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Jradi, Hoda A.Tobacco Dependence in Medical Education in Countries of the Middle East and North Africa
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Public Health
Background: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and is projected to cause nearly 450 million deaths worldwide during the next 50 year. Health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. However, data on the competence of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa to offer tobacco cessation counseling are very scarce. The goal of this research is to determine how well prepared students in the Middle East and North Africa are with respect to providing cigarette and waterpipe smoking cessation advice, and to determine the prevalence of smoking and waterpipe use among Lebanese medical students. Methods: We surveyed the administrators who are familiar with the content of the curriculum in accredited medical schools from the Middle East and North African regions. We also surveyed third year medical students from Lebanon. The questionnaires included items about specific curricular content related to tobacco dependence and treatment. Descriptive statistics were reported by country and region and among the medical students in Lebanon. Results: There may be major gaps in medical training pertaining to tobacco related issues in medical school‘s curriculum in the Middle East and North Africa. The prevalence of tobacco use is high among Lebanese medical students. Discussion: Targeting the medical curriculum for improvement in tobacco use and cessation in countries of the Middle East and North Africa will not only help this region, but it will also serve as an international effort to contain a global phenomenon.

Committee:

Amy Ferketich, PhD (Committee Chair); Philip Binkley, MD (Committee Member); Phyllis Pirie, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Ellen Wewers, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Epidemiology; Public Health

Keywords:

Tobacco in medical education;Tobacco dependence among medical students; Medical education in Middle East and North Africa

Cegelka, Derek SEnd-of-Life Training in US Internal Medicine Residency Programs: A National Study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Health Education
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the directors of internal medicine residency programs in the United States to determine the current status of end-of-life care education for internal medicine residents. Methods: The study featured a cross-sectional design with total population sampling. All 403 internal medicine residency directors in the United States were surveyed using a 4-wave data collection method to ensure an optimum return rate. The response rate was 52.4% (211/403). Results: Residency directors reported very high outcome expectations regarding the potential positive outcomes of providing residents with formal training in end-of-life skills. More than 90% of directors believed that the quality of care for patients at the end-of-life phase would increase if their residents were taught specific knowledge and skills related to end-of-life care. Although directors believed in the potential benefits of providing end-of-life training to their residents, nearly 1 in 4 programs (24%) reported not having a formal end-of-life curriculum in place. Another 39% had recently decided to implement an end-of-life curriculum or had implemented a curriculum in the last 3 years. Thus, 63% of residency programs either did not have a formal end-of-life curriculum in place or just recently implemented one. Only 36% of programs reported having formal end-of-life curriculum in place for more than three years. Most programs reported spending nine or less hours of instructional time during residency on multiple end-of-life topical areas such as socio-cultural issues (71%), patient care (56%), professionalism (54%), ethical issues (50%), and communication (46%). The majority of residency directors reported that their programs do not formally evaluate residents’ competence in end-of-life topical areas such as socio-cultural issues (77%), patient care (60%), and ethical issues (55%). The most common method used to evaluate residents’ skill competence in caring for patients at end-of-life was verbal feedback by attending physicians and preceptors. The three most prevalent teaching techniques used to teach end-of-life topics were hospital rounds, classroom/conference style teaching, and teaching by preceptors during outpatient clinics. The most common barriers to increasing and/or improving end-of-life education were lack of time in the teaching schedule (46%), lack of faculty members certified in Hospice and Palliative Medicine (26%), and lack of rotation sites/lack of preceptors with needed experience (15%). Conclusion: Internal medicine physicians play an important role in treating patients with life-threatening illnesses, including those at the end-of-life stage. It is important that internal medicine residents are well educated in providing excellent care and communication to such patients. Although there has been progress over the years in end-of-life training of US physicians, internal medicine residency programs still need improvement in this area.

