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Bosch, TanjaRadio, community and identity in South Africa: A rhizomatic study of Bush Radio in Cape Town
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2003, Telecommunications (Communication)

This dissertation deals with community radio in South Africa, before and after democratic elections in 1994. Adopting a case study approach and drawing on ethnographic methodology, the dissertation outlines the history of Bush Radio, the oldest community radio project in Africa.

To demonstrate how Bush Radio creates community, this dissertation focuses on several cases within Bush Radio. The use of hip-hop for social change is explored. Framed within theories of entertainment-education and behavior change, the dissertation explores specific programs on-air and outreach programs offered by the station. This dissertation also looks at kwaito music, a new hybrid musical form that emerged in South Africa post-apartheid. In particularly, the dissertation argues that Bush Radio uses kwaito music in the consolidation of a black identity in South Africa. Programs targeting children and youth are also discussed, and the dissertation argues that Bush Radio offers a space for the creation of a generation consciousness in the post-apartheid era. Finally, the dissertation looks at how Bush Radio creates and maintains a gay community through its program In the Pink.

Rooted in cultural studies, this dissertation draws on the theory of rhizomatics espoused by Giles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, arguing for new, creative theorizations of alternative media. Furthermore, this dissertation uses Victor Turner’s communitas and Pierre Bourdieu’s habitus to deconstruct the community in community radio.

In particular, I argue that Bush Radio is not so much an organization as it is an organism, held together by a complex set of interlinked structures, with the concept of “community” pulsating as its central life-force. A kind of “body without organs” (Haraway, 1989), Bush Radio has no real essence – it is both the embodiment of community radio at its best - and its antithesis. Bush Radio is not a “bush” radio, geographically or figuratively. It sports state of the art digital equipment and a relatively sophisticated organizational structure, yet it is still deeply connected to the various communities it serves.

Committee:

Jenny Nelson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

Community Radio; Ethnography; Rhizomatic; Identity - South Africa; Media - South Africa; Kwaito

Morgan, Eric J.The Sin of Omission: The United States and South Africa in the Nixon Years
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2003, History
This thesis examines relations between the United States and South Africa during Richard Nixon’s first presidential administration. While South Africa was not crucial to Nixon’s foreign policy, the racially-divided nation offered the United States a stabile economic partner and ally against communism on the otherwise chaotic post-colonial African continent. Nixon strengthened relations with the white minority government by quietly lifting sanctions, increasing economic and cultural ties, and improving communications between Washington and Pretoria. However, while Nixon’s policy was shortsighted and hypocritical, the Afrikaner government remained suspicious, believing that the Nixon administration continued to interfere in South Africa’s domestic affairs despite its new policy relaxations. The Nixon administration concluded that change in South Africa could only be achieved through the Afrikaner government, and therefore ignored black South Africans. Nixon’s indifference strengthened apartheid and hindered liberation efforts, helping to delay black South African freedom for nearly two decades beyond his presidency.

Committee:

Jeffrey Kimball (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Richard M. Nixon; United States foreign relations&160;&8211; South Africa; South Africa; Apartheid

Love, JanicePeople's participation in foreign policy making : evaluating the US anti-apartheid movement /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1983, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

South Africa;United States;South Africa

Chapman, Stellina M. AubuchonOral Health Beliefs as Predictors of Behavior: Formative Research for Oral Health Campaigns in South Africa
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Communication Studies (Communication)
Worldwide, oral diseases (e.g., cavities, gum diseases, etc.) are major public health problems. Research has shown that individuals' beliefs and perceptions can influence behavior. Identifying individuals' beliefs and perceptions that influence oral hygiene behaviors may pave the way towards understanding these oral health and hygiene behaviors. Little is known about South Africans' oral hygiene behaviors and their cultural beliefs that surround these behaviors. Most available research on oral hygiene in developing countries relates to behaviors from the Western dental system. Thus there is a gap in data on the South African population regarding the oral health beliefs that surround both their indigenous and adopted Western behaviors. This dissertation research sought to validate the use of an Oral Health Beliefs Survey (OHBS) that assesses South Africans' oral health and hygiene beliefs within the constructs of the health belief model (HBM). Additionally, this study examines individual level variables to determine whether HBM constructs are associated with oral health and hygiene behaviors of South Africans. This exploratory study is the first step at establishing a framework for understanding current perceptions about oral health and hygiene in South Africa, as well as determining what factor(s) influence(s) the ability to practice healthier oral health behaviors. Findings from this study will be helpful in guiding future research and health communication campaigns on oral health and hygiene in South Africa. Suggestions for future researchers include taking either a structure-centered or culture-centered approach to uncover how culture shapes oral health-related beliefs and behaviors.

