Search Results (1 - 11 of 11 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Danford, Mark JTHE EVOLUTION OF THE MEDICI PORTRAIT: FROM BUSINESS TO POLITICS
Master of Arts, John Carroll University, 2013, Humanities
The art patronage of Cosimo “il Vecchio” de' Medici (1389-1464) and Grand Duke Cosimo “il Primo” de' Medici (1519-1574) seemed to be driven by very different ideals. While il Vecchio was driven by business and politics, il Primo was driven by politics and dynastic concerns....It will be shown that when Cosimo “il Vecchio” de' Medici was the Medici patriarch (1434-1464), Medici business strength was at its greatest while Medici portraiture was minimal. On the other end of the spectrum, after Cosimo I de' Medici became the Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1569, Medici political power reached its pinnacle, as did dynastic portraiture.

Committee:

Linda Koch, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

medici, portrait, cosimo, duke, vecchio, politics, business, Florence, medici bank

Finkel, Jennifer HMichelangelo at San Lorenzo: The “Tragedy” of the Façade
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2005, Art History
This dissertation considers Michelangelo’s intended sculptural program for the never-realized façade of the Medici parish church of San Lorenzo in Florence, and how its iconography related to the Medici, the Papacy, and the city of Florence. In 1516, Pope Leo X de’ Medici commissioned Michelangelo to complete both the sculpture and the architecture of the façade. This project, which Michelangelo claimed would be the “mirror of architecture and sculpture of all Italy,” was to be the most prestigious commission of the sixteenth century and Michelangelo’s most ambitious creation. But, for the Medici patrons, the sculptural program for the façade would have been the ultimate expression of Medici propaganda. Chapter one is a study of the history of San Lorenzo and generations of Medici patronage at their parish church. The sculptural program for the façade would have visually communicated the Medici dynasty and their destiny, and thus, the account of the San Lorenzo façade project starts here. Chapter two provides an overview of the façade commission and Michelangelo’s involvement on the project from 1516 to 1520. Chapter three is dedicated to Michelangelo’s architectural façade drawings for San Lorenzo, and his figural drawings for statuary that have been previously unassigned to a known project or connected to his other sculptural projects. These drawings are considered afresh in conjunction with the vast extant correspondence from this period, with the primary focus on Michelangelo’s concern for the sculptural decoration of the façade. Chapters four and five use the methodologies of iconography and iconology to reconstruct the intended plan for the sculptures on the façade. Michelangelo greatly enlarged the original sculptural program from ten over-life-sized marble statues, to eighteen freestanding over-life-sized marble and bronze statues, and nineteen relief panels. This expanded sculptural program relied on a calculated arrangement of the saints and their placement on the façade, which had specific meanings and connotations for the Medici, for Florence, and for the Medici in the papal court in Rome. Appendix A of the dissertation is a detailed chronological account of the façade project as extrapolated and compiled from more than three-hundred extant letters.

Committee:

Edward Olszewski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Michelangelo; Medici; San Lorenzo; facade; Pope Leo X de'Medici

Kitchen, Stacie LaurenPreferences of Patronage in the Portraits of Cosimo I de' Medici
MS, Kent State University, 2011, College of the Arts / School of Art

Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici utilized artists to form images of himself under the guise of a Roman Imperial ruler and as a successful Medici heir. A selection of artists were chosen for his portraiture, and depending on their preferred media, each played a different role for the Duke.

Cosimo’s painters, Pontormo, Bronzino, and Vasari, created images of the Duke that affirmed his authority to rule based on his Medici lineage. These portrait painters, selected based on their ability to produce lifelike portraits and facilitate the Medici impresa following the Duke’s political agenda, had many similarities. These similarities include previous employment under the Medici, adaptability to the Duke’s demands, and a strong knowledge of Medici and Florentine art. Duke Cosimo followed a sequence with his painters and generally just employed one at a time for his portraits.

Cosimo’s selected sculptors, Bandinelli, Cellini and Danti, constantly vied for the Duke’s favor. The portraits created by the sculptors emphasized the Duke’s assumed relationship with Emperor Augustus, utilizing more idealized physical features and the warrior persona. Much like the painters, the sculptors were chosen by Cosimo I based on their similarities in their training background and their prior relationship to the Medici family. However, Cosimo did not develop strong loyalty to just one sculptor at a time, and these sculptors worked against one another to gain commissions. Giambologna is a special case in this study since his portraiture of Cosimo I was created under the patronage of Cosimo’s son, Francesco I de’ Medici, yet was completed while Cosimo was still living. Giambologna’s position in the court of the Medici differs widely from the painters and sculptors selected under Duke Cosimo’s patronage.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, PhD (Advisor); Diane Scillia, PhD (Committee Member); Fred Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Carol Salus, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Cosimo I de' Medici; portraiture; Jacopo Pontormo; Agnolo Bronzino; Giorgio Vasari; Baccio Bandinelli; Benvenuto Cellini; Vincenzo Danti; Giambologna; portrait busts

