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Contractor, BhavikTwo Dimensional Localization of Passive UHF RFID Tags
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2008, Computer Engineering

The advent of GPS has redefined the need of a positioning system in today*#8217;s ubiquitous computing world. While GPS works satisfactorily and is quite a norm in an outdoor environment, it fails to work indoors due to the inherent complexity of an indoor environment. There is an ever increasing need to develop an indoor positioning system and a lot of research has been done to solve the problem of indoor localization. These solutions differ on the basis of cost, dependency on environment, line of sight requirements and so on.

Passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags pose an interesting solution to the problem of indoor localization, given the ease of deployment and the cost effective infrastructure. It is less expensive to tag items with RFID tags, than to attach them with sensor nodes. In this thesis, the problem of using the RFID technology for two dimensional indoor localization is studied. A relatively inexpensive technique requiring just one RFID reader and multiple passive RFID tags is adopted. The idea is to use multilateration among the passive tags to solve the problem of localization. A ranging technique is developed to establish a relationship between signal strength and distance. The concept of Received Signal Strength calibration is used to develop the ranging technique, and to account for the effects of dynamic environmental conditions on localization. Finally, an error map matching technique is employed to counter the errors in localization.

Committee:

Jack Jean, Ph. D. (Advisor); Bin Wang, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Meilin Liu, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Engineering

Keywords:

RFID; Indoor Localization; RFID Tag; passive RFID Tag; Alien RFID

Shao, ShuaiDesign and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Mounting on or inside Material Layers
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Electrical and Computer Engineering
There is great desire to employ passive UHF RFID tags for inventory tracking and sensing in a diversity of applications and environments. Owing to its battery-free operation, non-line-of sight detection, low cost, long read range and small form factor, each year billions of RFID tags are being deployed in retail, logistics, manufacturing, biomedical inventories, among many other applications. However, the performance of these RFID systems has not met expectations. This is because a tag's performance deteriorates significantly when mounted on or inside arbitrary materials. The tag antenna is optimized only for a given type of material at a certain location of placement, and detuning takes place when attached to or embedded in materials with dielectric properties outside the design range. Thereby, different customized tags may be needed for identifying objects even within the same class of products. This increases the overall cost of the system. Furthermore, conventional copper foil-based RFID tag antennas are prone to metal fatigue and wear, and cannot survive hostile environments where antennas could be deformed by external forces and failures occur. Therefore, it is essential to understand the interaction between the antenna and the material in the vicinity of the tag, and design general purpose RFID tag antennas possessing excellent electrical performance as well as robust mechanical structure. A particularly challenging application addressed here is designing passive RFID tag antennas for automotive tires. Tires are composed of multiple layers of rubber with different dielectric properties and thicknesses. Furthermore, metallic plies are embedded in the sidewalls and steel belts lie beneath the tread to enforce mechanical integrity. To complicate matters even more, a typical tire experiences a 10% stretching during the construction process. This dissertation focuses on intuitively understanding the interaction between the antenna and the material in the proximity and designing broad band and mechanically robust RFID tag antennas for elastic materials. As a first step, the effects of dielectric materials on an antenna's impedance match and radiation pattern are investigated. The detuning effect is quantified based on the theoretical frequency scaling and effective permittivity of a dielectric material of finite thickness. Using simple formulas, the operational range of a tag can be predicted without intensive full-wave simulations of different materials. Next, a spectral domain Green's function is applied to compute the antenna pattern when the tag is mounted on or inside a layered medium. The optimal placement of the tag is found based on the focusing effect that the material has on the gain pattern of the antenna. For tires, the steel ply in the sidewall of a tire looks like a periodic wire grating. The performance of an antenna placed close to a wire grating is predicted using Floquet theory. The results indicate that steel plies embedded in the tire can be utilized as a reflector to further focus the gain pattern and increase the read range of a tag. Using these design tools and theoretical analysis, several broadband RFID tag antennas are designed for multi-layered materials. A novel stretchable conductive textile (E-fiber) based tag antenna is also developed for placement in elastic materials. Prototype antennas are fabricated and embedded in a tire during the tire manufacturing process. Experimental results indicate that tags with the new antennas achieve significant improvement compared with commercially available tags.