Committee:

Benjamin Bates, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Amy Chadwick, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Communication; Health

Keywords:

Oral health; Oral hygiene; Brushing; Flossing; Going to the dentist; South Africa; Oral health beliefs; HBM; Health Belief Model; Campaigns; Health communication; Oral health campaigns; Quantitative

Freeman, Shauna MarieStates That End Nuclear Weapons Programs: Implications For Iran
Master of Public Administration (MPA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Public Administration
This thesis seeks to identify factors that cause countries to discontinue their nuclear weapons program using the qualitative case study method. Regime change, regional threats and/or tensions, economic sanctions, and US influence were found to be the most significant factors in states’ decision to discontinue their nuclear weapons program. Chapter One provides an overview of the study. Chapter Two discusses regime theory, the nonproliferation regime, and the current threats to the nonproliferation regime. Chapter Three provides case studies in which states sought nuclear weapon programs but later decided to discontinue its nuclear weapon programs. Countries included in the case studies are Argentina, Brazil, Libya, North Korea, South Africa, and South Korea. Factors that contributed to each country’s decision to end their nuclear weapons program are identified. Chapter Four provides an analysis of the factors identified in Chapter Three. Chapter Five discusses Iran’s nuclear weapon program, and then consider whether any of factors and identified in Chapter Four can help us find solutions to an ongoing proliferation case. This thesis is concluded with recommendations for the nonproliferation regime and suggestions for further research.

Committee:

Marc Simon (Advisor)

Keywords:

Nuclear Proliferation; Non-Proliferation Treaty; Nonproliferation Regime; Nuclear Weapon Policy; Argentina; Brazil; Iran; Libya; North Korea; South Africa; South Korea

Collins-Warfield, Amy E.“Ubuntu” – Philosophy and Practice: An Examination of Xhosa Teachers’ Psychological Sense of Community in Langa, South Africa
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Cross-Cultural, International Education
A recent South African study estimated that nationwide, 20,000 teachers in primary and secondary schools leave the profession each year (Samodien, 2008). It is important to ascertain what factors contribute to teacher job satisfaction, in order to promote quality education in South African schools (Mwamwenda, 1995; Steyn and van Wyk, 1999) and end the teacher retention crisis. Psychological sense of community (PSOC) might contribute to job satisfaction for teachers in under-resourced schools in South Africa. Before the effects of PSOC on job satisfaction can be studied, teacher communities must first be studied to verify that PSOC exists in the South African context. Building on the literature about PSOC, teacher community, and urban Black South African schools, this thesis examines Xhosa teachers PSOC in Langa, South Africa, in the context of the indigenous African philosophy of ubuntu. Applying qualitative methodology in the form of interviews and observations, this study explains how two male and three female teachers at Sandile Primary School (a pseudonym) conceptualize their community, as well as how they incorporate ubuntu philosophy into their work lives. Utilizing McMillan and Chavis’s (1986) theory of PSOC as a framework for analysis, this study examines the ways in which the participants construct and sustain their teacher community. This study concludes that a strong PSOC does exist among the teachers at Sandile. Additionally, the 5 participants feel very strongly about the relevance of ubuntu philosophy to their roles as educators, as they practice it in their everyday work lives. This thesis provides a foundation for future studies on the potential effects of PSOC on job satisfaction.

Committee:

Dr. Patricia Kubow, PhD (Committee Chair); Dr. Mark Earley, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Catherine Stein, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Education; Educational Psychology; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Teaching

Keywords:

Xhosa; teacher community; psychological sense of community; South Africa; Langa; ubuntu; PSOC; township; qualitative methodology

Irwin, Ryan M.The Gordian Knot: Apartheid and the Unmaking of the Liberal World Order, 1960-1970
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History

This dissertation examines the apartheid debate from an international perspective. Positioned at the methodological intersection of intellectual and diplomatic history, it examines how, where, and why African nationalists, Afrikaner nationalists, and American liberals contested South Africa’s place in the global community in the 1960s. It uses this fight to explore the contradictions of international politics in the decade after second-wave decolonization. The apartheid debate was never at the center of global affairs in this period, but it rallied international opinions in ways that attached particular meanings to concepts of development, order, justice, and freedom. As such, the debate about South Africa provides a microcosm of the larger postcolonial moment, exposing the deep-seated differences between politicians and policymakers in the First and Third Worlds, as well as the paradoxical nature of change in the late twentieth century.

This dissertation tells three interlocking stories. First, it charts the rise and fall of African nationalism. For a brief yet important moment in the early and mid-1960s, African nationalists felt genuinely that they could remake global norms in Africa’s image and abolish the ideology of white supremacy through U.N. activism. These efforts existed parallel to the fall and rise of the Nationalist government. This work also follows Pretoria’s attempt to circumvent African diplomacy by rehabilitating South Africa’s status among specific power brokers in Washington, New York, London, and other Western metropoles. The United States shaped the arena surrounding African/ Afrikaner antagonism and functioned as the referee of this contest. The final prong of this project, therefore, explains the growth and collapse of American liberal internationalism, as well as the rise of realpolitik in the late 1960s. As international politics grew more unwieldy in the postcolonial years, U.S. policymakers began to reconsider both the intellectual universalisms that had propelled decolonization and the institutional integrity of organizations like the United Nations. This shift eroded the power of African nation-states, cemented the stability of the South African government, and established the template of the 1970s—an era marked by moral ambiguity, transnational activism, and geopolitical détente.

