Search Results (1 - 2 of 2 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Pavlic, Theodore P.Optimal Foraging Theory Revisited
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2007, Electrical Engineering
Optimal foraging theory explains adaptation via natural selection through quantitative models. Behaviors that are most likely to be favored by natural selection can be predicted by maximizing functions representing Darwinian fitness. Optimization has natural applications in engineering, and so this approach can also be used to design behaviors of engineered agents. In this thesis, we generalize ideas from optimal foraging theory to allow for its easy application to engineering design. By extending standard models and suggesting new value functions of interest, we enhance the analytical efficacy of optimal foraging theory and suggest possible optimality reasons for previously unexplained behaviors observed in nature. Finally, we develop a procedure for maximizing a class of optimization functions relevant to our general model. As designing strategies to maximize returns in a stochastic environment is effectively an optimal portfolio problem, our methods are influenced by results from modern and post-modern portfolio theory. We suggest that optimal foraging theory could benefit by injecting updated concepts from these economic areas.

Committee:

Kevin Passino (Advisor)

Keywords:

robotics; automation; autonomous vehicles; behavior; behavioral ecology; intelligent control; portfolio theory; modern portfolio theory; MPT; post-modern portfolio theory; PMPT; optimal foraging theory; OFT; optimal diet selection; predator; prey

Baig, Mariam SAerodynamics and Dysphagia
Master of Arts in Speech Pathology and Audiology, Cleveland State University, 2013, College of Sciences and Health Professions
This study investigated the influence of aerodynamic measures of Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) and the S/Z ratio on swallowing. Twelve individuals were examined, six with a diagnosis of dysphagia, and six as a control group. The study hypothesized that (1) there would be a reduced MPT in the dysphagic group compared to the control (2) there would be an S/Z ratio greater than 1.0 in the dysphagic group. The rationale for this study was that since MPT and S/Z measures are easily administered, they may prove to be useful, non-invasive, inexpensive tools to predict a patient’s potential risk for aspiration. The results showed (1) a reduction of MPT values in the dysphagic group compared to the control (2) no significant difference in S/Z ratios between groups (3) a significant decrease in duration of individual /s/ /z/ productions in the dysphagic group and (4) a significant difference in /z/ duration compared to /s/ duration was found in both the dysphagic and control groups. The results suggest that only the MPT may be a useful indicator in detecting patients who may be at risk for aspiration. Contrary to the hypothesis, the S/Z ratio is not a predictor for detecting patients who may be at risk for aspiration.

Committee:

Violet Cox, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Andrew Lammers, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Tony Sahley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Myrita Wilhite, Au.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

aerodynamics, dysphagia, MPT, SZ ratio