Committee:

Robert Burkholder (Advisor); John Volakis (Advisor); Fernando Teixeira (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Electromagnetics

Keywords:

RFID, RFID tag antenna, material

Saini, Navtej SinghUHF RFID Sensor Tag for Tire Monitoring
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2016, Electrical and Computer Engineering
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology finds application in different sectors ranging from item level identification & handling to smart tracking in the healthcare industry. One very useful application is placing passive RFID tags inside tires to obtain critical information about tire condition which will ultimately result in improved road safety and vehicular performance. The challenge is that passive RFID technology capable of smart sensing and data logging while being self-powered from local energy harvesting sources is non-existent. This research presents the design of a reliable, in-tire passive UHF RFID tag structure capable of smart sensing, processing and data logging over time. A proof-of-concept application for counting tire revolutions using a prototype RFID tag is demonstrated and one possible approach to self-powering the tag is presented. In this thesis, the existing RFID IC technology is first reviewed and tested for in tire data sensing and logging using multiple sensors. After coming to the conclusion that existing RFID ICs lack efficient data processing and logging abilities, a novel tag circuit is developed by integrating a commercial RFID IC with an onboard microcontroller. A prototype battery operated tag board, is then developed and tested to demonstrate a proof of concept for in-tire data sensing and logging by counting tire revolutions. This achievement is followed by miniaturizing the tag circuit and improving its sensing and logging functionality. Finally, an approach to self-power the tag using piezo sensors has been presented.

Committee:

Robert Burkholder (Advisor); John Volakis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

RFID, RFID for Tires, Sensing, Logging, Microcontrollers, Energy Harvesting, Piezoelectric sensors

Tuncay, OrbayWireless Strain Gauge System in a Multipath Environment
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2008, Electrical and Computer Engineering

A wireless strain sensing system utilizing passive, wireless, physically small and light weight sensors is desirable for measuring strain in harsh environments such as jet engine compressor and turbine blades. A cluttered and time varying environment results in high loss, blockage, multipath and modulation of the electromagnetic wave. Also, temperature changes affect the sensitivity of the strain measurement. Isolating the information signal from the reverberations in the environment requires time delays in the order of 100s of ns for jet engine environment. Therefore, a wireless strain gauge system that utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors was studied and tested.

SAW strain sensors are designed to operate at 2.45GHz. Electron beam lithography is used to achieve minimum required feature size at this frequency. The fabrication process is outlined and scanning electron microscope images of some results are given.

A transceiver circuit is designed and constructed. The circuit is tested in free space, in the presence of signal blockage and a time varying channel. Measurements are shown to be in good agreement with predicted data. Sources of errors in the setup are identified to be leakage from transceiver circuit switches and bounce waveforms from the transceiver antenna.

A General Electric J85 jet engine compressor section is analyzed for signal propagation characteristics. Minimum frequency that can propagate through the compressor section is determined to be 5.2GHz. Measurements are done to show that circumferential polarization propagates stronger than radial inside the compressor section. An analytical approximation for the compressor section is generated by modeling compressor section blades as rectangular waveguides. Good agreement on cutoff frequency is achieved for circumferential polarization with the analytical predictions and measurement.

SAW temperature and strain sensors are measured in comparison to traditional gauges. This concept can be generalized to measuring many different physical quantities wirelessly without disturbing the operation of the equipment.

Committee:

Roberto Rojas-Teran (Advisor); Eric Walton K. (Committee Member); Jonathan Young D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Experiments

Keywords:

wireless strain sensor; surface acoustic wave (SAW); jet engine; multipath; RFID; strain gauge; wireless strain measurement; SAW fabrication; Lithium Niobate

Tsai, Wei-FengA Low Cost RFID Tracking and Timing System for Bike Races
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Electrical and Computer Engineering
A new RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) bike race tracking system is designed, built and tested providing reduced system complexity and enhanced rider tracking capability. This system is build upon two commodity passive RFID components, a UHF reader and associated UHF item-level tags, plus novel RFID reader antennas developed at The Ohio State University. The uniform energy distribution property built into the novel RFID antennas enables easy-to-design coverage and superior fading control with a minimum number of antennas. This thesis shows how these three components are optimally deployed to create a unique and cost effective bike race tracking system.