Committee:

Peter Hahn, PhD (Advisor); Robert McMahon, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Boyle, PhD (Committee Member); Anna-Mart van Wyk, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

apartheid; South Africa; United States; foreign relations; international; global; United Nations; Africa; postcolonial

Drbal, SusannaWretched, Ambiguous, Abject: Ordinary Ways of Being in Selected Works by Alex la Guma, Bessie Head, and J.M Coetzee
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2005, English (Arts and Sciences)

This is an exploration of the possibilities for political literary resistance in South Africa. Alex La Guma's In the Fog of the Seasons' End, Bessie Head’s Maru, and J. M. Coetzee's Life and Times of Michael K, uncover the daily performance of national, ethnic, and racial affiliations that result in a shared experience of alienation, masks, and shifting allegiances. Rather than relying on the tradition of the "protest" novel, these authors move into the realm of what Njabulo Ndebele calls "the rediscovery of the ordinary." In applying Frantz Fanon to La Guma's novel, the depiction of the wretched conditions of oppressed life showcase a variety of human reactions to oppression. Using Homi Bhabha's idea of "national narration," Head’s Maru emerges as a search for national belonging, while Julia Kristeva's abjection serves to illuminate the mystical regression of Michael K in Coetzee's novel. Oppression is challenged through recognizing everyday alienation.

Committee:

Evan Mwangi (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature, African

Keywords:

South Africa&160;&8211; literature; Coetzee, J.M.; Head, Bessie; La Guma, Alex; Protest literature

MacDonald, T. SpreelinSteve Biko and Black Consciousness in Post-Apartheid South African Poetry
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Interdisciplinary Arts (Fine Arts)

This dissertation rethinks the legacy of the anti-apartheid leader Steve Biko (1946-1977) in terms of his influence upon post-apartheid South African poetry. Comparing Biko's own writings on Black Consciousness and the poetry of contemporary South African poets, I show that Biko's ideas have come to underpin a field of post-apartheid poetry that I call "Biko poems."

Two questions guide this investigation. First, what is it about Biko's legacy that avails itself so potently to poetic elaboration? That is, what does Biko's articulation of Black Consciousness offer that allows it to be so vigorously engaged within poetry?

I address this question in Chapter One, positing that Biko's early essays, published under the reoccurring title "I Write What I Like," and under the pen name "Frank Talk," model a form of performative writing crucial to his subsequent poetic legacy. In particular, I discuss the manners in which these essays construct Black Consciousness as the struggle to generate black political presence, and black writing as a crucial aspect of this struggle.

I thus assert that Biko's essays fuse the struggle within Black Consciousness for black political presence with the struggle within performative writing to "make absence presence," as Della Pollock has defined performative writing. Biko's essays can accordingly be understood to open his legacy up to subsequent poetic elaboration, as they forward black writing as a key manner in which the struggle for black political presence can be enacted.

The subsequent chapters of this dissertation are motivated by a second question: if Biko's legacy allows for a potent understanding of black writing as crucial to the struggle to generate black political presence, what work does this understanding do in the present? I address this second question by examining the different manifestations of Biko's performative articulation of Black Consciousness in the work of contemporary poets.

In Chapter Two I examine the struggle within the work of Mphutlane wa Bofelo to redeem the performativity of Biko's legacy against Biko's appropriation as a symbol of elite privilege in the post-apartheid era. In Chapter Three, I examine the effort within the work of Bofelo and Kgafela oa Magogodi to leverage Biko's performativity to sanction contemporary black performance poetry.

In Chapter Four, I explore Vonani Bila's use of Biko's performativity to underwrite his development of a rural poetics. Finally, in Chapter Five, I discuss how this performative mandate to arise through self-determined struggle comes into tension with Biko's own haunting presence in the works of Bofelo, Magogodi, Bila, Bandile Gumbi and Lesego Rampolokeng. That is, I show that these "Biko poems" are propelled by their irresolvable effort to both employ Biko's performative precedent and escape it.

Collectively, then, I argue in this dissertation that Biko's performative articulation of blackness and black writing continues to animate contemporary South African poetry, as poets both leverage and struggle with Biko's haunting specter in their efforts to performatively emerge in the present.

Committee:

Marina Peterson, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Ghirmai Negash, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Michael Gillespie, PhD (Committee Member); William Condee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Literature; Literature; Theater

Keywords:

Steve Biko; Poetry; South Africa; Performativity; Blackness; Post-Apartheid

Subreenduth, Solotchnee SharonBlack teachers (re)negotiation and (re)construction of their pedagogical practice within South Africa's post-apartheid curriculum
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Educational Policy and Leadership
This qualitative case study explored the narratives of Black South African teachers as they seek to (re)define/construct and (re)negotiate their pedagogy as critical agents in South Africas journey through educational, political, social and cultural transformation. In doing so, the study explored how they negotiated their practice within the complex intertwining and tensions of identity, lived experience, liberatory struggles, and their notions of emancipatory teaching and learning. The theoretical frameworks of post/anti-apartheid, critical theory, and feminist theory inform this study. The work of multiple South African scholars who have explored, theorized and recommended a post-apartheid pedagogy/educational dispensation is reviewed and discussed. The work of specific westernŽ scholars - Freire, Giroux, and hooks is also reviewed in relation to how it informs and is informed by South Africas notions of a post-apartheid pedagogy. The border crossing of these sets of literature and theoretical frames is an attempt to disrupt the binaries of us and them, western and third-world. It attempts to blur such rigidity and authority through critical tensions and therefore place the anti-apartheid educational ideology with/in the dominant (western) discourse on educational transformation. This study theorizes research as a reflective decolonizing process that guided the methods used and analysis of the teacher narratives. It also engages in the ethics and politics of transnational research(ers) and theorizes the personal within the research process. The teacher narratives offer possibilities for a closer engagement of how educational policy is interpreted/enacted in the classroom. Their narratives show how their teaching practice/philosophy is shaped and negotiated, constrained and set free by their personal histories, identity politics, racial encounters, apartheid, political (non)consciousness/activism/discourse, and project participation. It points out the complex interconnectedness/fracturing of the above and the often intangible that impacts teaching and learning. What emerged were an unveiling of myriad complexities, convictions and ambivalences to the (im)possibilities of the teaching and learning environment as an empowering vehicle for social change in South Africa. The teacher narratives burst with promise, ambivalence, optimism and somberness about the transformative possibilities of South Africas new curriculum. This study contextualizes the current educational discourse in South Africa within the very classrooms new educational policy is intended to impact.