Committee:

Timothy Jordan, PhD (Committee Chair); Jiunn-Jye Sheu, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Dake, PhD (Committee Member); Ragheb Assaly, M.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Education; Gerontology; Medicine

Keywords:

Internal Medicine; End-of-Life; Medical Education; Internal Medicine Residency; Internal Medicine Director; Graduate Medical Education

Mendelsohn, Meridithe AnneLeading by Design: Physicians in Training and Leadership Awareness
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Leadership and Change
Patient-centered care requires robust physician leadership in all aspects of healthcare in order to lead organizations to this ideal. Programs in Graduate Medical Education provide inconsistent and limited exposure to formal leadership development experiences for physicians in their final year of residency training. Literature addressing leadership training for residents focuses on the scarcity of effective programs that deliver adequate training and provide measurable outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore how chief medical and surgical residents develop leadership awareness and experience training in leadership and engage chief residents, faculty mentors, and program administrators in a collaborative process, developing a leadership training model within an independent (non-academic) residency training program. To understand the residents’ and the institutional experience in this realm, focused interviews were conducted with chief residents from Family Medicine and Surgery, faculty mentors, program administrators, and regional subject matter experts. Professional identity development of the residents was investigated and related to their experiences. Action research was the framework for this study due to the iterative and participative nature of the methods. Subsequent to the interviews, outgoing and incoming chief residents engaged in collaborative sessions during which peak leadership experiences were discussed. The outcomes of the sessions and analysis of the interviews were discussed with the program directors for future consideration of curriculum change. The findings indicated a change in leadership awareness among chief residents demonstrating that stimulus and subsequent reflection prompted the residents to review their roles as leaders, seeking opportunities to apply leadership awareness to their daily work. In order to teach and role model leadership, training has to be implemented that interposes the same rigor as in clinical training. Experiential opportunities for leadership training exist that are not utilized. Conflict exists between the financial contribution of the chief residents and time allocated to training. Relationship and reflection were identified as the common threads through identity, leadership, education, and organizational behavior. A pilot program training surgical chief residents in the relational model of palliative care and leadership is underway as a catalytic effect of this study. One MP4 and three MP3 files accompany the Dissertation PDF, and are accessible as supplemental files. This Dissertation is available in Open Access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu and OhioLink ETD Center, http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Laura Morgan Roberts, PhD (Committee Member); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); Dianne Shumay, PhD (Committee Member); Lynn Wooten, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Behaviorial Sciences; Education; Educational Theory; Health Care; Health Care Management; Health Education; Medicine

Keywords:

action research; medical residents; graduate medical education; professional identity; leadership awareness; adult education; educational theory; health education; medicine; health care; organizational behavior; relational leadership

Staines, Amber IreneThe Effect of Medical Care on Infant Mortality in the United States in the Early 20th Century
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2015, Economics
Doctors in the United States in the early 20th century had a limited ability to treat their patients. Most treatments and vaccines for diseases were not developed yet. Furthermore, prior to 1910, many medical schools had scant entrance requirements and limited time practicing treating patients. However, as late as the 19th century, the American medical education system underwent revolutionary changes, drastically improving the way doctors were trained. Despite these changes, physicians still did not have the benefit of antibiotics or vaccinations with which to treat and prevent infectious disease. Given these limitations, how much did the availability of doctors matter and how much did good doctors matter? The models suggest the quality matters much more than quantity. The relationship between doctors per capita and infant mortality is actually positive when accounting for overall physician quality, while physician quality has a strong negative relationship with infant mortality rates.

Committee:

Melissa Thomasson (Advisor); William Even (Committee Member); Greg Neimesh (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic History; Economics

Keywords:

health economics; infant mortality; medical care; historical economics; medical education; mortality

Ramirez-Fernandez, LuisThe evaluation of Chilean medical educators' perceptions about establishing a national medical examination in Chile /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1986, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Medical education;Medical colleges;Medicine;Medical teaching personnel

Du, YinaA Portable Pediatrics Medical Education Assessment System for the Pediatrics Milestone Project
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Assessment is critically important in medical education. Designing an effective assessment system, however, is very challenging. In this thesis, we developed a portable assessment system based on the Pediatrics Milestone project for fellows and faulty members in Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). The Pediatrics Milestone project is a joint initiative the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Pediatrics to assess resident physicians. Specifically, we first made necessary modification to original assessment framework for real applications on portable devices. Then, our pediatrics medical education assessment system was implemented with cutting-edge mobile technology. iPad from Apple Inc. was chosen by the users as the assessment system platform. Xcode was used for App development. User interface and database were designed on designated integrated development environment. The implemented assessment tool is planned to be used in medical education of CCHMC. With the help of advances in portable devices and applicability of Pediatrics Milestone project, assessment feedback to the students is meaningful and the implemented assessment strategy is anticipated to improve medical education.