Corretti, ChristineCellini’s Perseus and Medusa: Configurations of the Body of State
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Art History

In one respect Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus and Medusa (Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy) legitimized the patriarchal power of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici’s Tuscany. The bronze statue symbolizes the body of the male ruler as the state overcoming an adversary personified as female, but the sculpture’s androgynous appearance (the heads of Perseus and Medusa are remarkably similar) emphasizes the fact that Perseus, Cosimo’s surrogate, rose to power through a female agency – the Gorgon. Though not a surrogate for the powerful women of the Medici family, Cellini’s Medusa may have reminded viewers of the fact that Cosimo’s power stemmed in various ways from maternal influence. In this fashion the statue suggests that female power was palpable in the Medicean state. Under the Loggia dei Lanzi maternal power assumes, specifically, the form of Medusa as Mother Goddess. In the preceding context it is telling that additional works of art celebrating the duke’s political greatness align Cosimo’s image with maternal agency.

The Perseus’ androgynous nature problematizes the Greek subject’s role as an epitome of virtù (virility). Thus, the statue points up the contingent nature of patriarchal power, which in Cellini’s day was synonymous with virtù. I discuss the Perseus as a reflection of Niccolo Macchiavelli’s theory that virtù depends upon adversary in the form of Fortuna, a version of the Mother Goddess, for political purposes.

The similarity between the heads of Cellini’s Perseus and Medusa suggests that Cellini (as Perseus) identified with the Gorgon as a hunted figure. Thus, the statue reminds one of social, cultural, and legal restrictions imposed upon men who lived in Cosimo’s Florence. Here, the cult of honor and virtù bred more divisions in the absolutist state by perpetuating violence. Similarly, Cellini’s statue implies that violence may turn against itself by appealing to the aggression of its viewers.

My study concludes with an analysis of Duchess Eleonora di Toledo’s image in art as Mother Goddess, a force who rivals the power of her husband, Cosimo I. Thus, the duchess’ image ultimately served as Medusa’s counterpart.

Committee:

Edward Olszewski, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anne Helmreich, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Holly Witchey, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jon Seydl, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Cellini; Perseus and Medusa; Cosimo I de' Medici; Loggia dei Lanzi; Eleonora di Toledo

Schneider, Leann GCapturing Otherness on Canvas: 16th - 18th century European Representation of Amerindians and Africans
MA, Kent State University, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis explores various methods of visual representation used to portray non-white Others by white European artists throughout the Age of Discovery and the dawn of colonialism. There are three major phases of visual representation of Others in European Renaissance and Baroque art. These will be examined and compared to suggest a visual manifestation of the shifting ideas of race throughout these centuries. The representation of black Africans in Europe and the New World, the court commissioned paintings of Albert Eckhout in Dutch Brazil, and lastly, the development of the casta genre in New Spain will be investigated in connection with a changing perception of race. When explored as a group, these representations of Others offer insight into the contemporary racial mindset and expand upon the understanding of the development of established races based on physical appearance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By following the introduction of the black African into the works of Renaissance painters, over the bridge of Albert Eckhout’s titillating Baroque works recording supposed ethnographic realities in Dutch Brazil, and ending in colonial Mexico with casta paintings, one can see European racial concepts forming, morphing, and leading to an almost explicitly visual understanding of race.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Studies; American Studies; Art History; Caribbean Studies; Comparative; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; European History; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; History; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Modern History; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; World History

Keywords:

Albert Eckhout; Otherness; colonialism; slavery; representation; race; race in art; european representation of otherness; others; non-western; brazil; portugal; art; art history; baroque art; renaissance art; medici; casta painting; casta; mexico; paint

Bougher, Heather A.The Fountain, the Villa, the Family, and Donatello's Bronze Judith
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, Art History (Fine Arts)
This thesis reconsiders Donatello’s bronze Judith and Holofernes, now situated in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, by focusing on issues concerning its original function, patronage, and placement. I propose that the statue may have been conceived to operate as a fountain, located on one of the Medici villa estates. My study investigates early Renaissance fountain imagery and placement as precedents for Donatello’s statue, which visually and iconographically has links to the provision of water, to the idea of the countryside, and to the Medici family and Florence.

