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Robinson, Gary J.Delight, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions in a Hospital Setting: The Role of Environmental and Interpersonal Services
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2012, Nance College of Business Administration
This study is one of few on customer satisfaction, delight, and behavioral intentions and the first in a hospital setting. Data, collected through phone interviews with 250 patients discharged from a hospital, support that: (1) patient delight and satisfaction have positive influences on behavioral intentions; (2) environmental and interpersonal service quality have positive influences on patient satisfaction and patient delight; however, (3) patient satisfaction mediates the relationship between environmental and interpersonal service quality and patient delight.

Committee:

William Lundstrom (Committee Chair); Raj Javalgi (Committee Member); Rama Jayanti (Committee Member); J.B. Silvers (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Delight; Satisfaction; Service Quality; Behavioral Intentions; Loyalty; Emotions; Patient Satisfaction; Interpersonal Satisfaction; Environmental Satisfaction

Davis, Jerome PaulThe effects of internal marketing on service quality within collegiate recrational sport: A quantitative approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Physical Activity and Educational Services
The relevance of internal marketing to service operations rests in the increased emphasis on service quality in customer oriented corporations. Customers no longer simply purchase products; they co-produce in service organizations (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2000). The co-production occurs through the front-line employees and the customer at the time of transaction, therefore, the customer buying experience must be understood from both the organizational and customer perspective (Iacobucci & Nordhielm, 2000). The idea of internal marketing views organizational members as both employees and customers of the organization, and since Berry (1981) introduced the concept no research method has been replicated and two perspectives have developed. This study examines internal marketing from an internal customer orientation within collegiate recreational sport. The purposes of this study were to determine relationships of employment status and perceptions of internal marketing, the relationships between involvement on perceptions of service quality and feedback, and to how employee perceptions of internal marketing impact service quality. Two distinct groups were examined: 270 (40 full-time and 230 part-time) employee subjects and 275 participants. The examination of full-time employees was a complete census while the part-time employees and participants were selected via a random sample. A total of 123 (45%) employees and 73 (27%) participants completed the survey instrument. Two instruments were utilized for this study: the participant instrument contained three sections (service quality, feedback, and demographics) and the employee instrument also included a section on internal marketing. The instrument for all subjects was distributed via email four times over eight days. MANOVA and multivariate regression were utilized in the study. The results failed to demonstrate significance on perceptions of internal marketing amongst employees. However, the results indicated differences exist on perceptions of service quality and feedback based upon involvement with the organization (full-time employee, part-time employee, and participant). The multivariate regression results demonstrated that the dimensions of internal marketing developed for this study greatly impacted service quality.

Committee:

Donna Pastore (Advisor)

Subjects:

Recreation

Keywords:

Internal Marketing; Service Quality; Feedback; Service Blind; Recreational Sport

Lee, Hyung-JinFactors Related to Grantee Perception of Service Quality in the Community Chest of Korea
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2006, Social Welfare
Foundations achieve their impact largely by working in partnership with their grantees. The foundation-grantee relationship provides a unique and critical lens for observation and evaluation of foundation performance and organizational effectiveness. That is, grantees function in an intermediary sphere between a foundation’s resource base and its social impact. The ultimate beneficiaries of more productive foundation-grantee relationships are not just grantees and foundations, but also the groups they seek to help, including the public at large. The main purpose of this study is to explore and identify key dimensions of foundation service quality, using Community Chest of Korea’s (CCK) as a test case. Another purpose is to examine the effects of these key dimensions on grantee overall satisfaction and grantee perception of CCK’s impact on the recipient organization, the field, and the community. In order to measure quality of service, grantee perceptions of service quality will be empirically investigated using an adapted instrument based on: (1) SERVPERF and SERVQUAL; (2) LIBQUAL+; (3) the Grantee Perception Survey instrument; and (4) consultation with CCK staff and grantees. CCK is the largest grantmaking organization in Korea with features of public, fundraising, and quasi-government-linked foundations. Under these circumstances, the foundation-grantee relationship is more critical and complex in that it is driven by (1) competition for acquisition of scarce and valued resources; (2) donors’ desires to know how their contributions make a difference; and (3) the satisfaction of the public at large. The target population for this study was: (1) awarded grantees; and (2) declined applicants. Data collection was conducted by mail survey questionnaire. Final sample size for analysis was 651. Hypotheses were tested using exploratory factor analysis, hierarchical regression analysis, and Pearson correlation. As a result, exploratory factor analysis identified four dimensions with 31 items. The four dimensions comprised Competence, Expertise, Affect, and Evaluation. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that higher level of service quality is associated with higher level of overall satisfaction and perception of impact. Pearson correlation found that higher level of overall satisfaction is strongly positively correlated to higher level of perception of impact.