Committee:

Robert Burkholder (Advisor); Fernando Teixeira (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Electromagnetics; Electromagnetism

Keywords:

RFID; Timing; Tracking; Bike Race; Novel Reader Antennas

Teng, XuanInternal Navigation through Interval Vibration Impacts for Visually Impaired Persons: Enhancement of Independent Living
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Visually impaired people have high demands of mobility in both outdoor and indoor navigation. There’re many existing technologies, solutions and products for supporting their outdoor mobilities. While, there’s less designer or engineers pay much attention to the demand of internal navigation for the small community. Existing products or services mainly focus on detecting and avoiding obstacles. Seldom products or services can help visually impaired people to find a specific items or spaces. Technology advance in smart phone industry bringing powerful computing ability and other new interaction methods through integrated hardware. Many visually impaired people are using smart phone by voice command, others are all have high motivation to buy one or at least have a trial. The author collaborated with Cincinnati Association for The Blind and Visually Impaired (CABVI) and try to figure out the problem mentioned above. Solid secondary research has been made prior to this study for understanding human demands, current solutions and its’ restrictions. Several interviews, tests and co-creations have done to verify the effectiveness of using smartphone based interactions and navigation system and preferences of interactions from visually impaired people and specialists: including test of human senses, preferences for interactions, preferences for wearable / nonwearable devices and tests between audio based notification system and vibration based notification system. There are two main factors in internal navigation for visually impaired people: 1). notifying orientation and distance; 2). identifying objects. A series of studies achieved in this thesis also provide a strong support for voice command and linear interval vibration which can notify navigation information (including orientations and distance). The navigation system include a passive RFID system and a smart phone to identify different object easily and quickly. A series of passive RFID tags can be attached to any surfaces of objects or spaces that visually impaired people want to reach. After defining the specific items through voice command software, users will constantly notified by vibration. The frequency of vibration can vary based on the distance between the target object and the user. The more closer distance, the the higher frequency of vibration will be reached. Data show that visually impaired people have abilities to solve the internal navigation by following linear interval vibration notifications. Meanwhile, they are able to communicate with their smart phones through voice command functions. A passive RFID system only required to be settled down once—there is no need for maintenance and very user friendly for visually impaired to use besides set up. It is very complex to set up by visually impaired people, while it can be figured out by employees in associations for the bind and visually impaired, nurses, family members or any other sighted. Overall, the experience of internal navigation has been improved. A guideline was made for helping other designers or researchers aim to developing internal navigation related products, systems or interactions, including general guidelines and specific guidelines for interactions. A scenario was made in charter 5.8.5. to illustrate the working process of the final design proposal.

Committee:

Craig Vogel, M.I.D. (Committee Chair); Gerald Michaud, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

smartphone based interaction;visually impaired people;passive RFID system

Leinweber, LawrenceImproved Cryptographic Processor Designs for Security in RFID and Other Ubiquitous Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, EECS - Computer Engineering
In order to provide security in ubiquitous, passively powered systems, especially RFID tags in the supply chain, improved asymmetric key cryptographic processors are presented, tested and compared with others from the literature. The proposed processors show a 12%-20% area and a 31%-45% time improvement. A secure protocol is also presented to minimize cryptographic effort and communication between tag and reader. A set of power management techniques is also presented to match processor performance to available power, resulting in greater range and responsiveness of RFID tags.