Committee:

Robert Lawson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Curriculum and Instruction

Keywords:

transformative pedagogy; South Africa; curriculum; anti-apartheid pedagogy; post-apartheid pedagogy

Archibald, Jenny KaySystematics, hybridization, and character evolution within the southern African genus, Zaluzianskya (Scrophulariaceae s.s., tribe Manuleeae)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology

Zaluzianskya (Scrophulariaceae s.s., tribe Manuleeae) is a southern African genus with four sections, whose floral diversity is particularly evident. This work examines Zaluzianskya at population and genus-wide levels. Sympatric and allopatric populations of Z. microsiphon (day-flowering) and Z. natalensis (night-flowering) were examined using ISSR markers in combination with ordination analyses of morphology. Although unexpected due to differences in flowering time between these species, putative hybrids have been found. The high genetic similarity between these species made it difficult to recover patterns of gene flow. However, it appears that genetic material from Z. microsiphon may be introgressing into Z. natalensis.

The first broad phylogenies for Zaluzianskya were resolved using nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (rpl16 and trnL-trnF) sequences. Analyses of separate and combined data sets were largely congruent, resolving three main clades. The only significant incongruence involved the single species included from section Macrocalyx. This species is placed sister to section Nycterinia by ITS but within that section by cpDNA. Consequently, the monophyly of section Nycterinia is undecided. It is certain, however, that sections Zaluzianskya and Holomeria are not monophyletic. Additionally, one of the purported outgroups (Reyemia) was nested within Zaluzianskya with strong support. Based on this and morphological affinity, this ditypic genus should be submerged within Zaluzianskya. Finally, the status of Z. microsiphon is uncertain, with three populations clearly separated in the phylogeny. Potentially this represents three lineages with convergent morphology due to pollinator selection. Alternatively, hybridization may have distorted Z. microsiphons placement on the phylogeny.

Character evolution was also examined, to find morphological synapomorphies for the new infrageneric groups and to consider the evolution of floral diversity within Zaluzianskya. Several traits support various levels in the phylogeny, including petal shape, stamen placement, tube length, nectary adnation, stem indumentum, and calyx lobing. Reconstruction of some traits was complicated by the uncertain status of Z. microsiphon. For example, the evolution of flowering time, floral symmetry, and throat indumentum is more labile if Z. microsiphon is divided. The evolution of habit (annual vs. perennial) and distribution (within relatively arid vs. mesic regions) appear associated although concentrated-changes tests did not reveal a significant correlation.

Committee:

Andrea Wolfe (Advisor)

Keywords:

floral evolution; ISSR; Reyemia; ethological isolation; biogeography; ITS; Zaluzianskya; Scrophulariaceae; rpl16; trnL-trnF; hybridization; South Africa; Kwazulu-Natal; PCA

Sampson, Mark GarrettMeaning and motivation of the car watcher in Knysna, South Africa
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Psychology
In the aftermath of apartheid, millions of South Africans are struggling to meet their basic survival needs of obtaining food and maintaining shelter. Little research has been done on how this daily struggle for survival affects the South Africans’ meaning and motivation in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation and meaning of a sample of South African people, specifically – the car watcher. It focused on the personal histories of people who were once oppressed under apartheid and examined what hopes they might have for the future and how their current living conditions affect their expectations for the future. This study investigated: (a) the background of the car watcher and his family members, (b) the car watcher’s satisfaction with the quality of life, (c) the car watcher’s hopes for the future, and (d) the impact of oppression on the car watcher’s life. Six domains emerged from the data of the ten participants: (1) Family Concerns; (2) Concerns with self; (3) Work Issues; (4) Future Issues; (5) Home Life; (6) Education. Of the six major domains, four appeared most prominent: family, work, home life, and education, with each domain exerting an influence on one another. Eight of the ten participants appeared to be substantially struggling to meet their basic needs on a daily basis. This daily struggle appeared to prevent them from moving beyond their physiological needs to more psychological needs. In addition, each car watcher spoke of being separated from family to some extent. This separation was often a result of the need to find work and become self-sufficient. Education was also affected by the car watchers’ home life. In order to satisfy basic needs, the car watchers sacrificed education for work. Often the car watchers feel a sense of hopelessness because the interaction of these obstacles appears overwhelming. Implications for cross-cultural counseling are discussed and suggest that more research needs to be performed using non-Western theories. The findings also suggest that current literature on motivation and meaning may not be applicable to marginalized individuals who do not have the means to meet their basic needs.