Committee:

Dennis Young (Advisor)

Subjects:

Social Work

Keywords:

Foundation; Nonprofit; Philanthropy; Grantmaking; Effectiveness; Performance; Foundation-Grantee Relationship; Social Impact; Community Chest of Korea; Satisfaction; Service Quality; SERVQUAL; SERVPERF; Exploratory Factor Analysis

Sickler, Stephanie LUndergraduate Student Perceptions of Service Quality as a Predictor of Student Retention in the First Two Years
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this study was to examine the salient undergraduate student perceptions of service quality that predict student retention in the first two years. Data were collected utilizing the ACT, Incorporated Student Opinion Survey to gather student perceptions of service quality among 65 non-academic College Services and College Environment aspects. A total of 483 freshman and sophomore students of a large, Midwestern, four-year public research institution responded to the survey in the spring semester of 2012. The retention snapshot for the sample was collected in fall semester 2012, and 423 students were retained and 60 students were not retained. Three research questions guided this study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze Research Question 1, which examined satisfaction levels of College Services and College Environment among the freshman and sophomore class at the target university. Respondents gave the highest mean satisfaction score to Library Facilities and Services, followed by Student Union, Variety of Courses Offered, Overall Satisfaction, and Academic Calendar. Respondents gave the overall lowest mean satisfaction score to Parking Services. Forward logistic regression was utilized to analyze Research Question 2, which examined which service quality items (2a) and factors (2b) best predict student retention in the first two years. Analysis of the individual service quality items revealed a significant four factor model which included Overall Satisfaction, Course Content in Major Field, Variety of Courses Offered, and Campus Media. While three of these items positively predicted retention status, Variety of Courses Offered revealed a negative relationship with retention status. Analysis of the service quality subscale factors revealed a one factor model with the factor of Academic - items relating to faculty, course offerings, and advising - best predicting student retention. Finally, Pearson Correlation and forward multiple regression were used to analyze Research Question 3, which examined which College Services and College Environment satisfaction items best predict overall satisfaction with the institution. Results of the Pearson Correlation found 14 of the 23 College Services and all 41 College Environment items significantly correlated with Overall Satisfaction. The strongest relationships were found with Accuracy of Information Received before Enrolling, Preparation Received for Future Occupation, and Concern for You as an Individual. Results of the forward multiple regression revealed a seven-factor predictive model: Accuracy of the Information Received Before Enrolling, Preparation Received for Future Occupation, Student Union, Concern for You as an Individual, Variety of Courses Offered, Academic Calendar, and Food Services. Based upon the results, three main conclusions were drawn: 1) overall student satisfaction with the institution is a significant predictor of student retention, 2) specific College Services and College Environment items predict overall satisfaction, and 3) while measuring the level of student satisfaction with non-academic services and environment is important, understanding which items play the most significant role in predicting overall satisfaction is critical to successful improvement activities.

