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Oemig, Carmen KayFrequency and Appraisal of Social Support in a Behavioral Weight Loss Program: Relationship to Behavioral and Health Outcomes
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Clinical
Involving supportive others in Behavioral Weight Loss Programs (BWLP) is related to improved participant weight loss (e.g., Black, Gleser, & Kooyers, 1990), however little is known of the influence of naturally occurring (external to the intervention situation) support. Similarly overlooked is the role of social support to the numerous behavior changes required for successful weight loss. The current study evaluated the occurrence (i.e., frequency) and experience (i.e., helpfulness appraisal) of naturally occurring support in relation to behavioral and health outcomes. The primary goals were to examine the support – behavior change relationship for evidence of specificity and to evaluate the utility of measuring support appraisals as a tool for identifying resource-need match. Within these objectives, another aim of the study was to identify potentially distinct contributions of different sources of support. Hypothesis testing returned largely null results. Small sample size and low power are important considerations in explaining the null findings. However, attention is also called to other possible factors, including stage of behavior change and the “obesogenicity” of modern environments, which may have contributed to the current null findings and warrant further attention.

Committee:

Robert Carels (Advisor)

Keywords:

Behavioral Weight Loss Program; Social Support; Helpfulness; Appraisal of Social Support; Spousal support; Friend support; Family support; Weight loss; weight loss program; health outcomes; social support and health; functional support

Chaichanawirote, UraiwanQuality of Life of Older Adults: The Influence of Internal and External Factors
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Nursing

Quality of life of older adults is influenced by multiple environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of quality of life and internal environmental factors (physical functioning, and depressive symptoms), and external environmental factors (social support satisfaction and social network density). The study framework was based on the Complexity Theory and the Human Response Model.

A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study the residents of retirement communities or people who attend senior centers in Northeast Ohio. Data collection involved the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule, and the Quality of Life ICECAP index. This study was approved by the Case Western Reserve University’s Human Subjects Review Board.

Total sample size was 95. Data analyses indicated 62% of the sample was female, 78% were white, 90% were non-Hispanic, 86% lived at home, 63% lived alone, 73% were drivers, 89% completed high school or higher, and subject age ranged from 65 to 96, with the average age of 76 years. Descriptive statistics are as follows: physical functioning was high (M =8.95, SD = 2.49); quality of life was high (M = .84, SD =.11); depressive symptoms were low (M = 1.98, SD = 2.42); social support satisfaction was high (M = 35.67, SD = 6.18); and social network density was moderate (M = .53, SD = .33). Physical functioning was significantly higher in participants who completed college or higher than those who complete high school or less, and higher in participants who lived with others than those who lived alone. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower in the drivers than non-drivers/drivers with constraints. Hierarchical regression analysis shows that predictor variables explain 32% of variance in the quality of life of older adults (R2adj = .32, F(11, 83) = 4.95, p < .001). Physical functioning (β = .26, p < .05) and depressive symptoms (β = - .42, p < .001) significantly influence quality of life when controlling for demographic characteristics. Social network analysis was used to produce illustrative sociograms, which helped explain the structure of the participants’ social network interactions.

Committee:

May Wykle, Dean and Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor (Committee Chair); Patricia Higgins, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth Madigan, Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth O'Toole, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gerontology; Nursing

Keywords:

quality of life; ICECAP; older adults; social network analysis; physical functioning; depressive symptoms; sociogram; social support satisfaction; social network density; egocentric; social support system

Stevenson, Lauren DeMarcoThe Influence of Treatment Motivation, Treatment Status and Social Networks on Perceived Social Support of Women with Substance Use or Co-Occurring Disorders
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, Social Welfare

This study examined predictors of perceived social support and support forrecovery of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. The sample consisted of 136 adult women; 86 women were engaged in inpatient and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs, and 50 women were recruited from a study of mothers with cocaine exposed infants.

The women in the study were predominantly African American (82.4%) and of low income status with 80% of the women reporting an annual family income below $15,000. All of the women had a current substance use disorder and 77 (56.6%) of the women also had a co-occurring mental disorder including: Major Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Mania, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Hypomania, and Dysthymia. On average, women reported having a social network comprised of 10.73 members.

A significant relationship was found between critical members (those who provide negative support) within women’s social networks and perceived social support, with a higher percent of critical network members predicting lower perceived social support. Perceived social support scores were also significantly lower for women with a co-occurring mental disorder. Indirect relationships were found for women’s perceived social support. The percent of professionals within women’s social networks moderated the relationships between women’s treatment motivation and treatment status with perceived social support. The percent of substance users in women’s networks moderated the relationship between treatment motivation and perceived social support.