Committee:

Pamela Highlen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, General

Keywords:

motivation; meaning; South Africa

Nebergall, Michelle LUnderstanding Perceptions Of Risk Among Youth In A South African Township
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Anthropology
This dissertation project investigated how a sample of youth living in a South African township community perceived and managed the interconnected risks of daily life. The community was conceptualized as a risk environment (Rhodes et al 2005) wherein youth were at elevated vulnerability to HIV through political, economic, and social factors in addition to locally high HIV infection rates. Specific objectives were to examine 1) how youth perceived risk in daily life, 2) how HIV risk in particular was perceived, 3) youth strategies for managing risks, and 4) pilot cell phone based data collection methods. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, focus group discussions, participant diaries and cell-phone based data gathering using SMS and the social network MXit were conducted with a sample of 36 youth. In Phase 2, individual interviews, structured paper-based questionnaires, SMS and MXit data collection were conducted with a second sample of 40 youth. Youth described how concerns about the future and their ability to secure the necessary education and employment to build a better future for themselves and their families were paramount. Youth narratives also revealed hope for the future and described protective factors present in their lives. Findings demonstrate that risks were perceived in terms of both their physical and social consequences. Strategies used to manage risks in daily life included engaging with local health and educational services, focusing on future goals, uniting together to address community issues, and developing supportive, loving and trusting relationships. Risk perceptions and risk management strategies were shaped by each youth’s individual life circumstances and specific contexts within which risks occurred, highlighting the centrality of structural, sociocultural and economic dynamics in mediating youths’ vulnerability and responses to risks in daily life. Findings contribute to anthropological models of risk perception and risk management, specifically the concepts of social proximity and social risk. The syndemic and risk environment models are particularly relevant to understanding findings in this study. Finally, this research contributes to methodological questions concerning the effectiveness of cell-phone based data collection tools in social science research.

Committee:

Janet McGrath (Committee Chair); Jill Korbin (Committee Member); Eileen Anderson-Fye (Committee Member); Scott Frank (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

Adolescence; Youth; Risk Perception; Risk; South Africa

Rubin, Sarah EthelStruggling and Coping with Life: Maternal Emotional Distress in a South African Township
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Anthropology
This dissertation explores the everyday lives of Xhosa mothers in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. It focuses on Xhosa mothers' emotional experiences during pregnancy and after childbirth in order to demonstrate how their subjectivity is shaped by Xhosa cultural structures and values, the material scarcity and dangers of township life, and the norms and practices of mothering. It challenges the presumed universality of the diagnosis "perinatal depression" by demonstrating that only by focusing on broader realms of maternal experience in local contexts can we understand if and why perinatal depression is a meaningful illness category for a given culture. This dissertation employs longitudinal, person-centered, ethnographic methods, including structured and open-ended interviews with 38 Xhosa women, standardized psychiatric questionnaires, and observations of mothering, family activities, and community life. Xhosa women do not perceive life in the township as wholly problematic, but food insecurity, violence in public and private spaces, and the intersections of HIV and motherhood create widespread suffering. Xhosa concepts and ideals of motherhood include inimba, maternal empathy. Inimba is a complex concept at the heart of a multi-dimensional social role; it provides Xhosa women with a way of understanding a tension between the cultural imperatives of mothering all children and mothering one's own children--a tension exacerbated by poverty. Pregnancy is often joyful, but some find it fraught with anxiety about disclosure and the impending social transformation of woman to mother. Pregnant Xhosa women demonstrate an acute awareness of the liminality (in-between-ness) of pregnancy as they (re)negotiate relationships to secure social support. Xhosa mothers describe a process of "coping" with distress that involves sharing, empathizing, collectivizing, and, finally, "releasing." The process invokes Xhosa cultural concepts ubuntu and inimba. Because of inimba, Xhosa mothers are particularly adept at empathizing and thus coping with distress in a culturally meaningful way. This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how cultural and material contexts and social role affect emotional experiences in the perinatal period; and it contributes more broadly to psychological anthropology, studies of motherhood and mothers, of social suffering and subjectivity, of South African cultures, and of urban poverty.

Committee:

Eileen Anderson-Fye (Committee Chair); Atwood Gaines (Committee Member); Vanessa Hildebrand (Committee Member); Kimberly Emmons (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Gender Studies; Mental Health; Psychology; South African Studies

Keywords:

motherhood; gender; reproductive health; pregnancy; perinatal depression; postpartum depression; mental health; ethnopsychiatry; suffering; subjectivity; empathy; coping; inimba; ubuntu; South Africa; Cape Town; Xhosa culture; anthropology; urban poverty

Williams, Benjamin McKayExpanding perceptions of self and other through study abroad
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Educational Policy and Leadership
This dissertation explored the ways in which White, African American and Biracial American undergraduate and graduate students made meaning of race and other aspects of identity. Using a constructivist grounded methodology this study revealed a new way to conceptualize the processes by which students’ perceptions of self and other were shaped through a course on the culture and society of Southern Africa and by studying abroad on a short-term program to that region: the dynamics of integrating lenses. In the U.S. classroom, students moved from ignorance about the continent of Africa and the region of Southern Africa to an initial understanding. Through the combined course and study abroad program, the White undergraduate students’ unexamined White privilege was surfaced and examined. At the same time, Black students’ pride in being Black and their connection to their histories was deepened. Their assumptions about race and identification with Africa were also broadened. The result of the group cohesiveness and support was that White and Black students who had never had friends of the “other” race expanded their relationships to incorporate new people who they may never have interacted with otherwise. Through personal stories students were exposed to new perspectives and experiences, first, in the U.S. classroom, later in Southern Africa, and also in the comfort and security of the group itself. Through personal relationships with the instructor, the tour guides and fellow students, participants became engaged. Through learning about Southern Africa: its history, the society, and its many cultures, students became invested in the stories and the people who told them. As a result, they felt compelled to confront the reality they were facing. Through reflecting on those experiences in the support of the group, students were able to grapple with the dissonance between their earlier assumptions, perceptions, and beliefs and the new experiences they were having. This led to a greater complexity of thinking around issues of race, community, and globalization, and an expansion of the lenses they used to perceive themselves and others.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Advisor)

