical response to student writing sends a powerful message to those student writers about what we in the field of Rhetoric and Composition truly value in writing.

Committee:

Lee Nickoson (Advisor); Melissa Miller (Committee Member); Kristine Blair (Committee Member); Sue Carter Wood (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Literacy; Pedagogy; Rhetoric; Teaching

Keywords:

teacher commentary; response; formative assessment; self-assessment; FYC; student engagement; intentional teaching; student-directed dialogue; rhetorical; values; critical literacy; reading; writing; revising

Byard, Sally L.A Quantitative Analysis of the Relationships between Teacher Trust, Self-Efficacy and School Academic Performance
Doctor of Education, University of Akron, 2011, Educational Leadership

This study sought to determine if teachers' perceptions of trust and self-efficacy were related to school academic performance based on Ohio Achievement Assessment results for the 2009-10 school year in eight Midwestern public schools. Additionally, the study sought to determine if teacher trust and self-efficacy were related to one another.

Two multiple regression analyses were conducted, and the results indicated that both trust and self-efficacy were significantly related to school academic performance. Results also showed that the trust subscales of trust in colleagues and trust in clients, and the self-efficacy subscales of instructional strategies and classroom management were significantly related to school academic performance.

A canonical correlation was conducted, and the results showed a significant relationship between trust and self-efficacy. A univariate regression analysis was also used to assess if there were relationships between the subscales. Results showed that the self-efficacy subscale of student engagement was related to both trust in the principal and trust in colleagues. It also showed that the self-efficacy subscale of instructional strategies was related to trust in clients (students and parents).

This study was unique because it provided results by looking at relationships between school academic performance, trust and self-efficacy using the percentage of academic indicators passed on the Ohio Achievement Tests. It was unique because it demonstrated that specific subscales contributed separately to school academic performance, and that some of these subscales were related to one another. This study provided more in depth results when looking at relationships between trust, self-efficacy and school academic performance, and at relationships between the subscales. There are implications for further research to identify the different variables and their degree of influence on each of the subscales that affects the strength of the relationships that each has with school academic performance.

Committee:

Sharon D. Kruse, Dr. (Advisor); Susan D. Olson, Dr. (Committee Member); Xin Liang, Dr. (Committee Member); Renee Mudrey-Camino, Dr. (Committee Member); Richard Glotzer, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

trust; self-efficacy; perceptions; schools; student engagement; classroom management; instructional strategies; integrity; competence; benevolence; honesty; openess; social cognitive theory; social presuasion; modeling; academic performance; students;

Aguiton, Rhonda LisaThe Relationship Between Student Engagement, Recess and Instructional Strategies
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Curriculum and Teaching
Play, including recess, is viewed by child development experts as beneficial to students’ various aspects of development—social, cognitive, emotional, and physical. Recess is also deemed an opportunity for all to recharge and re-energize after hours of sitting and concentrating on instruction and assigned tasks. With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, many schools across the United States replaced recess with instructional time in order to prepare better the students undertaking their state’s standardized tests. Furthermore, instructional practices in elementary schools shifted from child-centered, play-based strategies to teacher-centered, didactic strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine fourth-grade teachers’ beliefs about the value of play in child development and classroom instruction, the types of instructional strategies they actually use in their classrooms and their students’ behaviors on the playground and in the classroom in a school with morning and midday recesses and a school with only midday recess. A qualitative phenomenological research method was used for this study in order to describe the lived experiences of teachers in the classroom and their students in the classroom and on the playground. Interviews and observations reveal that the teachers at both schools believe that play and recess are important to the development of their students, but neither has greatly modified instructional strategies to help students reap the benefits which arise through play during recess as the amount of time allotted to recess in both schools has decreased. Teachers’ reliance on teacher-centered instructional practices may be due to misconceptions about play and play-based instruction. Professional development for teachers and school/district administrators is needed to help to nurture a positive philosophical understanding of play and play-based, student-centered instructional practices that can foster students’ social, emotional and cognitive development, in addition to addressing the requisite content and skills called for in the various content standards.

Committee:

Eric Worch, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jodi Haney, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Tracy Huziak-Clark, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Early Childhood Education; Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

recess; play; student engagement; play-based learning; instructional strategies; strategy instruction; No Child Left Behind; No-Recess Policy; Gender Differences, Student Behavior; qualitative phenomenological research; methodology; teacher-centered

Mosser, Brent StevenThe Impact of Interpersonal Interaction on Academic Engagement and Achievement in a College Success Strategies Course with a Blended Learning Instructional Model
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Policy and Leadership

A quasi-experiment was carried out in a college success strategies course to evaluate the impact of structured interpersonal interaction on undergraduate students’ Academic Engagement and Academic Achievement. The course, EPL 259: Individual Learning and Motivation, employs a blended learning instructional model – Active Discovery and Participation through Technology (ADAPT; Tuckman, 2002) – that requires students to spend the majority of class time working independently on online activities.

In the quasi-experiment, students in six treatment sections were exposed to some combination of two types of interpersonal interaction: Student-Student Interaction and Student-Instructor Interaction. Student-Student Interaction was facilitated in two different formats: (1) through in-class, cooperative learning activities, and (2) through online, asynchronous discussion board activities. Two sections of EPL 259 received the first Student-Student Interaction format, two sections received the second format, and two sections received neither format. In addition, in each of these three pairs of sections, one section also received Student-Instructor Interaction, facilitated through weekly, one-on-one meetings between each student and his or her instructor.

The desired outcomes, Academic Engagement and Academic Achievement, were each measured in two ways. Academic Engagement was measured: (1) through analysis of data on students’ course-related behaviors, including rates of attendance, tardiness, submission of assignments, and late submission of papers, and (2) through students’ scores on a multifactor survey of course engagement. Academic Achievement was measured: (1) through total points earned on written assignments and online activities, and (2) through grades on the comprehensive final examination.

A series of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs), utilizing participants’ Prior Cumulative GPA and measures of Conscientiousness and Extraversion as covariates, was carried out to assess treatment effects. Sections of the course that experienced Student-Student Interaction through in-class, cooperative learning activities displayed significantly higher Academic Engagement (measured through the multifactor survey) than sections that experienced either online, asynchronous discussions or no Student-Student Interaction whatsoever. Likewise, sections of the course that experienced Student-Instructor Interaction through weekly, one-on-one instructor meetings displayed significantly higher Academic Engagement than sections that experienced no Student-Instructor Interaction whatsoever.

An interaction effect between Student-Student Interaction and Student-Instructor Interaction mediated the impact of both treatments on Academic Achievement (measured through final exam grade). In the absence of Student-Instructor Interaction, both forms of Student-Student Interaction (i.e. in-class, cooperative learning activities and online, asynchronous discussions) had a positive impact on Academic Achievement. However, when Student-Instructor Interaction was required, online Student-Student Interaction was observed to have a negative impact on Academic Achievement. Similarly, in the absence of Student-Student Interaction, weekly one-on-one instructor meetings were observed to have a positive impact on Academic Achievement. However, when online Student-Student Interaction was required, weekly one-on-one instructor meetings were observed to have a negative impact on Academic Achievement.

Committee:

Leonard Baird, Ed.D. (Advisor); Wayne Hoy, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Bruce Tuckman, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; Experiments; Higher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Classroom Interaction; Student Interaction; Online Interaction; Faculty Interaction; Engagement; Student Engagement; Academic Engagement; College Success; Pedagogy; Achievement; Academic Achievement; Blended Learning; Hybrid Instructional Model

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