Committee:

Marilyn Bradshaw (Advisor); Barbara Bays (Committee Member); Jody Lamb (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Donatello; Medici; Fountain; Villa; Garden; Padua; Florence; Venice

Morford, Michael DavidCARVING FOR A FUTURE: BACCIO BANDINELLI SECURING MEDICI PATRONAGE THROUGH HIS MUTUALLY FULFILLING AND PROPAGANDISTIC “HERCULES AND CACUS”
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, Art History

CARVING FOR A FUTURE: BACCIO BANDINELLI SECURING MEDICI PATRONAGE THROUGH HIS MUTUALLY FULFILLING AND PROPAGANDISTIC “HERCULES AND CACUS”

Abstract

by

MICHAEL DAVID MORFORD

Baccio Bandinelli’s Hercules and Cacus was a tool used by both the patron and artist to fulfill their own personal goals. For the Medici, the colossus was to be a statement (and warning) of their renewed power in Florence, as well as developing the idea that Florence was the “New Rome” due to Medici rule. For Bandinelli, it was proof of his undying loyalty to the Medici, and an acknowledgement that his style would provide the Medici with the proper voice with which to display their new power. My own goals are to provide not the usual Vasari or Cellini based critical analysis (favored by most scholars and writers since the sixteenth century), but a new interpretation of the moment depicted by Bandinelli for this Virgilian narrative. The political significance of my interpretation for the sculpture helps to understand how this marble directly led to further Medici patronage. To substantiate my interpretation, I consider Bandinelli’s own drastic changes throughout the preparatory process, his sources and influences, and other contemporary Medici projects. The significance of his use and understanding of classical influences over the Michelangelesque to create his own “Bandinellesque” style enforces the need for my re-evaluation since most critiques rely on what I perceive as a false assumption that Bandinelli’s goal was to mimic Michelangelo.

Committee:

Edward Olszewski, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anne Helmreich, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Catherine Scallen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Holly Witchey, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Baccio Bandinelli; Hercules; Cacus; patronage; Florence; sculpture; Medici

Swanson, Barbara DianneSpeaking in Tones: Plainchant, Monody, and the Evocation of Antiquity in Early Modern Italy
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, Musicology
Jacopo Peri, Giulio Caccini, Emilio de’ Cavalieri, and Claudio Monteverdi used plainchant formulas in their compositions for solo voice: Peri used psalm tones in Euridice; Caccini used Tenebrae chant melisma in Le nuove musiche; Cavalieri quoted the Lamentations chant in his Lamentationes; Monteverdi evoked plainchant psalmody in the Lamento d’Arianna. Chant recitation was clearly a familiar model that could inform how to compose in the celebrated speech-like manner. As this dissertation demonstrates, chant and monody were also contiguous musical practices, united by imitation of ancient speech-like song. The evocation of chant in early monody may have had a pointed purpose: to gesture musically towards antiquity, and to formulate a distinct melodic character for solo-voiced music. In writings that circulated among creators of solo song and early opera, both Girolamo Mei and Vincenzo Galilei posited plainchant as a vestige of ancient music. In doing so, they imagined ecclesiastical recitation as a bridge between ancient music and modern attempts to revive the power of ancient singing. This was by virtue of chant’s apparently “antique” remnants: use of mode, extended recitation, and centrality of text. Vatican chant reformer Giovanni Guidetti, contemporary with Mei and Galilei, also connected antiquity and chant. In a previously unknown edition of his work that I have discovered, Guidetti compared Christian plainsong with Pythagorean theories of music, including its power to move affections and reform the soul. Mei, Galilei, and Guidetti thus espoused similar ideas about chant and antiquity, leading alternately to early solo song and opera, and the reform of Catholic liturgy and devotion. The idea of chant as a vestige of ancient song thus had strong cultural currency, operating across sacred-secular boundaries. By revealing how sacred and secular spheres intersected in early modern Italy, and by examining chant, monodies, and theoretical writings from ca. 1600, this dissertation highlights the previously obscured triangle of chant, ancient song, and monody. It furthermore provides new tools for analysis of music in the formative years of the first operas, and reframes 16th-century plainchant—largely neglected in music histories—as a significant creative force in early modern musical culture.