Keywords:

study abroad; short-term study abroad; racial identity; Southern Africa/South Africa; constructivist grounded theory; qualitative research; experiential learning

House, Melanie J.Their Place on the South African Stage:The Peninsula Dramatic Society and the Trafalgar Players
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Theatre

Racial segregation was a long-standing practice in South Africa, but until the National Government formalized it under apartheid in 1948, social groups formed based on familial bonds, common education and economic status. Consequently, within certain culturally diverse communities, South Africans of various ethnicities interacted with minimal regard for the barriers imposed by state mandated separatism. South African communities such as Cape Town’s District Six were one such microcosm, where multiethnic performance groups such as the Peninsula Dramatic Society (PDS) and the

Trafalgar Players (TP) were born. This historiography explores the relationship between the apartheid these groups. Through oral histories collected from surviving members of the troupes, this study illustrates the impact of social constructs such as race and caste on theatre communities in South Africa. It extends scholarly knowledge regarding the epidemiology and social impact of apartheid and highlights Resistance Theatre as cultural phenomena, a declaration of identity and vehicle for equality and social justice. Most important, it brings into focus, some of the individuals who, through their stagecraft, gave shape, form and voice to coloured resistance theatre.

Committee:

Lesley Ferris, PhD (Advisor); Alan Woods, PhD (Committee Member); Nena Couch (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; South African Studies; Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies

Keywords:

South Africa; Cape Town; Apartheid; Coloured Community; Resistance Theatre; Peninsula Dramatic Society; Trafalgar Players; EOAN group; Amelia Pegram; Owen Pegram; Isaac Pfaff; Oscar Pfaff; Paul Roubaix; Colonialism

Nelson, Erika DeniseA Community Perspective on Volunteer Tourism and Development in South Africa
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, Geography
Since 1994, South Africa has become a major destination for volunteer tourism, an international phenomenon combining post-modern paradigms of civic engagement and alternative travel. Organizers claim that such service establishes reciprocity in traveler-host relations, transcends the impersonal nature of mass tourism, and contributes to sustainable development. This thesis draws from interviews and participatory methods at three case studies to evaluate these assertions from the community perspective. Results reveal that counter to popular assumptions, NGOs, providers and volunteers often fail to address local needs, contribute to poverty alleviation, or empower host communities. Unprepared travelers can inadvertently undermine local control in a way that perpetuates existing power structures. While the combination of travel and service has the potential to be transformational for both volunteers and South African communities, an elemental change in approach and priorities is needed before the goal of a new era of solidarity, service and post-development can be realized.

Committee:

Thomas Klak, PhD (Advisor); Danielson Kisanga, PhD (Committee Member); Charles Stevens, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Geography; International Relations; Multicultural Education; Social Research

Keywords:

volunteer; tourism; development; South Africa; community

Hart, Alexander MichaelIMMIGRATION: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE WITH A GLOBAL SOLUTION
BA, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science
The purpose of this undergraduate study is to examine U.S. immigration policy and explore how the integration of successful pieces of immigration-related legislation from select countries could help immigration reform here in the United States. The study will compare and contrast current U.S. immigration policy with policy pieces from Finland, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates. This thesis will also assess briefly the history of US immigration policy as well as the prevailing stances on immigration policy from the Republican and Democratic parties.

Committee:

Gabriella Paar-Jakli (Advisor)

Subjects:

International Relations; Political Science

Keywords:

Immigration, Global, US, Finland, South Africa, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Spain, Republican, Democrat

Brancho, JennieReview of Regulatory Policies for Copper and Silver Water Quality Criteria
BS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Freshwater resources are used around the globe for drinking, recreation, bathing, and production of food. Despite the known value of freshwater for these activities, freshwater resources are being degraded faster than ever before in terms of habitat destruction, impaired water quality, and loss of biodiversity. Anthropogenic inputs of persistent chemical contaminants can lead to ecosystem-wide impairments through direct and indirect toxic effects. To mitigate these effects, water management policies need to be science-based and continually updated with the most current scientific information to reflect changes in types and amounts of pollutants and new knowledge about toxicity. For this analysis, we compared two metals: a well-studied pollutant (copper [Cu]) and an emerging contaminant of concern (silver [Ag]). We assessed water quality criteria for these two metals from the United States, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and the European Union to determine the intent of these criteria and implementation strategies. Additionally, we conducted standard chronic toxicology tests for silver and copper on the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis to assess the level of effectiveness offered by each regulation in protecting ecological integrity. L. stagnalis were individually exposed to metal-contaminated freshwater (0–32 µg/L for both Cu and Ag) for a 28-day static renewal test and mortality and growth rates were measured. Results show copper to be more lethal than silver, but sublethal effects of toxicity were observed at lower concentrations of silver. However, because Ag is a poorly studied contaminant, water quality criteria for Ag are typically older, more variable, or absent and thus may not offer protection in some jurisdictions.