A sub sample analysis of 86 women in substance abuse treatment explored predictors of support for recovery. A significant relationship was found between the percent of members who support sobriety and support for recovery. This finding provides construct validity for the support for recovery measure.

Practice implications as well as directions for future research are included in this study. Findings suggest that clinicians should work with social network members and clients on improving communication and eliminating critical support to improve social support. Future research should focus on the impact of social relationships on treatment outcomes.

Committee:

Elizabeth Tracy, PhD (Committee Chair); David Biegel, PhD (Committee Member); Kathryn Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Sonia Minnes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

Social Support Networks; Social Support; Substance Use Disorders; Dual Disorders; Co-Occurring Disorders; Treatment Motivation; Social Networks; Substance Abuse; Women

Baugh, Wonda A.An Autoethnographic Exploration Into Bipolar Depression and Social Support As A Factor Of Resilence
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, American Culture Studies
This dissertation is an autoethnographic inquiry into mental illness, social support, and voluntary kinship. I explore relationships with my voluntary kin - people who act as family without biological or legal ties - and the types of supportive relationships in which we engaged that helped me accept the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Because of their communication and commitment to me, I learned to thrive while complying with mental health treatment. This document describes the process by which I went from being self-centered to other-centered; from social support receiver to social support provider; and from defining myself as an individual to understanding my role in the collective.

Committee:

Sandra Faulkner (Advisor); Sheri Wells-Jensen (Other); Ellen Berry (Committee Member); Sarah Rainey (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Gender Studies

Keywords:

social support; autoethnography; chosen kin; social support; bipolar depression

Nadel, Sarah AleseDeveloping a Social Support Measurement Instrument: A Methodological Approach to Measuring Undergraduate Perceptions of Social Support
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Educational Studies
The level of perceived social support in higher education continues to be a field of interest within academia, particularly with regards to its relationship to academic retention. The study investigated social support using 143 randomly selected students (100 females and 43 males) from a large Midwestern university. In order to characterize their perceptions of social support, students were asked to write 5-10 open-ended statements their closest family member could ask of them that would demonstrate feelings of support. Data were analyzed utilizing QDA Miner and WordStat software. Cluster analysis was used to identify the themes undergraduate students perceived as indicators of social support. Using a grounded theory approach in which the researcher did not restrict analysis with a priori assumptions about thematic content, the study identified three themes: academic support, personal support, and financial support. Based on these results a survey was developed to assess levels of perceived social support from undergraduate students. The new instrument provides academic institutions the opportunity to better access levels of family social support, where students with lower scores are at higher risk for attrition.

Committee:

P. Cristian Gugiu, PhD (Advisor); Dorinda Gallant, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

social support, family social support, retention, higher education

Schwartz, Abby JillPerceived social support and self-management of diabetes among adults 40 years and over
Master of Gerontological Studies, Miami University, 2005, Gerontology
The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive examination of personal characteristics, health status, diabetes experience, and perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends as predictors of self-management in adults with diabetes mellitus. Perceived social support was measured using the Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family Scale (Procidano & Heller, 1983). Self-management was measured using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (Toobert, Hampson, & Glasgow, 2000), as well as a hemoglobin A1c test, a biomedical indicator of self-management efforts. Participants included 50 individuals who reported moderate levels of support from family and friends, but significantly more support from family members. Participants also reported the most adherence to taking medications and least adherence to exercising. Additionally, a modicum of support from family was associated with high adherence to diet and exercise. Economic and diabetes intervention implications are discussed, as well directions for future research.

Committee:

Jennifer Kinney (Advisor)

Keywords:

Diabetes; self-management; perceived social support; social support; adults

Hupp, Danelle RenaeThe Role of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) Program in Promoting Social Support
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2008, Psychology
To many consumers, recovery is much more than just a return to a normal state of functioning or symptom remission: it is a journey (Deegan, 1995). Social support has been found to play an important role in this recovery journey (Frese & Davis, 1997) for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI have been found to have social networks that are one-half the size of those of the general population (Corrigan & Phelan, 2004; Wilson, Flanagan, & Rynders, 1999).

Many individuals with SMI have a dual diagnosis for co-occurring substance use disorders (MacDonald et al., 2004), and the recovery process is not unique to the field of mental health (e.g., other health arenas such as cancer and substance abuse also address recovery processes). Today, in the age of the consumer-survivor movement, where the client is an active and informed participant in their treatment and recovery (Gonzalez, 1976; Wilson et al., 1999), there is much debate about the definition of recovery.