Committee:

Chia Han, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Yan Xu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anca Ralescu, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Portable assessment System;Pediatrics Milestone project;Xcode;Mobile Apple APP;Medical Education;User interface design

Johnson, Clair AgriestiThe development of a practical research method for the improvement of selected health science curriculums.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1973, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Health Sciences

Keywords:

Medical education

Alamoud, Muhammad YMobile Computing for Trauma and Surgical Care Continuous Education
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2013, Biomedical Engineering
In medical domain, mobile computing has proven to be convenient, effective, and productive. With varying screen sizes, there is a challenge to present the right information in the right format such that medical practitioners can access information quickly. In this thesis, we discuss how mobile computing can be used as a way of continuous education for medical practitioners in the field of trauma and surgical care, and provide design guidelines on how to effectively present information on different mobile form factors. The focus is on three screen sizes- 4.7, 7 and 10.1 in., and three interaction methods – dropdown, slide, and tab menu. Results indicate that medical practitioners preferred 7 in. device that enabled them to have information at a glance and aid them in surgical decision making. In addition, the tab menu was the most convenient, intuitive and attractive out of the three interaction methods.

Committee:

Subhashini Ganapathy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Mary McCarthy, M.D. (Committee Member); Chandler Phillips , M.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Mobile Computing; Mobile Learning; Form Factor; Medical Education; Screen Size

El Rimawi, NidalDevelopment of an Audio Visual Tool for Medical Training at Kennedy Space Center
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2006, Aerospace Medicine
El Rimawi, Nidal. M.D. M.S., Department of Aerospace Medicine, Wright State University, 2006. Development of an Audio-Visual Tool for Medical Training at Kennedy Space Center As part of an effort to improve efficiency of space-flight medical support at Kennedy Space Center, a training video was created to replace a series of lectures given before a launch or landing of the Space Shuttle. The video was designed to familiarize volunteer physicians from around the country with the specific emergency response protocols for a Space Shuttle launch or landing emergency at Kennedy Space Center. The methods used were consistent with standard film making techniques as outlined in several film making texts. The Production was divided into three phases; A pre-production phase wherein the research, screenwriting and production planning took place, a Production phase consisting of the actual filming of the various scenes in the script and finally, a post-production phase during which the video was edited, music was added and the finished video screened and copied. The result was that the video was completed in seven months with the participation of over a hundred people. The final video won several awards for educational and government film and met all expectations of the author and the medical department. It was ultimately given to the Aerospace Medicine Residency program at Wright State University and to the medical staff at Kennedy Space Center.

Committee:

Robin Dodge (Advisor)

Keywords:

Aerospace Medicine; Space Medicine; Medical Education; Audio-Visual Tool; Kennedy Space Center; Space Medical Support; Emergency Medicine; Spaceflight Support; Spaceflight Emergencies; Film Production

Bloom, Robert S.A curriculum specialist in a task analysis curriculum development process in allied medical education /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1972, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Curriculum consultants;Medical education

Brown, Charles RaymondAssessment of television and video tape recordings for utilization in continuing medical education /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1972, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Medicine;Television in medical education;Video tapes in education

Wells, Mark JProselytizing a Disenchanted Religion to Medical Students: On why secularized yoga and mindfulness should not be required in medical education
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Bioethics
Since the 1990s, medical educators have endeavored to integrate traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) into medical school curriculums in the United States. Motivated by National Institute of Health recommendations, approximately half of American programs have implemented coursework in TCAM to supplement the biomedical model of health. Curriculums vary in how this coursework is integrated, from teaching students on how to incorporate TCAM practitioners into care plans to providing student self-care sessions. This education has come under scrutiny due to questions regarding its effectiveness in promoting health, as well as to recognize the historical religions from whence therapies originate. As examples, yogic and mindfulness practices will be examined here to elucidate whether (and if so, how) such practices ought to be integrated into medical education. Yoga and mindfulness are historically linked to the religious practices of Hinduism and Buddhism. Yoga integrates body posturing with simple meditations in efforts to achieve harmony of body and mind, and of self, with Brahman. Practitioners introduced yoga to Europe and the Americas in the late nineteenth century, with subsequent popularization in the late twentieth century. Drawing primarily from the physical postures in hatha yoga, contemporary practices have been used to complement treatment of physical and mental health conditions of both medical practitioners and patients. Mindfulness derives from the Pali term sati, which refers to recollection and acquisition of insight regarding the value of objects or ideas, and constitutes one element of the Buddhist noble eightfold path. Its modern medicalization can be traced to Jon Kabat-Zinn’s opening of Stress Reduction Program in the mid-twentieth century, which supported the spread of mindfulness to other hospital systems. Applications of mindfulness have included treatment of psychiatric conditions and burnout prevention among professionals. Due to these practices’ histories, traditional religious groups such as conservative Islam and evangelical Protestants object to their adherents’ participation. To understand these objections, the specific case of Orthodox Christianity is considered with regard to its grounds for prohibition in engaging these practices. While secular medicine assumes a state of disenchantment in these practices once uprooted from their respective traditions, this presupposition is not shared by Orthodox Christians, who would claim that their participation in secularized versions constitutes engagement with spiritual dangers. In light of these considerations, medical schools should not mandate participation in yoga or mindfulness, but instead, should focus on the biomedical implications of these practices and how physicians should interact with TCAM practitioners.