Committee:

Rachel Reinhart, Ph.D. (Advisor); Paul Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); L. Fleming Fallon, M.D., Ph.D. (Committee Member); Timothy Stansfield, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Higher Education

Keywords:

Service Quality; Student Retention; Satisfaction; Higher Education

Meyer, Emily MichelleA deeper understanding of the visitor: The insights provided through psychographic data of visitors to Columbus’s free choice learning institutions
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Natural Resources
This paper reports on a study to examine the psychographics of visitors at two conservation focused organizations in the Midwestern United States. Organizations that wish to know more about their visitor’s lifestyles should look to psychographic measures (Thyne, 2001). Psychographics have been used in museums to help explain leisure activities including the motivation, expectations of visits and willingness to participate (Hood, 1993). A focal sampling method (Harris, 1995) was utilized to intercept visitors (n=700) as they entered the study areas. Visitors were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their motivation for visiting, service quality expectations, cultural worldviews as well as several demographic measures. Visitors at the organizations differed in their motivation for visiting and in their cultural worldviews. There were also statistically significant differences in their service quality expectations. The results allowed the researcher to create a profile of visitors at both organizations. Cluster analysis was used to create statistically meaningful clusters of visitors to conservation mission driven organizations. Visitors were clustered based on participant’s motivation for visiting, service quality expectations, cultural worldviews as well as several demographic measures. Cluster analysis can be useful for prediction (Lorr, 1983) as individuals within a group should have minimal statistical variance while the between group variance is maximized (Ketchen & Shook, 1996). Results suggested that 4 clusters existed which were differentiated by motivation, religion, sexual identity and gender identity factors. The results provide valuable information for strategies to promote conservation to organization visitors.

Committee:

Joseph E. Heimlich, PhD (Advisor); Tomas Koontz, PhD (Committee Member); Jeremy Bruskotter, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Museums

Keywords:

visitor studies; conservation education; museums; motivation; service quality; cultural cognition

Stodnick, Todd MichaelDriving retail store peformance: a service profit chain perspective
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Business Administration
One service management model that has been gaining momentum in academic and practitioner circles alike is the service profit chain. First introduced in the early 1990’s, the service profit chain offers a structural framework to service management (Heskett et al, 1994). The theory basically asserts that providing employees with a superior internal working environment will lead to satisfied employees who are both loyal to the organization and able to provide the customer with an excellent service experience. Customers will recognize and value the outstanding service afforded them. Over time they will exhibit loyalty behaviors such as continued purchasing and increased referrals. These loyalty behaviors will generate both market share and profitability increases for the service firm. Despite its widespread adoption by many service industry leaders (e.g. Southwest Airlines, Progressive Insurance, etc) and a growing amount of academic literary attention to the topic, very little empirical research has attempted to validate the basic tenets within the service profit chain. As such, the primary objective of this research is to test the structural framework presented in the service profit chain. Two structural models, incorporating nine distinct hypotheses, are the means by which this objective is carried out. To support this primary objective, several secondary objectives must be met. Because this research will use several constructs that have yet to be rigorously validated, much time and attention must be devoted to scale development. The population frame used in this study will be one large retail chain within the women’s specialty apparel industry. Seven of the nine hypotheses are supported, two are not. The overall fit statistics of the two models employed suggest that the models do fit the data well, indicating support for the underlying theory behind the service profit chain. A summary of the hypotheses includes: 1.) internal service quality drives both employee satisfaction and loyalty, 2.) employee satisfaction drives employee loyalty 3.) total retail experience drives a customer’s perception of retail value and their satisfaction, 4.) customer satisfaction drives customer loyalty.

