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AƱorga, Angel GamalielStudents’ Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Second Language Learning: Experiences in a Short-term Study Abroad
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Literacy and Second Language Studies
Short-term language study abroad programs have continued to capture the attention of college students in recent years. In an effort to measure the impact, language gain from a short-term study abroad program is measured using pre- and post-grammar-based assessments alone. Such practice takes away the essence and richness short sojourns can offer, especially as this type of assessment does not always account for those students considered to be bad test-takers. The process of language learning is, by nature, a complex task. When studying abroad, this process encompasses three main domains: the language learner, the second language, and the immersion setting. The intrinsic permeability among these domains reveals the complexity of the process of language learning abroad, particularly when the sojourn is short term. Every language learner who studies abroad is unique and experiences the language learning process at a different level. Thus, from a self-efficacy theory perspective—and to allow the voices and stories of the participants to be heard—this study implements a phenomenological case study design to gain insights into participants’ self-efficacy perceptions of their language learning abroad. Self-efficacy is identified in the literature as the central phenomenon influencing students’ achievement as well as the determining factor of students’ success during a short-term sojourn. In this study, five cases shared their stories regarding the process of learning Spanish abroad in relation to self-efficacy perceptions and beliefs. Data sources included in-depth three-way interviews, field observations, and student artifacts. Inductive analysis guided the highlight of significant statements and the creation of clusters and themes; cross-case analyses allowed for a thorough analysis and aided the in-depth description of the essence of the phenomenon at hand for each case. Several important findings related to the process of language learning during short-term sojourns emerged through themes and subthemes. Through interactions with the host family and other native speakers, the participants discovered their real language level while abroad. Coming out of their comfort zones while interacting and using Spanish abroad enabled the participants to increase their self-efficacy perceptions. The more they took part in authentic language tasks, the more participants experienced an increase in their beliefs in their abilities to learn Spanish. Future research is needed in the area of self-efficacy in order to elucidate language learners’ beliefs in their capabilities to acquire a second language abroad.

Committee:

Holly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Emilie M. Camp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brenda Refaei, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics

Keywords:

self-efficacys;self-efficacy perceptions of language learning;self-efficacy and language learning abroad;short-term language study abroad;language learning abroad;language gain in short-term language study abroad

Lyu, YeonhwanSimulations and Second / Foreign Language Learning: Improving communication skills through simulations
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2006, English (as a Second Language)
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the current trend of second/foreign language learning. CLT has contributed to moving the focus from the forms of language to communication. However, it only changes the context and contents of lessons, focusing still on teaching “language” rather than teaching how to communicate. Language exists only in our mental domain; it does not exist in the physical domain (Yngve, 1996). Thus, our focus should be on learning/teaching how to communicate in a target speech community. This research re-examines the general notion of CLT and comprehensible input within a real-world perspective based on Yngve’s (1996) theory of Hard Science Linguistics. The main discussion of this research is the use of simulations in classrooms concerning learning/teaching how to communicate in the target speech community. Simulations can offer efficient and effective learning in the classrooms while providing naturalistic environments, which maximize the opportunities of creating real communication in EFL classrooms. The discussion presented here about simulations in language learning/teaching is based on Jones’ (1982) view. The research presented here explores the use of simulations in the classrooms with the aim of helping learners of EFL to improve their communicative ability.

Committee:

Douglas Coleman (Advisor)

Keywords:

Simulation; Simulation for Language Classroom; Language Learning / Teaching; Second / foreign Language Learning / Teaching; Human Linguistics; Hard Science Linguistics; comphrehensible input; Real-world Communication

Korslund, Stephanie L.Does Practice Match Perception? An Examination of Instructors’ Espousal and Enactment of CALL in the Second Language Classroom
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Instructional Technology (Education)
The purpose of this research was to better understand instructors’ espousal and enactment of technology for teaching English as a second language and how their espousal aligned with their enactment. Six instructors from one intensive English program participated in interviews and observations. Key personnel and students provided additional information on instructors’ integration of technology through interviews and a questionnaire, respectively. Results of the study show that instructors’ definitions of technology influenced the way they integrated technology into their language courses. Instructors’ perceived technology as being beneficial to their teaching practices with all of the instructors having been observed integrating technology into their courses in some way. Findings indicated instructors’ espousal and enactment of technology integration in general were in alignment with their definitions of technology and their integration of technology. However, one key difference was noted. While instructors espoused student-centered teaching philosophies, discussing how technology integration could facilitate such philosophies, most instructors’ integration of technology was more aligned with teacher-centered practices. Future studies should consider examining further instructors’ espousal and enactment of technology integration with regard to their teaching philosophies. The current study examined instructors in only one intensive English program. In order to better understand instructor espousal and enactment of technology integration in the English as a second language classroom, future research should explore this research in other English as a second/ foreign language contexts.