This study represents an integration of the current recovery and social support literature with an evaluation of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program. The WMR program is an ongoing, multi-site project which is designed to promote mental health recovery among individuals experiencing severe and persistent mental illness in the community. The current research was an adjunct to WMR and examined how this recovery program affects the quality and quantity of the social support of the participants. The present study was designed to evaluate whether a recovery-oriented program helped individuals with SMI to gain not only in number of social supports (quantitatively), but also whether these supports were perceived to be meeting their needs (qualitatively). Results found that participants successfully completing the WMR program showed a significant increase in both quantity and quality of their social support networks. Exploratory analyses of follow-up data, as well as an open-ended question regarding the most important persons in the lives of participants (Intimates versus Friends), are also discussed.

Committee:

Wesley Bullock, PhD (Advisor); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Sallyann Treadaway, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

social support; recovery; serious mental illness; Wellness Management and Recovery program; WMR; Wellness Management and Recovery Social Support Questionnaire; WMR SSQ

Little, VIrginia LChanges in Fathers' Physical Health Across the Transition to Parenthood
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
The transition to parenthood is an important developmental milestone and a major life transition for first-time fathers, as it involves significant changes in self-identity and marital relationship dynamics. Additionally, the effects of role transitions on physical health outcomes are important for new fathers; however, most of the literature concerning the transition to parenthood focuses primarily on the psychological and physical health of the mother. The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of social support in men's physical health during the transition to parenthood. I propose that lack of received social support from a partner predicts poor physical health outcomes in the father. As a result of the increased stress of the birth of a new baby and a decrease in spousal support, fathers will utilize the alternative stress response of tend-and-befriend and seek social support from existing social ties, namely family and close friends. Furthermore, I argue that these alternative sources of social support will compensate for the lack of spousal support. The analyses were conducted using cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected from 104 married/cohabitating couples expecting their first child. This study utilized paired t-tests to examine changes in health across four waves of data: pregnancy, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months postpartum. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to analyze main and moderating effects of spousal support and external social support on new fathers' physical health. Results suggest that new fathers experience changes in self-rated health and physical somatic symptoms across the first year after a baby's birth. Second, low levels of spousal support have a direct effect on poor physical health outcomes. Finally, social support from family and friends has health benefits for fathers who receive low spousal support.

Committee:

Kristin Mickelson, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Social Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

Role transition; parenthood; fatherhood; spousal support; social support; physical health; social network compensation; postpartum health; postnatal health; new fathers health; external social support; somatic symptoms

Chhabra, SurbhiSocial Capital, Social Support, and Food Insecurity in Food Pantry Users
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Allied Health Sciences: Nutrition
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital and social support in urban food pantry users in Cincinnati, OH. Fifty three in-person interviews were completed with food pantry users using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module, a 36-item social capital questionnaire, and a 23-item social support questionnaire. Most participants (81%) were food insecure and 68.5% reported that the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was their primary source to buy food. The participants were asked to list up to 10 significant people who provided personal support. The average number of people listed was 4.9 ± 2.4 and included immediate family members (49.0%), friends (24.3%), and relatives (10.8%). Social capital was assessed at sub constructs of trust, networks, cooperation, community involvement, and self-perception using a response range from 1 to 4. The score was highest for self-perception (3.2±0.64) and lowest for community involvement (2.2±0.61). There was no significant association of food security to social capital or social support. The finding may be due to a small sample size. It will be important to examine the relationship with a larger sample.

Committee:

Seung-Yeon Lee, PhD (Committee Chair); Grace Falciglia, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nutrition

Keywords:

food security; social support; social capital

Castellanos, PatriciaThe romantic relationships of Latina adolescent mothers: Longitudinal effects of relationship satisfaction, social support, and relationship strain
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
The demands and challenges of early parenthood place adolescent mothers at high risk for developing adjustment difficulties. The current longitudinal study examined the types of relationships that Latina adolescent mothers have with their partners, based on the young mother's level of acculturation and enculturation. The study also examined positive (e.g., partner support, relationship satisfaction) and negative (e.g., relationship strain) aspects of romantic relationships that impact both relationship continuity and the adolescent mothers' psychological adjustment. One hundred and twenty five Latina adolescent mothers (M age=19.49 years; SD=1.34; of primarily Puerto Rican origin) who reported having a partner and their young children participated in this study at T1; one hundred and eight of these mothers returned for a second assessment 6 months later (T2). The majority of participants resided with their partners (70.4%) and approximately 42% of the young mothers were in relatively long-lasting (3 or more years) relationships with their partners. Around 19% of mothers were married, and marriage and co-residence with partner related to higher perceived instrumental support. Mothers' cultural orientation was related to characteristics of these relationships. Less acculturated mothers and mothers who were highly enculturated were more likely to be married and living with partners. The partners of more enculturated mothers were also more likely to be the child's biological father. Roughly 78% of participants who had a partner at T1 and returned for T2 reported the same partner at T2. Although a few demographic and relationship characteristics were related to continuity (e.g., co-residence and relationship with child's father, having Latino partners, and longer relationships), relationship satisfaction was the only unique predictor of continuity. In regard to associations with mother's psychological distress, non-tangible support, satisfaction, and strain at T1 related to distress at T2. However, strain was the only unique predictor of distress; satisfaction had a marginal effect. Importantly, the association between strain and distress was moderated by satisfaction, such that strain predicted more distress at low and medium levels of satisfaction, but not at higher levels of satisfaction. Results are discussed in light of Latino cultural values, developmental issues, and implications for intervention.