Committee:

David Collier (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Management

Keywords:

Service Profit Chain; Service Management; Service Quality; Total Retail Experience; Structural Equation Modeling

Xie, DiExploring organizational learning culture, job satisfaction, motivation to learn, organizational commitment, and internal service quality in a sport organization
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Physical Activity and Educational Services
Service quality plays an essential role in customer satisfaction, customer retention, customer loyalty, and profits (Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Schneider & Bowen, 1995). Previous research studies have examined factors that influence external customers’ perceived service quality in various fields (Carman, 1990; Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Finn & Lamb, 1991; Mangold & Babakus, 1991), but relatively few studies have focused on which factors influence employees’ service behavior and how employees perceive the way service provided by co-workers affects their own service delivery (e.g., Bitner, Booms, & Mohr, 1994). This study examines six factors that influence employees’ internal service quality level in a public sport organization in China through testing six hypotheses. The six factors are organizational learning culture, job satisfaction, motivation to learn, affective organizational commitment, continuance organizational commitment, and normative organizational commitment. A total of 370 questionnaires were distributed to employees in the State Sport General Administration of China (SSGAC). Two hundred and ninety-eight were returned, of which 6 were discarded because of missing data. Therefore, the number of usable questionnaires was 292 and the response rate was 80.5%. Correlation analysis indicated that five of the six hypotheses were supported. Hypothesis five, in which there is a negative relationship between continuance organizational commitment and internal service quality, was rejected. Hierarchical research analysis showed that motivation to learn and organizational learning culture played significant roles in predicting the dependent variable, internal service quality compared with other independent variables. Motivation to learn uniquely explained 12% and organizational learning culture uniquely explained 5% of the variance of internal service quality when the effects of the other independent variables were removed. This study has implications for human resource managers and advances the knowledge base of internal service quality in the field of sport management.

Committee:

Janet Fink (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Physical

Keywords:

service; service quality; organizational learning culture; satisfaction; motivation; commitment

Hairston-Pinson, Karla ChristinaA qualitative analysis of the factors that contribute to a quality interscholastic athletic participation experience
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Physical Activity and Educational Services
The most recent results of the National Federation of State High School Association’s (NFHS) athletic participation survey revealed that over 7 million students participated in high school athletics during the 2005-2006 school year (NFHS, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine the interscholastic athletic participation experience and identify factors of the experience that contribute to a quality experience. A qualitative research design was employed. An additional aim within the study was to examine whether quality perceptions varied depending on the type of school athletes attended, urban or suburban, and how athletes were socialized into sport. Twelve high school athletes comprised the participants of the study. Six urban and six suburban athletes across a variety of sports with an equal representation of males and females served as the research participants of this study. Quality, for the purposes of this study, was defined using Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry’s (1988) definition of service quality which is interpreted as a comparison of a customer’s desired and perceived services. Drawing from the theoretical bases of functionalism, socialization, motivation, and service quality, this dissertation aimed to broaden the depths of the literature base concerning interscholastic athletics. Data analysis indicated that study participants’ quality perceptions did not vary across school type or socialization patterns resulting in participants’ quality perceptions situating around more similar than dissimilar themes. Five factors of the interscholastic experience were discovered as being most contributory to a quality participation experience and include, (1) cohesion, (2) two preferred coaching qualities – competence/knowledgeable and being personable, (3) being recognized, (4) opportunities for the development of social connections, and (5) a time beneficial experience. It was concluded that taken together the five findings break down into both intangible and tangible facets of the participation experience and culminate to constitute the compelling components of a stimulating participation environment. Thus, a stimulating environment in turn was discovered to be a requisite for a quality experience to prevail.

Committee:

Janet Fink (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Secondary

Keywords:

Interscholatic Athletics; High School Sports; Qualitative; Service Quality

Sastry, PadmaMeasuring multidemensional performance attributes: method and application to measurement of service quality of local telephone companies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Public Policy and Management
Evaluation of service providers is critical in ensuring effective policymaking and fair markets. However, measurement of performance heterogeneity remains a daunting quest for policy and decision makers. Multiple stakeholders interact within the service industry – the provider, the consumer and the regulator. Firms perform according technological advancements, consumer needs and regulatory policy. Policies evolve in response to market forces and regulatory needs. Ideally, policies should evolve to meet provider and consumer expectations; and firms should perform to meet consumer needs within regulatory constraints. This research focuses on local telephone service quality, a multidimensional, time-dependent attribute, where asymmetrical expectations exist among multiple stakeholders. The literature on measuring service quality across multiple attributes is substantial but lacks specificity with regard to stakeholders - Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC), the consumer and the regulator. We address the question: in a regulated industry such as the local telephone industry, how can service quality be measured as a performance attribute when influenced by different interests of multiple stakeholders? We develop a framework and a method and subsequently apply them to the local telephone industry including 50 ILECs representative of each state for a period between 1994 and 2001. The general method is able to measure: 1) relative quality performance, orientation and cohesion within a regulated industry and 2) performance on individual levels. The results suggest that service quality is different as measured by criteria of different stakeholders. Over time, the ILEC industry performs better along the ILEC-Consumer plane, balanced between these stakeholders and increasingly cohesive. On the ILEC-Regulator plane, the ILECs show similar trends but tend to be oriented more towards the ILEC’s (self) interests than those of the regulator. These results suggest some effects of the ongoing regulatory reform (such as the 1996 Telecom Act) and also new competitive technologies. Finally, all ILECs were classified as Leaders, Laggards and biased towards a stakeholder to indicate their relative performance.

Committee:

Anand Desai (Advisor)

Keywords:

DEA; Regulation; Service Quality; Performance Measurement; Local Telephone Service

Duncan, Robin AStudents' Perceived Value of the Community College Experience: A Mixed Methods Study
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2018, Leadership and Change
The purpose of this study was to explore students’ perceived value of their community college experience and its relationship to other factors often related to student persistence in college, namely satisfaction, academic quality, service quality, and engagement. The research was guided by three focused questions: How do students describe and define perceived value of community college; what components emerge from exploratory factor analysis of items designed to measure perceived value; and how, if at all, is a student’s perception of the value of a community college experience different from related measures such as satisfaction, engagement, or quality? Data were collected from students enrolled at, primarily, three Massachusetts community colleges, employing a three-phased, mixed methods exploratory sequential approach. Phase 1 consisted of focus group interviews with students from one of the participating colleges to identify the themes and language for developing the perceived value construct. Phase 2 consisted of an online survey targeting currently enrolled community college students. Factor analysis identified key components of the perceived value scale and multiple regression analysis determined the relationship between perceived value and other control variables. Phase 3 consisted of a virtual post survey focus group with voluntary survey participants from Massachusetts community colleges to discuss and clarify the quantitative results and narrative survey responses. The dominant theme emerging from the findings was that students described perceived value as “I am valued” by the college. Results also indicated that the perceived value construct was different from other measures and suggested promising ways for further exploring and measuring student persistence. As a result of the study’s findings, a conceptual framework in the form of a Perceived Value Wheel was proposed with recommendations to community college leaders and practical contribution to higher education leadership and change. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohiolink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Committee:

Jon Wergin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ruth Slotnick, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Business Administration; Business Education; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Continuing Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Management; Marketing; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Perceived Value; Service Quality; Academic Quality; Satisfaction; Student Engagement; Involvement; Student Experience; Higher Education; Two Year Colleges; Community College; Students; Mixed Methods; Regression; Factor Analysis; Persistence; Retention

Shonk, David J.Perceptions of service quality, satisfaction and the intent to return among tourists attending a sporting event
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Physical Activity and Educational Services
The primary purposes of this study were to: a) propose a comprehensive set of dimensions of quality in sport tourism services; and b) propose and test a model where perceived quality in selected dimensions is said to lead to client Satisfaction with the experience which, in turn, is said to influence the intent of the tourist to return to the event in the future. A secondary purpose of the study was to develop a scale to measure service quality in selected dimensions, client Satisfaction and Intent to Return. The model was tested using data collected from spectators traveling to a major league All-Star sporting event in the United States. All tourists responding to the questionnaire were from a residence 50 miles or more away from the stadium. The data from the 215 usable cases was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the CFA Measurement Model was an acceptable fit (CMIN/DF=1.828, RMSEA=.067, NFI =.802, GFI = .840, TLI = 872, CFI =.897). The structural model was a good fit for the data (CMIN/DF= 2.394, RMSEA=.081, NFI =.932, GFI = .950, TLI = .932, CFI =.959). The findings from this study point to support for a multi-dimensional model of service quality in sport tourism. The most important dimension was found to be the quality of the contest itself. The results suggested that there is an overall perception of sport tourism quality (ST Quality) which significantly contributes to a tourist’s perceptions of satisfaction. Moreover, Satisfaction was found to significantly contribute to a tourist’s decision to return to a sporting event and/or to a particular destination. The scale developed in this study offers a good starting point for exploring services in sport tourism. A discussion of results is provided along with implications for sport managers and recommendations for future research.