Committee:

Ryan Nash (Advisor); Matthew Vest (Committee Member); Courtney Thiele (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Medicine; Medical Ethics; Medicine; Religion

Keywords:

bioethics; yoga; conscientious objection; conscience; medicine; medical school; medical education; Orthodoxy; Eastern Orthodoxy; Christianity; religion; conscientious practice; ethics; alternative medicine; mindfulness; meditation

Abramoff, Benjamin AMeasuring Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Education and Views of Health Professionals in Pre-Licensure Students Taking an Interdisciplinary Health Education Course
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Allied Medical Professions
Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) has been proposed as a mechanism to improve interprofessional collaboration of health care workers. Although widely endorsed and employed, there has been little research using validated and reliable instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of IPE in reaching established objectives, specifically improving attitudes toward other health professionals and readiness to learn interprofessionally. Methods: Multiple cohorts of students that participated in IPE were evaluated. The sample consisted of medical, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, respiratory therapy, medical technology, dietetic, and social work students. This study consisted of two parts. The first was a retrospective survey study pre/post-IPE. The second was a prospective static comparison of medical students 2-3 years post-IPE and a set of controls who had not taken IPE. Student attitudes were evaluated using the Attitudes To Health Professional Questionnaire (AHPQ), the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS), and subjective course evaluations. Results: Students generally showed an improvement in attitudes toward other professions and viewed other professions as more Caring and less Subservient following IPE. Students also demonstrated improved readiness to interprofessional learning. Overall students enjoyed the IPE experience. Readiness diminished 2-3 years after completing IPE. Students who had participated in IPE still demonstrated greater readiness than controls. Conclusion: This study demonstrates widespread benefits of IPE in improving readiness to interprofessional education and attitudes toward other health professionals. More research is needed to investigate if these results can be replicated in non-self selected populations and whether IPE effects interprofessional collaboration and ultimately patient care.

Committee:

Deborah Larsen, PT, PhD (Advisor); Jill Clutter, PhD, MCHES (Committee Member); Beth Liston, MD, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Curriculum Development; Education; Health; Health Education; Health Sciences; Higher Education; Medicine

Keywords:

Interprofessional Education; Interprofessional; AHPQ; Attitudes to Health Professional Questionnaire; RIPLS; Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale; Health Education; Education; Interdisciplinary Education; Interdisciplinary; Medical Education

Harrison, William ThomasThe development and application of an audio tape evaluation methodology for the Arizona Dial-A-Tape medical information system /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1975, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Information storage and retrieval systems;Medical education

Hargrove, Emily J.Nutrition Knowledge and Attitude Towards Nutrition Counseling Among Osteopathic Medical Students
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Food and Nutrition Sciences (Health Sciences and Professions)
Despite the increasing emphasis on changing dietary practices to improve health, nutrition education is lacking in many healthcare training programs. Many health conditions and diseases can be minimized or managed with appropriate and adequate nutrition education. However, medical schools do not provide sufficient nutrition education to prepare future physicians to give specific dietary recommendations. This research study was designed to better understand the nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition counseling of osteopathic medical students, whose focus is on holistic medicine. The participants completed an online Qualtrics survey with a demographic questionnaire, a previous nutrition knowledge and nutrition experiences questionnaire, a nutrition knowledge multiple-choice quiz, and questions from two previously validated studies on nutrition in patient care and self-perceived proficiency in nutrition. A sample of 257 first and second year medical students (mean age = 24.8 ± 3.4 years, 53.0% female, and 79.0% white/Caucasian) completed the survey. The mean score on the nutrition knowledge quiz was 69.9% with a significant difference between first and second year students (66% vs. 74%, p < 0.001). 59% (n = 143) of students felt comfortable counseling patients on nutrition recommendations, but only 12% (n = 213) were aware of the current DRI nutrition guidelines. Qualitatively, most students noted the importance of nutrition in medical school, particularly in providing patient education, overall health and wellness, and preventing and treating disease. Despite the perceived importance of nutrition education and comfort level with counseling patients, most students lacked nutrition knowledge and information about dietary guidelines. These findings provide empirical support for the integration of more nutrition education into medical school curricula.