Committee:

Josefina Grau (Committee Chair); Karla Anhalt (Committee Member); Kristin Mickelson (Committee Member); Beth Wildman (Committee Member); Maria Zaragoza (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Latina adolescent mothers; adolescent mothers; Latinas; social support; relationship strain; relationship satisfaction; romantic relationships

Ramey, Victoria R.The Relation Between Social Support And Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Families
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, Psychology
This paper is a summary of a study that examined the relation between social support and self-sufficiency among those with little or no income. Using self-report questionnaires and narratives, this study attempted to delve into the relation between satisfaction with individuals’ support systems and self-sufficiency, as well as that between family support and reported self-sufficiency. The results were mixed. There was a trend toward significance in the relation between the satisfaction scores and total self-sufficiency, and a moderate correlation between the support of identified family members and total self-sufficiency. Narratives identified most commonly mentioned sources of stress and social support, pointing to the important role of family members as sources of support to cope with instrumental stressors. This work examines the limitations of the study, and suggests possible directions for future research.

Committee:

Ann Fuehrer, PhD (Committee Chair); Amanda Diekman, PhD (Committee Member); Marie Elise Radina, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

social support; self-sufficiency

Stewart, Shannon R.The differences in food security and related characteristics between rural, low-income Appalachian women who garden for food and those who do not
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2012, Social Work
At 14.6% in 2010, food insecurity is at its highest level since the United States Department of Agriculture began collecting food security status data in 1995. The purposes of this mixed-methods study were to: 1) assess for differences in food security, household energy security, fruit and vegetable intake, produce-related food behavior, diabetes mellitus risk, Body Mass Index (BMI), and emotional and social well-being between low-income mothers who gardened for food in rural Appalachia and those who did not; and 2) explore qualitative themes related to those constructs. Participants interviewed included 53 women from a nonmetropolitan county in Appalachian Ohio. Participants were 32.9±9.7 years of age. After dichotomous groupings, 67.9% of adults were food secure, 94.3% of children were food secure, and 71.7% of households were food secure. Participants who gardened for food made up 43% of the sample. A difference was found in household and adult food security status between gardeners and non-gardeners. Out of gardeners, 13.0% were food insecure and 82.0% were food insecure, lower than the national average of 39% food insecurity for the same income level. A significant difference was also found between gardeners and non-gardeners for Food Behavior Checklist scores. Relevant themes related to the variables studied were also explored. Suggestions and implications for social work practice, policy, and future research were discussed.

Committee:

David H. Holben, PhD, RD, LD (Advisor); Solveig Spjeldnes, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health; Nutrition; Social Work

Keywords:

food security; low-income women; rural women; garden; gardening; household energy security (HES); produce intake; FBC; health; well-being; social capital; FMWB; FOC; social support index; mixed methods

Wishnick, Hillary M.DEMOGRAPHIC AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF ENTRY INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
Although participating in mental health case management services has been linked with positive outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses, a significant proportion of these consumers drop out of treatment within the first six months. This study evaluated the system's effectiveness in maintaining consumers in services for six months, and assessed consumer outcome after six months. One hundred sixteen individuals with serious mental illnesses served as the participants in the study. They were interviewed at two points in time, once following their diagnostic interview for entry into the case management system, and once after six months had elapsed. Sixty-nine of the participants completed the follow up portion of the study (60%). Participants completed self report measures of quality of life, symptoms, social support, empowerment, service needs and case manager alliance (Time 2 only). At both Time 1 and Time 2 unmet service needs were significantly positively correlated with symptoms and were significantly negatively correlated with quality of life, empowerment, social support, and case manager alliance. A reduction in unmet needs from Time 1 to Time 2 was positively associated with quality of life and social support and negatively correlated with symptoms. Reduction in unmet needs was not related to empowerment or case manager alliance. Individuals who remained in services for six months had significantly fewer symptoms and unmet service needs. However, they did not have significantly higher quality of life, social support, or empowerment at Time 2. No demographic predictors of treatment drop out were found. However, those who dropped out of services had significantly lower quality of life and less social support at intake than those who remained in services for six months. More specifically, those who treatment had less family support. The results indicate that evaluating and addressing consumers self-defined needs is important because it is highly related to other outcomes. Additionally, the presence or absence of family support appears to be an important variable in determining whether or not a consumer remains with services. Those individuals without family support may need more attention from the system to ensure they do not get disconnected.