Committee:

David Costello, PhD (Advisor); Ferenc de Szalay, PhD (Committee Member); David Singer, PhD (Committee Member); Alison Smith, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Environmental Law; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Toxicology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Lymnaea stagnalis; ecotoxicity; water quality criteria; copper; silver; toxicity; United States; Canada; European Union; South Africa; Australia and New Zealand; EU; ANZECC; US; CCME; freshwater; pulmonate snail; regulation

Selby, Amy LynnAfrica in Cleveland: Colonial Wars and Perceptions of Race and Empire in American Newspapers
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, African-American and African Studies
This thesis examines the change in American public opinion regarding two colonial wars, the Second Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 in South Africa and the Mau Mau uprising of 1952-1960 in Kenya. The representations of the Anglo-Boer War differed greatly from those of the Mau Mau uprising, despite similarities such as the colonial power involved, occurrence within African colonies, and even the methods used by both the colonial power and the colonized people. While mainstream newspapers strongly sided with the Boers, the Mau Mau were presented as savages. However, the African-American newspapers did not follow the mainstream interpretations of events. By using comparative historical analysis of three newspapers in the Cleveland, Ohio area, the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the Cleveland Gazette, and the Cleveland Call & Post, I demonstrate that the perceptions of Clevelanders toward the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1901 and the Mau Mau uprising of 1952-1960 resulted from contemporary anxieties regarding the fear of foreigners and communism, and, above all, race. While white Americans overwhelmingly supported the Boers during the colonial war in South Africa at the turn of the century, they supported violent methods to suppress a colonial war in Kenya fifty years later. African-Americans, however, were more varied in their opinion of the earlier conflict, with different newspapers supporting the Boers or British or, sometimes, neither. While African-Americans did support the Mau Mau, there was a concern with identifying with the uprising due to fears of communist accusations and the anxiety of jeopardizing the burgeoning domestic civil rights movement. This thesis challenges the notion that most Americans supported the Boers, while, fifty years later, viewed the Mau Mau as violent savages by demonstrating that American opinion varied, thus defeating the notion of a single “public opinion.” I conclude that understanding the reflection of global events in “public opinion” must be set against the background of domestic issues and anxieties, which amplify the resonance of those events. The media coverage of the Anglo-Boer War and the Mau Mau uprising speak to the troubles of American society as much as to distant conflicts.

Committee:

Franco Barchiesi, PhD (Advisor); Lupenga Mphande, PhD (Committee Member); Sarah Van Beurden, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African History; African Studies; American History

Keywords:

Anglo-Boer War; South Africa; Mau Mau; Kenya; colonial wars; Cleveland, Ohio; newspapers; public opinion; empire; race

Shaffer, Marian“This is South Africa, Not Somalia”: Negotiating Gender Relations in Johannesburg’s ‘Little Mogadishu’
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Anthropology

Somali refugees arrived in Johannesburg, South Africa following apartheid’s official end in 1994 and have since established a well-organized “Little Mogadishu” in Mayfair, a suburb just west of the city center, which continues to grow as Somalis migrate to the country in search of peace, security, and livelihood opportunities. The backgrounds and experiences Somalis bring to Mayfair influence gender ideologies in the community and complicate gender relations as women and men construct and negotiate new identities in South Africa. Working with Somalis in Mayfair, I used mixed methods in this ethnographic study to collect data on the dynamics of gender. Employing a “gendered geographies of power” framework, I examine how Somalis make sense of their world and the contradictions that surround gender relations for women and men as they interact with one another and the larger South African community.

Somalis face racism, discrimination, and xenophobia from South Africans in their daily lives, which adversely affect women and men’s mobility and opportunities in the country. Physical and economic insecurity draw Somalis to live in Mayfair, where they feel protected and supported by their networks and ethnic kin. These realities contribute to the way gender relationships function within the Somali community and as women and men manage their lives with limited state support. The patriarchal structure of Somali society ascribes men leadership positions as providers who control their families and communities, while women are charged with household management and have a limited ability to challenge these arrangements in broader society. Patterns of participation for women and men in Mayfair contradict customary structures as economic activities shift, power is reorganized, and cultural standards are adjusted. These new arrangements threaten traditional social positions for Somali women and men—a risk many Somalis cannot accept and will contest—as they redefine community support and protection for their new home. In this dissertation, I explore the dynamics of these contests in Mayfair and for Somali immigrants to South Africa.

Committee:

Jeffrey Cohen (Advisor); Mark Moritz (Committee Member); Anna Willow (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

gender relations; Somali diaspora; Mayfair, Johannesburg; Somalis South Africa

Masters, Brittany A.The Ultra
BA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English

The Ultra is a fictional story that depicts a group of runners competing in an ultra race in South Africa. The Wild Coast Ultra is a four-day race across the Eastern Cape of South Africa. As the characters run, they overcome personal and physical obstacles that make them stronger and bring them closer together. Samantha, the main character, is a graduate student running in search of adventure and excitement. She makes mistakes and comes close to not finishing the ultra, but her spirit perseveres. The other characters go through their own struggles, and play a role in Sam’s self-discovery.

Each of them crosses the finish line a different person. They learn new things about themselves and grow a family-like bond. The Ultra is not just a story about running; it is about characters triumphing over their personal demons, physical ailments, and emotional barriers. Their individual stories intertwine and react to one another’s creating a story that captures the reader and pulls them in to their world.