Committee:

Packianathan Chelladurai (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

Service Quality; Sport Tourism; Satisfaction

Njoku, Bernadette P.The Role of Emotional Relational Behaviors on Interpersonal Consumer Service Loyalty
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2009, Nance College of Business Administration

This study seeks to examine factors that enhance the development of interpersonal service relationships between consumers and service employees. It focuses on interpersonal service relationships that are extended in duration, affective or emotionally charged, and intimate in distance (EAI), or those which appear to be boundary open (Price and Arnould 1999; Price et al. 1995a, 1995b). It thus emphasizes relationships that are similar to personal acquaintances and friendships, rather than ones that are non-affective, and consist of little or no emotional content, such as professional relationships and casual acquaintances (Johnson and Selnes 2004; Coulter and Ligas 2004). Based on a review of the literature, five factors, namely, mutual understanding, personalization, authenticity, problem-solving behavior, and specialized treatment, are combined to form a parsimonious group of relational behaviors (RBs) that are expected to promote friendship-like relationships. A conceptual model is portrayed that shows interrelationships between the relational behaviors and relationship outcomes, including service quality, satisfaction, emotional trust, and loyalty (Sirdeshmukh et al. 2002).

In order to collect data, this study utilizes a self-report survey and cross-sectional design, within the context of hair care service. Additionally, web-based survey and sampling are utilized. The sample consists of individuals who are members of a professional business organization, whose occupation requires a professional appearance. Thus, they are expected to patronize hair care services. The final study consists of 191 usable surveys primarily from African-American females (65.4% African-American, 80.6% female), who have unique hair care needs. The sample is thus homogeneous with respect to various salon behaviors and demographics.

Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and AMOS software, scales are assessed for unidimensionality, reliability, and validity. Results show, however, that this measurement model is not theoretically supported. Thus, an empirical approach is undertaken by performing CFA on the relationship outcome variables and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the relational behavior scale items. Results show that the revised relationship outcome measurement model is unidimensional, reliable, and valid. A revised, or emotional, relational behavior (ERB) measurement model is portrayed that consists of three constructs that are unidimensional, reliable, and valid, and include social communication, personable behavior, and customer care, behaviors that are expected to promote friendship-like relationships, and are distinguished from non-affective, cognitive relational behaviors (Sirdeshmukh et al. 2002).

By combining the two revised measurement models, a new structural model is formed. Results of the new hypotheses show that personable behavior and customer care are positively and significantly related to service quality. Service quality is positively and significantly related to satisfaction and emotional trust, and satisfaction and emotional trust are positively and significantly related to loyalty. Based on the results of this study, four (4) paths are suggested for increasing loyalty and developing friendship-like interpersonal consumer relationships in EAI services. The implications are that managers of EAI services may train employees to utilize either path, displaying ERBs, such as personable behavior and customer care, in order to increase loyalty. Future research may examine the role of these behaviors in other EAI and non-EAI service contexts, and using other samples.

Committee:

Thomas Whipple, PhD (Committee Chair); Rama Jayanti, PhD (Committee Member); Ashutosh Dixit, PhD (Committee Member); Kim Neuendorf, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

emotional; relational; behavior; loyalty; friendship; trust; service quality; relationship; interpersonal; consumer; affective; hair