Committee:

Steffen John (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

CASE MANAGEMENT; DROP OUT; UNMET NEEDS; SOCIAL SUPPORT; QUALITY OF LIFE

Orozco, VeronicaEthnic identity, perceived social support, coping strategies, university environment, cultural congruity, and resilience of Lanina/o college students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Psychology
The literature on resilience suggests that despite personal, cultural, and environmental challenges, many students do succeed academically. However, few studies have investigated resilience or factors that foster it among Latino college students. Accordingly, this study examined the variables of ethnic identity, perceived social support from family, friends, and a significant other, coping strategies, university environment, and cultural congruity to determine their relation to the resilience of 150 Latina/o college students. The participants were 72 males and 78 females from a large Midwestern, predominantly white institution (PWI). Participants completed a survey packet that included a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Student Coping Scale, University Environment Scale, Cultural Congruity Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The results showed that ethnic identity, familial, friend, and significant other support, coping strategies, university environment, and cultural congruity accounted for 51% of the variance in measured resilience. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing resilience literature and implications for future research are noted.

Committee:

Don Dell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, General

Keywords:

Latinos; College Students; Resilience; Ethnic Identity; Social Support; Coping; University Environment; Cultural Congruity

Fujishiro, KaoriFairness at work: its impacts on employee well-being
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Public Health
While for decades, fairness at work has been an important research topic in the field of organizational behavior, only recently has fairness gained attention among occupational stress researchers. In the last few years, a small but growing literature has found associations between a lack of fairness at work and a decline in employee health indicated by lower self-rated health status, increased sick leave, and more psychiatric disorders. In spite of the increasing attention to fairness, the literature has not yet established a framework to link work environment, fairness at work, and employee health and well-being. This study proposes an integrative framework, identifies the underlying structure of fairness at work, and examines the role of fairness at work in the occupational stress process. Employees at furniture company distribution centers participated in the study (n = 357). They completed self-administered questionnaires in their worksites. Fairness at work was measured with items derived from interviews with another group of employees in a previous study. Traditionally studied constructs in occupational stress research (job stressors, job control, social support) and employee well-being variables (job satisfaction, global job strain, psychological well-being) were also measured. Confirmatory factor analysis and linear regression were conducted to analyze the data. Five highly correlated factors were identified for fairness at work: unbiased and respectful treatment of employees, receptivity to employee voice, recognition of employee efforts, willingness to help with problems/special circumstances, and concern about employee well-being. A sixth factor, fairness perception about wages, was also identified. A lack of perceived fairness was negatively associated with employee well-being. This study also found that perceived fairness at work moderates the relationship between workload and job strain; that is, high workload was associated with high strain only when perceived fairness was low. In addition, fairness mediated the relationship between role conflict and job-related well-being. These findings have implications for workplace interventions. Since this was a cross-sectional study, the causal link implied in the analysis needs to be confirmed with longitudinal studies. Nevertheless, the findings show that fairness at work potentially plays an important role in understanding occupational stress and in enhancing employee well-being.

Committee:

Catherine Heaney (Advisor)

Keywords:

Fairness at work; Organizational justice; Occupational stress; Social support; Job satisfaction; Psychological well-being

Ludewig, Annika BeatriceTHE PERCEPTIONS OF ATHLETES AND ATHLETIC TRAINERS ON THE MOTIVATION AND SOCIAL SUPPORT OF INJURED ATHLETES DURING REHABILITATION
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Athletic Training (Health and Human Services)

This study examined both athletes’ and athletic trainers’ perceptions on motivation and social support of injured athletes during rehabilitation. Investigating how athletic trainers motivate athletes and give social support to perform his/her rehabilitation provides insight to the impact athletic trainers have in caring for and rehabilitating injuries. Two electronic surveys, the athletic trainer survey and the athlete survey were constructed using Survey Monkey. Data were collected on the perceived motivation of injured athletes in rehabilitation, the injured athletes’ and athletic trainers’ views of motivation, and the athletic trainers’ role in motivating the injured athlete and provide social support in rehabilitation. Data analysis with an ANOVA indicated athletic trainers’ vital role in the motivation and social support of injured athletes during rehabilitation. Athletic trainers were identified as the most important individual in motivating and providing reality confirmation, task appreciation, task challenge, and emotional challenge and support.