Committee:

Darlene Berryman (Advisor); Elizabeth Beverly (Committee Member); Jennifer Yoder (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nutrition

Keywords:

Nutrition; Medical Education; Osteopathic Medicine

Awad Scrocco, Diana LinAn Examination of the Literate Practices of Resident Physicians and Attending Physician Preceptors in a Resident-Run Internal Medicine Clinic
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
This dissertation considers resident physicians’ conversations with faculty physician preceptors and residents’ think-aloud reflections while composing chart notes to examine novice physicians’ literate practices. Using a composite of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, three studies contribute to a sociocognitive theory of resident physicians’ literate practices in a resident-run internal medicine clinic by exploring novices’ collaborative and independent literate activities. Assuming that writing and reading always involve social interaction, the analysis examines the “literate orientations” (Brandt, 1989) associated with these novices’ professional enculturation. More specifically, the first study uses institutional conversation analysis (Heritage, 2004) to examine the patterns in resident-preceptor interaction at different levels of residency training and to identify the institutional objectives in conversations about residents’ chart notes. This dissertation’s second study employs Aristotelian rhetoric to explore the argumentative structure, or topoi, used in resident-preceptor conversations to rehearse and model clinical logos and ethos. To explore the cognitive dimension of residents’ literate practices, the third study considers the rhetorical strategies residents use in their think-aloud protocol reflections while they compose chart notes in patients’ medical records. These three studies of residents’ conversations and independent reflections suggest that, from the first to the final year of residency novice physicians shift from relying on forensic rhetoric to using deliberative rhetoric; during this shift, they move from presenting concrete clinical knowledge and modeling preceptors’ suggestions to assuming clinical endoxa, or commonly accepted wisdom, while they independently contemplate nuanced concepts as more-seasoned professionals. Broadly, this dissertation’s explicit use of a rhetorical lens responds to calls by Atkinson (1995), Segal (2005), and others to employ rhetorical frameworks in studies physician-physician communication, a rarely studied area of clinical discourse. Because of the focus on literate practices, these studies also contribute to discussions of professional writing and reading and demonstrate the role of rhetoric in workplace reading, writing, and learning. Along with contributing to discussions of medical communication and professional literate practice, this dissertation offers a sociocognitive model that may facilitate teaching writing in the disciplines and medical education.

Committee:

Sara Newman, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Raymond Craig, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Pamela Takayoshi, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Timothy Gallagher, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Anthony, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Language; Linguistics; Literacy

Keywords:

medical rhetoric; medical education; institutional conversation analysis; literate practice; professional communication; classical rhetoric

Young, Adam StephenAdvancing the Human Condition: How Clinical Research Inspired and Prepared Me for Medical School
Bachelor of Science, Miami University, 2008, School of Business Administration - Finance
This thesis is, primarily, a retrospective compilation and discussion of my research performed at Nationwide Children's Hospital during the summers between my undergraduate years at Miami University. Additionally, I reflect on how the experience has influenced and affirmed my desire to pursue a career in medicine. The remarkable thing about the medical world is that it is a realm of constant learning, discovery, and innovation all set in motion for one purpose: to take advantage of the altruistic opportunities to help those in need. These are the principles that drew me to health care: values that have been reinforced during my time spent in the hospital. I would have never imagined that my initial curiosity would have matured into this deeply held appreciation for the science of medicine and how the study and mastery of this instrument can advance the human condition.