Committee:

Christos Papachristou, PhD (Committee Chair); Francis L. Merat, PhD (Committee Member); Swarup Bhunia, PhD (Committee Member); Xinmiao Zhang, PhD (Committee Member); Francis G. Wolff, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Cryptography; elliptic curve cryptography; power management; RFID; embedded systems

Goparaju, SravanthiLow Power Tire Pressure Monitoring System
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2008, Electrical Engineering

Power management is considered to be an important aspect in designing battery operated Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) as it helps to prolong the lifespan of the battery. There are several methods that can be used to design a low power tire-pressure and service monitoring system. One of the most common methods for power reduction is the duty cycle method. This thesis suggests an idea of implementing the TPMS in combination with a separate Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) circuit, especially a very low power (active or passive) RFID whose sole purpose is to detect the interrogating signal. This RFID circuit which can operate at a typical frequency of 125 kHz is used to turn ON a higher power transmitter which is initially in SLEEP state and soon after entering the active state performs the communication, updating, etc. Once the desired task is completed, the high power transmitter returns to SLEEP state or is turned off until the next interrogation.

The implementation of SLEEP mode to minimize power consumption is discussed in detail and the currents consumed by the microcontroller in SLEEP and ACTIVE modes are measured and recorded. The microcontroller in SLEEP mode consumed a current of 17μA which reduced the overall average current consumed by the microcontroller and the pressure sensor. Furthermore, this method promises an improvement in the battery life and the calculations showing this improvement are discussed with the example of an AA battery with 2800mAh battery life.

Committee:

Nathan Ida (Advisor)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

TPMS; RFID; TIRE; pressure sensor; microcontroller; TIRE PRESSURE; sensor

Rose, Daniel P.Wearable and Unobtrusive Electronic Sensor Platform for Biomarker Sensing and Monitoring in Sweat
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Engineering and Applied Science: Electrical Engineering
The rising cost of health care in America is one of the greatest concerns of our time, and perhaps stands to benefit the most from technological innovation and new science. Biomarker testing and detection is not a new concept; blood and urine tests have employed it for decades. However, tests such as these are costly, slow, and invasive, and typically require large, expensive laboratory settings. Still, ever-growing lists of biomarkers found in blood are being observed in similar concentrations in human sweat. Biosensing in sweat requires a fast and efficient way to measure and communicate biomarker concentrations, and thus opens the door to a whole new way of monitoring personal health, evaluating consumer products, mitigating occupational risks and diagnosing illness. While sweat has a distinct advantage in terms of the ease and comfort of accessibility it has, until recently, been largely overlooked as a source of biomarker analytes compared to the more well-established biofluids such as blood, urine and saliva. Some of these traditional biofluids, though less invasively accessed than blood, may well be inferior to sweat in that the biomarker information they contain suffers from interferons or background noise and reduces the target analyte signature. Developing biosensing in sweat requires significant innovation in both scientific and engineering aspects to advance research and technology in this field. Presented in this dissertation is the first-ever wearable RFID patch for measuring of ions/electrolytes in sweat, and a more advanced electronic platform with data-logging capability, Bluetooth Low-Energy wireless communications, and advanced processing and control capabilities for current and future integration of diverse sensing modalities. These platforms demonstrate wearable and unobtrusive electronic devices for biomarker sensing and monitoring in sweat through the use of flexible printed circuit materials, miniaturized and modern surface mounted electronic components, innovative flexible sensor materials and fabrication techniques, and advanced medical-grade textiles and adhesives. Finally, a discussion regarding the present and future applications of sweat sensing devices is presented, which also provides direction for areas of future work.

Committee:

Jason Heikenfeld, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Joshua A. Hagen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Fred Beyette, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Heineman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ian Papautsky, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Sweat Senor;Sweat Monitoring;Sweat sensing;biomarker sensing;RFID patch