Committee:

David Moore (Advisor); Teresa Franklin (Committee Member); Greg Kessler (Committee Member); Danielle Dani (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Technology; English As A Second Language; Linguistics

Keywords:

Computer Assisted Language Learning; Espousal of Technology; Enactment of Technology; Intensive English Program; Second Language Learning

Itayem, Ghada AUsing the iPad in Language Learning: Perceptions of College Students
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, College of Languages, Literature, and Social Sciences
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating one of the innovative technologies, the iPad, into the learning-teaching process to enhance students' academic success in different educational contexts. However, there are a number of factors that may influence the students' choice whether or not to use the iPad. Therefore, assessing the students' behavioral intentions towards using the iPad is necessary. Accordingly, this paper examines students' behavioral intentions towards using the iPad in their language learning courses through utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model of Davis (1989). Twenty five undergraduate student participants completed the iPad-usage questionnaire to measure their perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), attitude towards usage (ATU), and behavioral intention to use the iPad (BIU) in their integrated language learning courses (reading, writing, listening, and speaking). The results of the study indicated that students' perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the iPad positively predicted the students' attitudes towards using the iPad and their behavioral intentions to use it in their language classes and other contexts.

Committee:

Douglas Coleman, PhD (Committee Chair); An Chung Cheng, PhD (Committee Member); Gaby Semaan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Educational Technology; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Modern Language

Keywords:

Technology Acceptance Model TAM; iPad in Language Learning; Perceptions of Students; technology and second language acquisition; iBooks; iTunes U; learning in the brain; media; Computer-Mediated-Communications; Mobile Language Learning MLL; CALL

Hernandez, Lauren KristinePhonological Processes in English Sentences Produced by Adult Native Speakers of Spanish
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2016, Speech Pathology and Audiology
The present study examines the phonological processes observed in English sentences of five adult ELLs who are native speakers of Spanish. Additionally, similarities of phonological process occurrence are compared between typically developing children (monolingual English and bilingual Spanish-English) and adult Spanish-speaking ELLs with respect to type and frequency. The purpose of this study is to understand the parallels between monolingual and bilingual phonological development compared to an adult ELL’s acquisition of the Spanish sound system. The knowledge gained from this study will provide the basis for further investigations to improve the efficacy of speech therapy and training for adult ELLs.

Committee:

Franklin Amber, Dr. (Advisor); Timler Geralyn, Dr. (Committee Member); Shield Aaron, Dr. (Committee Member); del-Teso-Craviotto Marisol, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Speech Therapy

Keywords:

accent modification; phonology; second language learning; Spanish

Blaurock, Colleen A.Skype™: A Portal Into the 21st Century in a Secondary Spanish Classroom
PHD, Kent State University, 2011, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of this research study was to examine the experience of the high school students’ use of synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) as they learn a second language. Six high school Non-Native Speakers (NNSs) of Spanish were paired with six middle school Native Speakers (NSs) of Spanish. The study addressed the primary research question, “How do Novice Non-Native Speakers (NNSs) who are learning Spanish in a Midwestern high school experience synchronous video chatting with middle school Native Speakers (NSs) of Spanish from a neighboring community?” These six NNS/NS dyads met once a week for twelve weeks. The students communicated through Skype, a free online communication application, to complete various communicative tasks. Data from interviews, student journals, teacher journal and videos were gathered and analyzed. Three findings emerged from the data: 1) the students experienced a variety of feelings that evolved over the course of the study, and these feelings were tied to their relationships with their NS partners and their own knowledge of the second language, 2) the students acquired the second language by taking ownership of their own learning and by using specific learning strategies, and 3) the students developed relationships with their NS partners that contributed to their feelings about the project and to their second language acquisition. All of the findings were interconnected.