Committee:

William Shiels, II, DO (Advisor); Larry Binkovitz, MD (Advisor); Joseph Carlin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Health Care; Health Education; Radiology

Keywords:

undergraduate research; radiology; medical education; pre-medical mentorship

Harmon, Derek JosephUser Acceptance of a Novel Anatomical Sciences Mobile App for Medical Education - An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Anatomy
There continues to be a decrease in contact hours for anatomy sub-discipline instruction to medical students. Along with the change in contact hours, medical schools are transitioning from individual discipline-based courses to integrated curricula. Medical educators have attempted to counteract the decrease in time spent with the students by creating numerous electronic learning (e-learning) and mobile learning (m-learning) resources. The powerful hardware and software within mobile devices like Apple’s iPad allows developers to create intuitive, interactive and effective mobile applications (apps). Medical educators to this point have not taken advantage of the mobile technology available to create an integrated anatomy resource to supplement the integrated curricula of current medical schools. The goal of this study is to: 1) Assess the current state of mobile technology usage by medical students; 2) develop a novel integrated anatomy mobile app (i.e., 4natomy); 3) measure the acceptance and usage of the mobile app by medical students; 4) gather feedback to determine the future viability of the mobile resource. The outcomes from a group interview conducted with second year medical students within an integrated curriculum revealed that they use multiple devices while studying and are very comfortable with mobile technology. The students collectively downloaded forty-eight different mobile apps for studying purposes and gross anatomy was the discipline with the most commonly downloaded app. Students prefer anatomy apps with three-dimensional (3D) models, as well as detailed text descriptions and had a high response rate (98.3%) in regards to their interest in using an integrated anatomy app. The 4natomy mobile app of the spinal cord was developed through collaborations with computer science and digital design students to reflect responses from the focus group. The app was distributed during the neurological disorders learning block at The Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSU-COM). A post-survey was sent out following the learning block to measure acceptance and usage of the app using the technology acceptance model (TAM). The results indicate that students found the app to be useful and easy to use, predicting continued usage of the app in the future. A group interview conducted with twenty first-year medical students occurred following use of the mobile app to provide insight into future development. For future versions students requested expanding the anatomy content to cover the entire learning block, including a quiz component, integrating more clinical correlations and developing more videos and animations. A total of 95% first year medical students that participated in the final group interview sessions would like to see the app expanded to all other learning blocks. Small sample sizes and potential observer bias are limitations of the three main components of this study (i.e., both group interviews and post-survey responses). The data gathered from this study illustrates the current landscape of mobile technology used by medical students at one university and what resources they prefer to use on those devices. The results from this study provide valuable data for the continued development of mobile educational resources, specifically within the integrated medical curricula.

Committee:

John Bolte (Advisor); Jennifer Burgoon (Committee Member); Eileen Kalmar (Committee Member); Kirk McHugh (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology

Keywords:

anatomy; anatomy education; medical education; mobile learning; technology acceptance model; mobile apps; integrated curriculum

Goliath, Cheryl LynnDiffusion of an E-Portfolio to Assist in the Self-Directed Learning of Physicians: An Exploratory Study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2009, Secondary Education
Professional societies in the field of medicine have recommended that the traditional model for lifelong medical learning, which had previously focused on attendance at weeklong didactic continuing medical education (CME) courses, should be replaced by individualized study. Self-directed and practice-linked learning are well accepted in principle, but techniques that enhance their execution have not been well described as a means of obtaining CME. While there is considerable innovation underway in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education; the ultimate goal of these initiatives is to develop an electronic infrastructure that would gather experiences, outcomes and evidence of competencies appropriate to the education, practice level and daily activities of individual physicians; compile such data in relation to learning expectations and performance of other comparable learners; and present it to the individual to stimulate and guide self-assessment and self-improvement.This study examined the impact of implementing an e-portfolio system within an Internal Medicine physician practice as a means of developing a process of life-long learning and professional development for the participants. Literature describing the diffusion of innovation theory was first articulated by Rogers (1962) and for four decades this theory has played a major role in the adoption of technology. Using case study research methodology, one main research question and two sub questions were examined; How does the diffusion of an electronic educational portfolio assist physicians in the critical assessment of their professional development and why?, (1) What factors influence the adoption of technology for the purposes of self-directed learning and why?, and (2) What is the efficacy of e-portfolios as an educational strategy to assist the physicians in the development of a life-long learning plan and why? A single case study comprised of nine physicians was used to examine the factors involved when the diffusion of an e-portfolio was introduced. The participants were studied using interviews, the Stages of Concern (SoCQ) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) questionnaires, four-week trial period of I-Webfolio and field notes based upon observations during the study. The results were analyzed to identify patterns or themes that appeared. One such pattern emerged, in that; all entries in the e-portfolio were almost exclusively in the Medical Knowledge component. A theme that became apparent was that none of the physicians in the study have developed a self-directed learning plan. The results of this study suggested that adoption of technology is multifactoral and there was no consistent individual profile that predicted optimal adoption of the innovation; however, increased scores on the SDLRS would indicate that the diffusion of I-Webfolio was effective in improving the self-directed learning of the participants.