Hozak, KurtRFID as an enabler of improved manufacturing performance
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Business Administration
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that collects data by communicating between reader devices and specials tags that are attached to (or embedded inside of) objects. RFID offers several benefits compared to data collection alternatives such as bar coding, including the ability to automatically, continuously, and instantaneously track objects from many meters away, even if there is not "line of sight" between the reader devices and the tags. Among many other uses, RFID has tracked critical equipment in hospitals, shopping cart flow in stores, promotional displays and inventory across the supply chain, and equipment and containers in factories. The market for RFID systems and services is expected to be measured in billions of dollars by 2010, but despite this, aspects of RFID's use are controversial to many companies and researchers. Compared to service processes, some analysts believe the business case for RFID for manufacturing is much more difficult. The strongly differing opinions about RFID highlight the need for research such as this dissertation that can help resolve those differences and identify when RFID use is appropriate. The goal of this dissertation was to develop quantitative strategic and tactical insights about the justification of its use by manufacturers, particularly compared to other data collection technologies. By building on classic planning and control job shop literature that provides a well-known baseline, generalizable insights about the applicability of RFID in manufacturing were developed.

Committee:

David Collier (Advisor)

Keywords:

radio frequency identification (RFID); technology; job shop scheduling; lot streaming; lot splitting; tracking; traceability; simulation; advanced manufacturing technology (AMT); material handling

Labarowski, Daniel DouglasWireless Personnel Tracking in Confined Quarters
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2017, Electrical and Computer Engineering
A variety of industrial, public service, and government occupations would benefit from a personnel tracking system capable of precisely tracking personnel working mixed indoor / outdoor worksites. Such a system would increase the safety and efficiency of personnel working these sites, especially in the case of critical operations such as public service. No currently available systems fit the needs of this application. A field deployable system is defined herein that specifically addresses the needs of tracking personnel working small area indoor / outdoor environments. The Theseus tracking system is a two part system composed of a ground station deployed at a work site and one or more Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) beacons deployed with personnel assigned to the work site. The ground station emits a Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) pulse that the beacons echo and return to the ground station. The ground station uses tracking / radar algorithms to discern the distance and direction to the RFID beacon. For a finalized system, elevation tracking would be included as well. Particular focus is given to the RFID beacon as the researcher’s efforts were directed predominately at this device. The RFID beacon is a bent-pipe transceiver, meaning that any signal received is re-transmitted at a slightly different frequency. The RFID beacon has evolved several times during the duration of this project due to system level changes, and in its current form it transmits and receives within a narrow band between 420 and 450 MHz that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated to tracking systems. The narrow gap between transmit and receive frequencies has placed taxing requirements on the filtering used in the RFID beacon. A Surface-Skimming Bulk Wave (SSBW) filter was specified to meet the tight requirements of the RFID beacon, but was not procurable for the proof of concept. In the place of these filters, the proof of concept incorporates an Intermediate-Frequency (IF) filtering scheme as well as accommodations to add manually tuned coaxial cable filtering. Potential antennas, enclosures, and power sources are also discussed. Remaining efforts to validate the system have been identified. Future work that could make this system cheaper as well as more robust and reliable has been identified. These efforts range from simplifying the RFID beacon and trimming its production costs to expanding the functionality of the RFID beacon and potentially integrating the beacon with existing communication equipment using intelligent Software Defined Radio (SDR) systems. The current Theseus system provides a solution to tracking personnel working small area indoor / outdoor work sites not currently rivalled by existing products. Additional research should be considered that may produce more robust solutions.

Committee:

Michael Wicks, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Guru Subramanyam, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Andrew Bogle, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering

Keywords:

wireless; personnel; tracking; confined; quarters; radar; RFID; direction finding; Theseus; beacon; ground station; system

Grover, NikhilDesign and Optimization of a Planar Dual ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ Polarized, End ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ Fire UHF Antenna For a Handheld RFID Reader
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Electrical and Computer Engineering
A novel UHF antenna for a handheld RFID reader is proposed, designed and optimized using ANSYS HFSS simulation software. The optimized design is fabricated and tested, for S ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ parameters and gain, using a network analyzer. The antenna structure designed is low ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ profile, planar, end ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ fire radiating and dual ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ polarized. It is a promising substitute to other existing conventional antennas used such as patch antennas (broadside radiating and linearly/circularly polarized) and helical antennas (end ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ fire radiating and circularly polarized) which are comparatively bulkier to be mounted on a handheld reader. The proposed antenna provides dual ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ polarized gain so that the tags of both orientations (horizontal and vertical) can be read effectively when the reader is pointed at them. Due to its attribute of dual polarization, it forms a vital substitute to the already available planar and end ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ fire radiating antenna designs like Yagi, which are capable of providing only one kind of a polarization. This constraint renders the tags of opposite polarizations to be left unread by the reader, unless the reader itself is twisted to align the polarization direction with the orientation of the tag to be read. The dual polarization of this antenna is provided by combining two different antenna geometries, yielding orthogonal polarizations, onto a single platform and having different excitation ports to feed the two structures when connected to a two ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿“ port reader.

Committee:

Dr. Robert Burkholder (Advisor); Dr. Prabhakar Pathak (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Electromagnetics

Keywords:

RFID; Reader antenna; Dual - polarization; Dipole antenna; Folded patch antenna; End - fire radiation; Handheld reader; UHF antenna

Matta, Vikram A.Predicting the Adoption of Radio Frequency Identification Systems in the Supply Chain
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Integrated Engineering (Engineering and Technology)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is like wireless barcodes, in that it allows scanning of serial numbers without line of sight. This ability brings great benefits in supply chain organizations, where RFID tagged goods and pallets are must be scanned frequently – whether in manufacturing processes, transit or inventory. Opposing these drivers of adoption, are challenges to implementation which impede its adoption, error control, installation issues, standardization of the format of the technology and management related issues.

As a result of reviewing literature on technology adoption antecedents in organizations, a success ratio (the number of times many times an antecedent significantly predicted adoption, to the number of times it had been studied), identified four likely antecedents to RFID. These antecedents are: top management support, external pressure, cost-benefit analysis, and organizational size. The purpose of this research is to validate these antecedents in context of RFID in supply chain organizations. A survey instrument based on accepted methods for measuring these four antecedents was sent to management personnel in supply chain organizations. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data collected from the survey. Advanced model entry methods, like stepwise, were used to provide insight into the significance of antecedents in the presence and absence of others. Of the four antecedents, it was found that only top management support and external pressure were significant in predicting this RFID adoption. Cost-benefit, which is significant in predicting adoption of other technologies, had a very little impact and was only was significant when used by itself. Organizational size was not a significant predictor of adoption. Several reasons for this result are posited. Contributions of external pressure and cost-benefit towards top management support is further explored and found significant, and therefore recommended for further study.

Committee:

David A. Koonce, PhD (Committee Chair); Raymond D. Frost, PhD (Committee Member); George A. Johanson, PhD (Committee Member); Ralph E. Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Community; Communication; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems; Management; Marketing; Statistics; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

Radio Frequency Identification Systems; RFID; Supply Chain; Logistics; Technology Adoption; Diffusion of Innovations; Logistic Regression

Shah, ZubinSIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF RFID LOCALIZATION ALGORITHMS
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2006, Computer Engineering
Radio frequency identification (RFID) based localization systems provide a unique approach to localize mobile entities equipped with RFID readers or tagged with RFID tags. UHF RFID systems using passive tags are a good choice considering their cost, reading range, and reliability. With global acceptance and deployment of UHF RFID systems using passive tags for tracking and identification, virtually everything around us can be tagged with small and low-cost passive RFID tags. This thesis describes a Monte Carlo Localization based algorithm to localize a mobile RFID reader within a tagged environment. A software tool is developed to validate this localization process, simulate it and analyze its performance. Requirement specification for such RFID based localization systems can be determined based on various analysis plots available from this software tool. The tool also analyses tag localization using fixed readers to study the RFID characteristics for localization. These localization approaches can be used to provide intelligent context aware services.