Committee:

Jeffrey Seegmiller (Advisor)

Keywords:

Motivation; Social Support; Rehabilitation; Athletes; Athletic trainers; Sport psychology

Santurri, Laura E.An analysis of the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, social support, and health-related quality of life among women living with interstitial cystitis in the United States
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between stress, self-efficacy, social support, and health-related quality of life among women living with interstitial cystitis (IC) in the United States (U.S.). In addition, this study examined self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between stress and health-related quality of life and social support as a moderator of the impact of self-efficacy on health-related quality of life in women living with IC when controlling for stress. IC is a chronic condition with the potential for substantial impact on quality of life.

Using a systematic and purposive approach, a sample of 1,387 women living with IC was recruited to complete a cross-sectional, web-based, anonymous instrument. This instrument contained 155 items, measuring health-related quality of life, social support, stress, self-efficacy, disease severity, co-morbidity, and a variety of demographic variables. Descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient tests, and Linear Regression were used to analyze the data.

Findings revealed statistically significant correlations between social support, stress, self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. In addition, self-efficacy was found to be a statistically significant partial mediator of the relationship between stress and health-related quality of life. Contradictory to the theoretical and evidentiary literature, social support was not found to be a moderator of the relationship between self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. Both qualitative and intervention research are warranted in order to better understand these relationships, as well as how to affect health-related quality of life in this population.

Committee:

Cynthia Symons, D.Ed., CHES (Committee Co-Chair); Kele Ding, MD, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); C.A. Tony Buffington, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVN (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Education

Keywords:

interstitial cystitis; quality of life; stress; self-efficacy; social support

Cole Mattson, Colleen MarieDepression, Anxiety, and Social Support Fail to Predict Heart Rate Recovery in Exercise Stress Test Patients
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Depression, anxiety and social support in cardiac patients are related to an increased risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality. One explanation for this relationship is altered autonomic nervous system functioning and, more specifically, decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Heart rate recovery is a simple method used to assess PNS functioning with depression predicting decreased HRR in cardiac patients. The current study investigated the hypothesis that depression, anxiety and social support would each predict reduced heart rate recovery after a treadmill exercise stress test. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were administered to 144 patients prior to undergoing an exercise stress test. Bivariate correlations showed increased trait and state anxiety was related to faster heart rate recovery (trait: r = .23, p > .05; state: r = .23, p > .05), however; depressive symptoms and level of social support were not related to heart rate recovery (depression: r = .06, p = .55; social support: r = -.16, p = .17). Using multiple regressions and controlling for age, sex, and β-blocker usage, neither trait nor state anxiety predicted heart rate recovery (trait: β = .16, p = .12; state: β = .16, p = .10). Additionally, neither depression nor social support predicted heart rate recovery (depression: β = .03, p = .78; social support: β = -.13, p = .17), again controlling for age, sex, and β-blocker usage. The lack of support for the current hypotheses is likely attributed to the low levels of emotional distress in the sample. Further, high levels of social support are likely acting as a buffer against depression and anxiety. Finally, it is possible that because the current investigation utilized a diagnostic sample, not all patients currently had cardiovascular disease. Future investigations should utilize patient populations while sampling for increased depression and anxiety along with low social support.

Committee:

Joel Hughes, PhD (Advisor); John Gunstad, PhD (Committee Member); John Updegraff, PhD (Committee Member); Karin Coifman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Psychobiology; Psychology

Keywords:

heart rate recovery; cardiovascular disease; depression; anxiety; social support; stress test