Committee:

Susan Olson, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education

Keywords:

diffusion; self-directed learning; continuing medical education

Ma, QiushaThe Rockefeller Foundation and modern medical education in China, 1915-1951
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1995, History
This study examines the Rockefeller Foundation’s medical program in China in the following contexts: (1) missionary education in China since the second half of the 19th century; (2) medical education reform and the professionalization movement in philanthropy in early 20th-century America; (3) the Chinese new intellectuals' modern reform efforts; and (4) the Chinese government᾵s political agenda. Through its medical programs, the Foundation sought to export scientific knowledge and methods in a scientific institution – the American research-based medical school. The Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) serves as a prism to study the diverse spectrum of ideas and approaches, American and Chinese, involved in the development of educational and social reform in modern China; these ideas and approaches are interpreted in their respective historical contexts, with hopes of increasing the understanding of cultural exchange programs in general. There was no single voice in the Rockefeller Foundation᾵s program in China; missionaries and American professionals were the most influential. While the missionaries inspired the Foundation᾵s interest in China, their opinion of medical science often clashed with the Foundation᾵s scientific philanthropy. On the other hand, in the early 20th century, professionals, particularly medical professionals, profoundly influenced the foundations᾵ policy-making. An international version of the Foundation᾵s domestic scientific philanthropy, the PUMC was based on the notion that science along with institutional development was a powerful dynamic for social progress and reform. The Rockefeller Foundation᾵s effort to change China intertwined with reforms promoted by key Chinese leaders. This study analyzes an important aspect of China᾵s modern reform: the development of scientific direction. The Foundation᾵s scientific approach converged with the Chinese new intellectuals᾵ campaign for science and their criticism of the old culture and traditional medicine. The PUMC was the Foundation᾵s response to certain Chinese intellectuals, most with Western educational backgrounds, who favored gradual reform and Western ideas. Through medical programs and other work, the Foundation established a mutually trusting and mutually influential relationship with this elite group. Their support of the PUMC laid a foundation for this intercultural program; however, limited knowledge of China᾵s reality and bias against Chinese rural problems circumscribed the Rockefeller Foundation᾵s perspective of China᾵s reality

Committee:

David Hammack (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Rockefeller Foundation; China, medical education

Rychener, Melissa AnneIntercultural experiential learning through international internships: the case of medical education
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Policy and Leadership
From 1971 to 2000, 2,500 medical students at The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health participated in a clinical internship program. Of these interns 231 worked in international settings and the rest participated in domestic internships. In 2002, a survey focusing on the participants’ perceptions of their intercultural sensitivity development and other aspects of the experience was mailed to all alumni of the international internship program and a stratified sample of domestic interns, yielding a return rate of 81% of the international interns and 55% of the domestic interns. Survey data was quantitative and qualitative in nature and demonstrated that international interns were significantly more likely to say that they developed intercultural sensitivity as a result of the internships than domestic interns. International interns were also more likely to demonstrate intercultural competency in medical practice in terms of their career and volunteer choices as well as their intercultural skills in working with patients from different cultural backgrounds. The study findings that international interns were more likely to demonstrate intercultural competence in medical practice may indicate that medical students who participate in an internship abroad are better suited to work with a diverse patient population in the U.S. than their peers who have less intercultural experience. The focus on intercultural sensitivity and intercultural competence in medical practice sets the current study apart from the more broadly conceptualized literature about international internships in medical education. Bringing theoretical perspectives from within and outside of medical education to bear on the study further establishes its place in this literature, which does not draw as extensively upon theory. The literature about medical education for intercultural sensitivity and intercultural competence in medical practice does not consider intercultural internships. Although internships should not take the place of this curriculum, this study confirms that internships have a place within this curriculum.