Committee:

Robert King (Advisor); Leslie Heaphy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Mary Rooks, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paula Sato, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature; Modern Literature; Physical Education; South African Studies

Keywords:

running; south africa; fiction; travel;

Mavuso Mda, Adele MadikomaStaff Turnover in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Sector in South Africa
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Mass Communication (Communication)

This dissertation presents two frameworks of what drives the ICT workers' decisions to terminate their employment with their employers, using in-depth interviewing of 38 ICT participants in different industry sectors in South Africa. The findings show external labor markets (ELMs) and internal labor markets (ILM) turnover factor across information and communication technology sectors and demographic attributes.

ELM factors were especially complex, with AA forcing employers to increase race and gender representation with individuals from South Africa's historically disadvantaged groups. Affirmative action puts a premium tag on hiring women and Black people. AA therefore, provided mobility for these groups and restricted mobility for White males. Despite the shortage of skilled ICT professionals in the sector, AA gives preferential treatment which dissatisfied the undesignated groups, thus forcing them to have intentions to leave their jobs or the country.

ILM factors were less complicated than ELMs, with general dissatisfaction with internal company policies about pay, promotions and the scopes of their jobs causing them to terminate their jobs. Compensation was the most influential turnover, with professionals always looking for more money and promotions. If there was perceived lack of commitment by the employee from the organization, they were highly likely to leave. Some ICT professionals chose to leave their permanent jobs to work on short-tomedium term projects which were flexible.

Across demographic groupings, Black men were the most hoppers but preferred workers in the ICT sector, as described by some managers and other male workers. The corporate ICT culture was still a barrier for female workers and caused women not to stay long because of unwelcoming environment. The preferential employment of Black males increased their mobility and slowed down the entry of women in core ICT work and managerial positions. The voluntary turnover of the ICT professionals was mainly caused by organizational rewards, affirmative action, and a host of other workplace factors.

Committee:

Drew McDaniel, PhD (Committee Chair); Phyllis Bernt, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Cooper, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Tucker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Information Systems; Mass Media; Technology

Keywords:

Affirmative action; ICT workers; turnover, South Africa; organizational commitment; psychological contract; internal labor market; external labor market; segmented workforce; job hopping; social networks; qualitative interviewing; ICT; job mobility

Doughty, Jeremy R."The other side": A narrative study of south African community members' experiences with an international service-learning program
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of my narrative study was to hear stories about how community members are affected by international service-learning programs. At a time when universities and colleges in the United States emphasize internationalization efforts and the civic purpose of higher education, more institutions are designing and delivering international service-learning programs. More questions must be raised regarding how these programs affect communities. Despite the centrality of reciprocity in the service-learning paradigm, the extant literature primarily focuses on the effects of international service-learning programs on students. I spent two weeks collecting data at a primary school in Ithemba, a predominantly Black African, Xhosa-speaking township in South Africa characterized by one of my participants as “the other side.” Three participants at Korhaan School—Bhejile (the principal), Dunyiswa (the deputy principal), and Peline (a teacher)—engaged in two semi-structured interviews and one focus group. To mask the identity of my participants, I selected pseudonyms for the two universities, the primary school, and the community where the primary school is situated, and I use the names selected by my participants throughout the manuscript. Three key findings emerged from the data. First, my participants’ stories underscored the interconnectedness of the community and the community-based organization. Second, the students who participate in the international service-learning program bring a myriad of benefits to Korhaan School, and the students’ actions align with ubuntu, a cultural framework that shapes an individual’s engagement with others. Third, areas for improvement exist for the international service-learning program. A number of implications for higher education professionals are presented as a result of the findings. First, faculty members and practitioners must involve community members as co-educators in the long-term life cycle of an international service-learning program. Second, U.S. higher education professionals must learn from international models of service. Third, faculty members and practitioners who design international service-learning programs must restructure pre-departure programming to include domestic service opportunities, academic preparation beyond surface-level knowledge, and the postcolonial perspective. These strategies will help higher education professionals construct meaningful partnerships with community-based organizations that are characterized by thick reciprocity—partnerships that are more inclusive, just, and reciprocal.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ksenija Glusac, Ph.D. (Other); Christina Lunceford, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

international service-learning; service-learning; study abroad; South Africa; international education; community; community engagement; reciprocity; higher education; student affairs; narrative inquiry

Witek, Joseph F.Johannesburg: Africa's World City?
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Johannesburg, South Africa hosted events in the 2010 FIFA World Cup with the aspirations of overcoming its apartheid era image and inculcating a cosmopolitan, world-class image to the international community. Stakeholders in promoting the World Cup made promises to the citizens of Johannesburg and South Africa that the event would provide valuable upgrades, training, and economic opportunities. To carry out these promises, diverse projects were completed throughout Johannesburg and billions were spent improving the city. This thesis examines the perceptions of an international tourist audience to ascertain whether or not the World Cup image was disseminated and if the 2010 World Cup was enough to change the perceptions of the city in the minds of tourists. It finds that the impact of the World Cup was mixed on tourist perceptions and that Johannesburg, while being portrayed as modern and friendly, is still viewed as unsafe and caught in the legacy of apartheid.

Committee:

Yeong-Hyun Kim (Advisor); Elizabeth Edna Wangui (Committee Member); Harold Perkins (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Geography; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Johannesburg; World Cup; Imagineering; Urban; Tourism; Perceptions; Mega events; South Africa; Development

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