Foster, Charles A.Getting Back to My Life: Exploring Adaptation to Change Through the Experiences of Breast Cancer Survivors
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
The holding environment concept, developed by Donald Winnicott, has been used to represent the type of support that encourages adaptive change during psychosocial transitions. The leadership and change literature posited that the holding environment had the ability to shape the trajectory of the transition, yet did not test this empirically. The psychosocial breast cancer literature empirically researched support during and after treatments ended, but did not incorporate the holding environment concept. This presented the opportunity to inform both the leadership and breast cancer fields by studying holding environments in the breast cancer setting. This study had a twofold purpose: 1) to explore empirically the adaptation process using the context of the breast cancer psychosocial transition, and 2) to consider if the holding environment concept, as it is used in the leadership literature, is supported by the results of this study. Grounded theory methodology was used to interpret interviews, diaries, and observation data gathered from breast cancer survivors during the after treatment transition period. This study presented the grounded theory categories in two organizing frameworks, a transition phase diagram and a person-environment situating diagram. The results suggested that the leadership adaptive change literature should integrate an understanding of coping and searching into organizational change interventions. In addition, incorporating the social interaction represented by situating would enrich any attempts to intervene in adaptive change, including the psychosocial breast cancer literature. The electronic version of this dissertation is at Ohiolink ETD Center http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Mitch Kusy, PhD (Committee Member); Tish Knobf, PhD (Committee Member); John Adams, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Health Care; Oncology; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

holding environment; adaptive change; psychosocial transitions; breast cancer; grounded theory; leadership; organizational change; neoplasms; Winnicott; cancer survivors; survivor; social support; qualitative research; leading change

Fay, Martha JaneInformal communication practices between peers in the remote work context
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Communication
The shift toward more horizontal and distributed organizations has presented communication challenges to the growing numbers of individuals and institutions who are physically separated from one another. The role of informal talk has been largely ignored as it relates to these new organizational structures. To address this gap, ninety-seven remote employees from a variety of companies were asked about their informal communication with co-workers, specifically their casual talk activities, experiences with messages of inclusion and exclusion, and frequency of social support. The remote employees also assessed their relationships with co-workers, as well as their felt inclusion, organizational identification, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Two types of casual talk activities emerged from analyses: common ground talk was positively associated with organizational identification, while a second cluster of casual talk activities served an out-grouping function, and correlated negatively with commitment and job satisfaction. Satisfaction with informal communication was associated with all three organizational outcomes. The remote employees also provided recalled experiences of messages that helped them feel included and excluded from their companies, which were coded with two systems developed for the study. A high level of expressed inclusion was positively associated with identification and commitment, as was general social support; expressed exclusion was negatively associated with identification and commitment. In regression analyses, common ground, out-group talk, informal communication satisfaction, liking for co-workers and felt inclusion accounted for 31%, 30% and 16% of the variance, respectively, in organizational identification, commitment, and job satisfaction. Expressed inclusion, exclusion and liking accounted for 37% and 36% of the variance in organizational identification and commitment. Social support, liking and felt inclusion accounted for 27% and 23% of the variance in organizational identification and commitment. Other regressions showed that felt inclusion moderated the effects of common ground talk on organizational identification. Mediation tests showed that co-worker liking and felt inclusion mediated the effects of common ground, general support, expressed inclusion, and informal communication satisfaction on organizational identification and commitment. The results provide evidence of specific links between the informal communication practices of remote employees and their levels of organizational identification, commitment and job satisfaction.

Committee:

Susan Kline (Advisor)

Keywords:

informal communication; organizatinal identification; social support; inclusion messages; remote workers

Park, YoungAhProcesses of Strain Crossover between Dual-Earner Couples
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
Many working individuals are part of a dyadic relationship (e.g., couple). Experiences of one member of the dyad are linked not only to individual outcomes but also to the partner’s outcomes. Using 330 Korean matched dual-income couples, this study investigated a phenomenon where strains due to work and family demands cross over between working spouses. Drawing upon Westman’s (2001) theory of crossover, this study supported indirect crossover mechanisms via two types of interpersonal interactions using Structural Equation Modeling analysis based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. First, one’s strain was positively related to one’s own social undermining behaviors directed at his/her spouse, which in turn influenced the spouse’s strain level. Second, one’s strain was negatively related to one’s own social support behaviors toward his/her spouse, which in turn also affected the strain level of the spouse. These two indirect crossover effects were not significantly different between the two directions from husbands to wives and from wives to husbands. Thus, the gender differences in crossover were not supported. As the interdependent stress experiences between working spouses naturally occur in their relationships, current examination of strain crossover in couple dyads provides more realistic insights into stress processes. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Steve Jex (Advisor); Michael Zickar (Committee Member); Robert Carels (Committee Member); Man Zhang (Other)

Subjects:

Occupational Health; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

crossover; strain; social undermining; social support; married couples

Burse, Natasha ReneeChurch Setting Social Support Influences on African Americans Physical Activity Behaviors
Master of Science, Miami University, 2014, Exercise and Health Studies
The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of multiple sources of social support on African American adults physical activity, including support from church members, pastors, family members, and friends. Participants were recruited from two Ohio churches and completed a paper-pencil survey. Participants self-reported their demographic and health-related information, weekly physical activity levels, and daily television minutes. Physical activity was assessed via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and computed into metabolic equivalents. Results were analyzed via linear regression analysis. All participants were African American, mostly female participants, with a mean age of 44 years. Participants had a mean body mass index of 31.23, and more than half of the sample was categorized as overweight and obese. Overall, results demonstrated significant associations between participants activity levels and social support, which varied by the source and type of social support. Implications were discussed.