Committee:

Leonard Baird (Advisor)

Keywords:

Medical Education; International Education; Medical Internships; International Internships; Experiential Learning; Intercultural Curriculum; Intercultural Sensitivity; Intercultural Competence; DMIS

Loversidge, Jacqueline M.Faculty Perceptions of Preparation of Medical and Nursing Students for Interprofessional Collaboration
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership

The effectiveness of teams comprised of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health care providers is critical to the safe and effective delivery of health care. Teamwork is necessary in the current health care environment because patient problems and health care needs have become so complex that no single practitioner can be expected to manage them effectively alone.

A number of reports, government agencies, and private organizations have been remarking on the association between team effectiveness and patient safety for more than 20 years. The first of the Institute of Medicine reports on this topic, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, is credited with bringing the issue of patient safety to the forefront, and included the figures most often cited in discussions of health care safety issues.

Recommendations to reduce the incidence of medical error and improve the outlook have considered the many causative elements related to health care safety and effectiveness. A number of these recommendations focus on collaboration as a way to improve team effectiveness. Much of the focus has concentrated on physicians and nurses, who form the core dyad on health care teams. The body of literature on interprofessional education to improve team effectiveness is expansive, however health care systems and academic health centers continue to struggle to implement successful methods to enhance collaborative teamwork.

Health professions educational programs share the academic health center setting, but students continue to be educated in discrete and separate programs. There is usually little opportunity for learning together that provides for the makings of common ground and cross-profession understanding. The body of literature on interprofessional education is growing, however much of the literature continues to focus on practicing professionals rather than students. In addition, while faculty are the group of experts charged with educating students, they continue to be the least frequently surveyed.

To address these gaps in the literature, this qualitative study with 32 nursing and medical faculty from 3 Midwestern universities explores faculty perceptions of the preparation of pre-licensure medical and nursing students for interprofessional teamwork and collaboration with one another, and challenges related to student outcomes.

Results suggest that a number of successful curricular strategies and pedagogies used by faculty facilitate students’ learning of interprofessional collaboration. These included authentic experiential learning, as well as faculty mentoring, role modeling, and facilitated reflection. The use of simulated learning experiences, and teaching communication principles and techniques were also important. Faculty who were successful built collaborative relationships with faculty from the other profession, identified common ground between the professions, engaged students in peer learning, and engaged faculty members in cross-professions teaching. The building of interfaculty relationships, and the use of effective strategies and pedagogies helped to overcome structural and functional barriers to interprofessional education found in both the educational and clinical environments.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Committee Chair); Tatiana Suspitsyna (Committee Member); Jeffrey Ford (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Medicine; Nursing

Keywords:

Interprofessional education; nursing education; medical education; collaboration; cooperation; interprofessional teamwork

Sandiford, Janice RuthThe relationship between vocational teacher education programs and the improvement of teacher competencies in the health occupations /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1977, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Medical education;Health education

Gallagher, Charlette RaeNutrition concepts essential in the education of the medical student /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1975, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Home Economics

Keywords:

Nutrition;Medical education curricula

Knapke, Jacqueline M.Improving Physician Research Training at the University of Cincinnati: A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Evaluation
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
This study was a mixed methods interpretive phenomenology with qualitative emphasis that evaluated the Master of Science program in Clinical and Translational Research (MSCTR) at the University of Cincinnati. The purpose of the study was to allow students to articulate their expectations, needs, and experiences in the MSCTR and to develop novel training methods and/or curriculum modifications to improve physician-scholar training. The sequential study design included document review and a group level assessment in phase I, followed by interviews, participant journal entries, and a survey in phase II. Group level assessment data were analyzed using group level assessment analysis, document review, interview, and journal entry data were analyzed using a modified seven stage hermeneutic analysis, and survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings suggest five major areas for improvement: curriculum, mentorship/relationships, program structure and organization, instructional methods, and ancillary student perspectives on MSCTR experiences. Concluding recommendations from these five patterns include: update the overall curriculum, improve statistical training, invest in online courses to make them better and continue to develop new coursework for online learning, consider more creative ways of integrating both online and in-person work into the curriculum, and create a more structured mentorship program within the MSCTR program.

Committee:

Lisa Vaughn, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Melinda Butsch-Kovacic, Ph.D. M.P.H. (Committee Member); Farrah Jacquez, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

program evaluation;CTSA;mixed methods;qualitative methods;curriculum development;graduate medical education

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