Committee:

Jack Jean (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

RFID; Localization; Monte Carlo Localization; Simulation Tool; Real-time Localization

Venkatakrishnan, Rajiv KrishnanCompact Metamaterial UHF RFID Tag Antennas
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Engineering and Applied Science: Electrical Engineering
The unusual properties exhibited by left-handed metamaterials have been of great interest to researchers, especially in the field of RF and Microwave communication. The property of backward-wave propagation has led to a number of applications which were not possible with natural right-handed materials. One of the most exciting applications of these left-handed metamaterials is the Zeroth Order Resonator (ZOR) wherein resonance is achieved even at the zeroth mode, which is not possible with the traditional right-handed materials. This has led to the design of Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) ZOR antennas whose resonance frequency does not depend on the physical length of the resonator. In this thesis the theory behind the ZOR antennas is studied and their applicability for use as RFID tag antennas is explored. Three novel CRLH ZOR antenna configurations are proposed targeting the UHF RFID tag application. The antennas are simulated using Agilent ADS Momentum and the simulation results are compared with those of the traditional 2-cell and 4-cell CRLH ZOR antennas that have been previously designed. The novel antennas are also compared with a simple rectangular patch antenna to demonstrate the reduction in size achieved through the use of left-handed metamaterials. The novel antennas are also simulated with varying values of the substrate height, metal thickness, and dielectric loss tangent and the effect of these parameters on antenna performance is analyzed. The three novel antennas and a rectangular patch antenna are fabricated and the experimental results are presented. The novel antennas are found to be around 30 times smaller than the rectangular patch antenna radiating at the same frequency.

Committee:

Altan Ferendeci, PhD (Committee Chair); Joseph Thomas Boyd, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Metamaterial;RFID Tag;UHF;Antenna;Compact;ZOR

Bharti, HarishchandraTo Validate the Model of “Semantic Breakdown of Functionality of a Matrix of RFID Technology to Support Application Development”
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2010, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The purpose of this thesis research is to expand the precinct of the research “Semantic Breakdown of Functionality of a Matrix of RFID Technology to Support Application Development,” by applying and analyzing its authenticity on various other functional areas across a spectrum of industries. This research will further categorize the fundamental functions which are broken down into three core areas of Identification, Location and State. The research will further instate if all examples fall in the incumbent domain, or if there is a case of expanding the fundamental functional areas to accommodate more examples to enhance the applicability of the model.

Committee:

David A. Koonce, PhD (Advisor); Vic Matta, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin Berisso, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Weckman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Area Planning and Development; Business Costs; Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

RFID; authentication; uniqueness; functional matrix and model of functionality

Franzese, Anthony L.Real-time Location with ZigBee Hardware
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Engineering

Mechanisms for tracking assets and inventory management are widespread and well-developed. Tracking is achieved by attaching “tags” with unique identifiers to assets and deploying “readers” throughout a facility to read the identity of the tagged assets. In general the tools and solutions for asset tracking are organized into one of two categories, namely: passive (RFID or optical barcode) solutions and real-time location systems. Passive solutions provide coarse-grained location services that record a tracked item’s movement past fixed position “reader” devices. Asset movement from location to location and into and out-of a facility are recorded. Passive systems are highly effective for inventory control and management and they are pervasive in the consumer products markets. In contrast, Real-Time Location Systems (RTLS) provide pin-point location services that can identify an asset’s location at all times. RTLS systems generally require a much larger number of expensive readers distributed throughout the monitored facility to ensure continuous communication with the tags and to allow triangulation services to precisely locate the tagged assets. Thus, existing asset tracking systems provide either inexpensive coarse-grained location services (passive solutions) or high-cost pin-point accuracy services (RTLS solutions).

In many cases, the requirements for real-time asset tracking solutions do not require pin-point accuracy or continuous, second-by-second location service. For example, a solution tracking assets every 30 seconds to a coarse-grained location on the accuracy of 50-100 feet would be more than sufficient for locating wheelchairs or baggage carts in an airport, beds in a hospital, or baggage carts in a hotel. Passive solutions are ineffective because the readers can generally read only short distances (15 feet maximum) and RTLS solutions are far too expensive to be deployed throughout an airport or large scale facility such as a major hospital. This thesis examines the design of a coarse-grained asset tracking solution suitable for the needs of tracking wheelchairs in airports. The solution must be low-cost, self-organizing, and inexpensive. In this work a solution using ZigBee networking hardware is developed and analyzed. The result provides a solution where the tags are small enough to fit comfortably on wheelchairs and baggage carts and they can provide identifying broadcast signaling for at least one year using two AA batteries. The technology provides a self-organizing network where readers can be placed at reasonable distances (100-200 feet) from one another and that can provide asset tracking coverage over the largest airports in the world.