Committee:

David Rothenberg (Advisor); Peter Bennett (Committee Member); Ross Duffin (Committee Member); Charles Burroughs (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; Music; Religious History

Keywords:

plainchant; monody; opera; antiquity; Peri; Caccini; Cavalieri; Monteverdi; Guidetti; Mei; Galilei; recitative; psalmody; Rome; Florence; early modern Italy; affection; lamentation; lament; Counter-Reformation; musical reform; Ferdinando de' Medici

Biagini, JuliaSandro Botticelli’s The Return of Judith to Bethulia and The Discovery of the Body of Holofernes and the Experiences of Quattrocento Florence
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Art History (Fine Arts)
The Book of Judith of the Old Testament Apocrypha has inspired various interpretations since the Middle Ages, which resulted in a range of Judith imagery produced in Renaissance Italy. Among the artists creating works representing Judith during this time was Sandro Botticelli, who painted Judith six times throughout his nearly forty-year career. This thesis reconsiders Botticelli’s The Return of Judith to Bethulia and The Discovery of the Body of Holofernes, two small panels in the Uffizi, Florence, by focusing on issues of function, date, and patronage. Like many Quattrocento images of Judith, the pair of paintings responded to the various interpretations of Judith and the Book of Judith. I propose that the panels also operated within a political context in which they commented upon and offered a point of reflection on the events of 1466 in Florence, when a group of Florentine patricians challenged Piero de’ Medici and his position in the Florentine government, and the aftermath of those events.

Committee:

Marilyn Bradshaw, PhD (Committee Chair); Joseph Lamb, PhD (Committee Member); Charles Buchanan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Sandro Botticelli; Judith and Holofernes; Renaissance Florence; Piero de' Medici

Deibel, Danielle MarieThe Piazza della Signoria: The Visualization of Political Discourse through Sculpture
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of the Arts / School of Art
In the Italian Renaissance, Florence was a known epicenter of artistic talent and influential patronage. This body of research focuses on the Piazza della Signoria, a public space located in the heart of Florence, and the first four sculptures placed within it by the Republic during the fourteenth to early sixteenth century. The formulation of the Piazza della Signoria, as well as the factionalism of the city-state, had a significant impact upon the Florentine government. Through displaying sculptures such as the Marzocco, Donatello’s David and Judith and Holofernes, and Michelangelo’s David, publicly for the first time, the Republican government could convey political messages openly to its citizens, each sculpture increasing the complexity of the overall program. Each of these works is discussed in depth and their political context emphasized, specifically in relation to the Medici exile of 1494. When the Medici returned, and were reinstalled into power in 1512, new sculptures were commissioned to temper the symbolism of the previously installed works, suggesting the success of these sculptures as images of Florentine liberty. Therefore, rather than engage with these sculptures individually, I deem it necessary to study them collectively, as they once were interpreted in the public realm.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus (Advisor); Diane Scillia (Committee Member); John-Michael Warner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Piazza della Signoria; Palazzo Vecchio; Judith and Holofernes; Marzocco; David; Michelangelo; Donatello; Political; Sculpture; Florence; Florentine; Medici; Republic; Art; Art History; Loggia dei Lanzi; Judith; Jewish; Heroine; Hero; Symbolism

Edwards, Karen VictoriaRethinking the Reinstallation of the Studiolo of Francesco I de' Medici in the Palazzo Vecchio
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2007, Art History
The Studiolo of Francesco I in the Palazzo Vecchio is a testament to the changing styles at the end of the Cinquecento, and has been called a perfect example of Mannerist art. This dissertation considers the original invenzione of the Studiolo as intended by Don Vincenzo Borghini and Giorgio Vasari, and provides compelling new evidence to challenge the current re-installation of the room. Dismantled prior to Francesco’s death in 1587, the Studiolo was rediscovered and renovated more than three hundred years later by Giovanni Poggi and Alfredo Lensi. In 1976, Scott Schaefer became the first scholar to question Poggi’s and Lensi’s installation. Critical thinking regarding the Studiolo changed five years later with Michael Rinehart’s discovery of additional notes written by Borghini, who devised the room’s visual program in 1570. The recent exhibition, Magnificenza! The Medici, Michelangelo, and the Art of Late Renaissance Florence, has once again renewed interest in the small room. One of the exhibition’s curators, Larry Feinberg, has offered an alternative rearrangement of the Studiolo’s works, based on Rinehart’s findings. Despite these attempts, aspects of the original invenzione have been overlooked, including the importance of thematic relationships, the influence of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. This dissertation concentrates on the correlation between the Studiolo’s iconography and the theme of the four elements. The analysis offers a new arrangement of the room based on reinterpretations of its small end walls. Moreover, these findings provide insight into the diverse array of artists working on the commission, as well as Borghini’s and Vasari’s collective vision for Francesco’s Studiolo.

Committee:

Edward Olszewski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Studiolo; Medici; Vasari; Palazzo Vecchio; Mannerism