Committee:

Karly Geller, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups

Keywords:

physical activity, African Americans, social support, church, and hypertension

Schreiber, Emily GarberComparison of Reported Social Support in Single and Two Caregiver Families with a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can present many challenges for caregivers and has been associated with higher levels of parental stress than raising a neurotypical child. One coping mechanism that has been identified to reduce parental stress is social support. The current study examined the differences in social support as reported by single-caregivers (n=65) and two-caregiver families (n=188) raising a child with an ASD. Participants completed a demographic survey and the Family Support Scale through an online format. Results indicated that single-caregivers reported lower levels of total social support than caregivers who reside with another adult. Single caregivers noted family and professional social support as the most helpful while caregivers who resided with another adult noted their spouse or partner and professional social support as the most helpful. Clinicians should consider caregivers’ reports of obstacles in accessing desired forms of social support.

Committee:

Janet Schultz, PhD, ABPP (Committee Chair); Cynthia Dulaney, PhD (Committee Member); Rebekah Ridgeway, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

Autism; Social Support; Parenting; Single Caregivers;

Dorfman, Caroline S.Social support, health, and recurrent breast cancer: Understanding psychological and biological mechanisms
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Psychology
Prognosis following recurrent breast cancer is poor and associated with high symptom burden. Social support has been suggested as a protective factor that can influence health. The mechanisms by which social support influences health are largely unknown; however, psychological and biological variables are hypothesized to influence this process. The present longitudinal study aimed to confirm whether social support conferred health benefits over time for women with recurrent breast cancer. Further, the study tested if psychological distress and neuroendocrine and immune variables mediated the relationship between social support and health. As an exploratory aim, the study examined whether social support following recurrence was associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality. Women with recurrent breast cancer were accrued (N=122). Social support was assessed at baseline via structural (Social Network Index) and functional (Perceived Support from Family scale) support measures. Psychological distress, plasma cortisol and norepinephrine, T-cell blastogenic response to the mitogen phytohemagluttinin, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity were assessed at 4 months. Two composite health variables were assessed at 12 months: self-reported, subjective and nurse-assessed, objective ratings of health. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to examine whether measures of social support predicted psychological distress and biological variables at 4-months and physical health at 12-months. Multiple imputation followed by bootstrap mediation was used to obtain point estimates and bias-corrected confidence intervals to examine whether psychological distress and neuroendocrine and immune variables mediated the relationship between social support and health. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine if high (vs.) low levels of social support at baseline were associated with decreased hazard of all-cause mortality. Women with greater structural and functional support following recurrence had lower levels of psychological distress at 4 months, and women with lower distress at 4 months experienced better health at 12 months on both subjective and objective measures. Social support indirectly influenced health through its effect on psychological distress. There was no evidence that social support influenced health independent of its effect on distress. Greater levels of social support at recurrence were not associated with decreased hazard of all-cause mortality. Psychological distress but not neuroendocrine and immune variables mediated the relationship between structural and functional support following recurrence and health at a 1-year follow-up. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

Committee:

Barbara Andersen, PhD (Advisor); Steven Beck, PhD (Committee Member); Baldwin Way, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

breast cancer, recurrence, social support, immunity, distress, health

Hodges, Ariel C.Where Do I Play Next? A Sociological Study of Student-Athletes, Their Retirement Transition and Their Social and Emotional Support Systems
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2018, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
While previous studies have examined the identity of student-athletes, more information is needed about the identity, type of retirement and social and emotional support received during a student- athlete’s retirement when they transition from being a collegiate athlete to life post- retirement. Using interview data, the present study uses a symbolic interactionist lens and focuses on the transition process. The data suggests that despite a student-athlete’s identity being deeply entrenched, those in this study were able to have a relatively easy retirement transition. During their transition they received support from a variety of groups; the most prominent was their families. Social class is one factor that is a potential buffer during the retirement transition. Discussion centers on details of identity formation, the easiest and most difficult parts of retirement and expands on social and emotional support. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed as well.

Committee:

Rachel Terman (Committee Chair); Thomas Vander Ven (Committee Member); Christine Mattley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Social Support; Emotional Support; Student-Athletes; Collegiate Athlete; Sociology; Sociology of Sport

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