Committee:

Philip Wilsey, PhD (Committee Chair); Fred Beyette, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, C, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

ZigBee; RTLS; Asset Tracking; RFID; Real-time Locating Systems; Sensor Network

Sakai, KazuyaSecurity and Privacy in Large-Scale RFID Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Computer Science and Engineering
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an electronic tagging technology that allows objects to be automatically identified at a distance without a direct line-of-sight using an electromagnetic challenge-and-response exchange of data. An RFID system consists of RF readers and RF tags. RF tags are attached to objects, and used as a unique identifier of the objects. RFID technologies enable a number of business and personal applications, and smooth the way for physical transactions in the real world, such as supply chain management, transportation payment, animal identification, warehouse operations, and more. Though bringing great productivity gains, RFID systems may cause new security and privacy threats to individuals or organizations, which have become a major obstacle for their wide adaptions. Therefore, it is important to address the security and privacy issues in RFID systems. In this dissertation, we investigate security and privacy issues for large-scale RFID systems. Since any object is uniquely identifiable with an RF tag, the tag's ID must be protected from adversaries during data communications in keeping with the authenticity of tags. Hence, we first propose private authentication protocols that RF readers to singulate individual tags without disclosing tags' content to adversaries. To design a secure access protocol, two different approaches are taken, encryption-based and non-encryption-based. In the encryption-based approach, we propose a structured key management with low cost cryptographic operations based on a skip list. This can be applied to a large-scale RFID systems. On the other hand, shared key exchanges are not feasible in some contexts. Hence, we develop a distributed RFID architecture for secure data communications without shared secret. With a novel encoding scheme and jamming technique, the distributed RFID authentication scheme protects tags from various types of adversaries. With a private authentication protocol, readers can securely validate tags' authenticity. After reading a tag, an RFID system updates object's status or generates data. Thus, any piece of data in the back-end server is associated with a particular tag. For a high quality RFID-based data service, the authenticity of data is of concern. Therefore, we study the verifiable RFID systems, where a set of data related to a tag can be verified in the sense that the data is associated with the tag and any element of the data cannot be modified without being detected. To realize such a verifiable RFID system, we build a new RFID architecture that integrates multiple RFID systems into single exa-scale RFID system, then formulate data verification problem, and then propose data verification protocols. The proposed solutions are mathematically analyzed, and computer simulations are conducted to measure all aspects of the RFID systems, including the degree of security and the cost of control overhead. Furthermore, we implement a prototype of a verifiable RFID system. The performance evaluations show that the proposed protocols achieve their design goals. We believe this research serves the foundation for the next generation of RFID systems.

Committee:

Ten H. Lai (Advisor); Dong Xuan (Committee Member); Feng Qin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

security, privacy, RFID, Radio Frequency Identification, mobile computing, wireless networks

Holland, William S.Development of an Indoor Real-time Localization System Using Passive RFID Tags and Artificial Neural Networks
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used for inventory and asset tracking because of its accuracy and speed. Currently, RFID tracking systems are being used to identify and locate tagged objects in indoor environments. In this research, received signal strength indication (RSSI) values are collected from off-the-shelf passive RFID readers and antennas to be used in conjunction with an artificial neural network (ANN) to create a localization algorithm for two-dimensional location estimation with a single tag. The aim of this research is to create a highly accurate real-time location tracking system to be used in a room with objects that create RF interference. Multiple linear regression is used as a benchmark method for comparison with artificial neural networks.

Committee:

Gary Weckman, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Berisso, PhD (Committee Member); Diana Schwerha, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Snow, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

RFID; RSSI; artificial neural networks; location system