Committee:

Alicia Crowe, PhD (Committee Chair); Todd Hawley, PhD (Committee Member); Sarah Rilling, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Bilingual Education; Communication; Education; Educational Technology; Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics; Modern Language; Teaching

Keywords:

synchronous CMC; language learning; second language acquisition; Native Speakers; Skype; Tandem Learning; Authentic Learning

Boyd, Adriane AmeliaDetecting and Diagnosing Grammatical Errors for Beginning Learners of German: From Learner Corpus Annotation to Constraint Satisfaction Problems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Linguistics
This thesis presents a corpus of beginning learner German with a reliable error annotation scheme and an approach for detecting and diagnosing grammatical errors in learner language. A constraint-based dependency parser provides the foundation for a flexible and modular analysis of German by representing parsing as a constraint satisfaction problem. The grammar checker, Fledgling, detects and diagnoses errors using constraint relaxation with a general-purpose conflict detection algorithm. Fledgling is developed and evaluated using authentic learner productions from the learner corpus. It judges grammaticality correctly for 80% of sentences and is 82-91% accurate in determining whether a sentence contains selection, agreement, or word order errors.

Committee:

Walt Detmar Meurers, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Michael White, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Kathryn Corl, PhD (Committee Member); William Schuler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Linguistics

Keywords:

learner corpus; grammar checking; natural language processing; constraint satisfaction problem; intelligent computer-aided language learning

Lee, Eun-JoExploring L2 Writing Strategies from a Socio-cognitive Perspective: Mediated Actions, Goals, and Setting in L2 Writing
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Teaching and Learning

L2 learners strategically and actively engage in their writing tasks while interacting with various available resources, including their learning goals and histories. The current study examined mediated actions in the writing of college-level Korean as a foreign language (KFL) students and re-conceptualized L2 writing strategies from a socio-cognitive perspective, particularly drawing on Engestrom’s (1999) Activity Theory, and the notions of mediation and agency. An important frame of reference was Lei’s study (2008) that examined English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ writing strategies from the activity theoretical perspective. That study motivated me to explore similar issues in a different context, the KFL context. This qualitative comparative case study looked at the writing engagement of five KFL students taking an intermediate-level Korean course for an entire academic quarter running 10 weeks.

Using various sources of data (e.g., interviews, stimulated recall protocols, process logs, observations, writing autobiography, and students’ writing assignments), I categorized mediated strategies into four broad types and thirteen smaller ones: (1) artifact-mediated (the Internet-, native language (L1)-, and target language (L2)-mediated), (2) rule-mediated (self-constructed rules-, good writing criteria-, plagiarism rule-, and time-mediated), (3) community-mediated (native speaker-, prior experience- (foreign language learning, study-abroad, & L1 writing experiences), classroom community-, and imagined community-mediated), and (4) role-mediated (author- and language learner-mediated) strategies. The findings corroborated the claim that L2 writing is a mediated activity occurring from interactions of learners and environment: the learners’ interactions with the environmental mediators were themselves an important component of L2 writing processes. Also, the study found that the KFL learners’ strategic and agentive selection of the resources was strongly related to the fulfillment of their goals. The multicultural learners’ different goals, including long-term goals, learning histories, and cultural backgrounds (heritage vs. non-heritage) necessarily caused individual differences in terms of mediated actions, engagement with the assigned writing tasks.

The study revealed several mediators that merit our attention within the context of KFL, among which the most important ones that impacted on the KFL learners’ writing processes were the imagined community and plagiarism. The findings imply that the KFL programs will need to provide information regarding communities that learners can possibly participate in and offer systematic instruction on plagiarism, including writing practices with models or paraphrasing or rewriting practices. For this study, Engestrom’s Activity Theory (1999) was useful to explain learners’ social processes interrelated with their cognitive processes, interactions and contradictions between the mediated-strategies, and the learners’ creating processes of mediators. As also revealed in Lei’s study (2008), Activity Theory seems to have considerable value as an analytical tool in the L2 writing context.

Committee:

Alan Hirvela, PhD (Advisor); Leslie Moore, PhD (Committee Member); Chan Park, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language

Keywords:

second language writing; writing strategy; foreign language learning; LCTLs; L2 writing; Activity Theory; Socio-cognitive perspective on learning; Sociocultural theory

Szabo, Anita MStudents’ Task-related Perceptions and Task Engagement in the ESL Classroom through Qualitative Lenses
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Literacy and Second Language Studies
The study investigated students’ task-related perceptions, motivation, and engagement at a college-level ESL language classroom. Informed by cognitive motivation theories that connect perceptions and behavior, the study explored students’ task perceptions from a motivational perspective. The study used qualitative methodology to counterbalance the dominance of deductive, quantitative research in the field and to examine students’ task-related perceptions, motivation, and engagement in the context of an actual language classroom. Data were collected from 10 student interviews, three focus group sessions, and 15 classroom observations during a period of three academic semesters. Data analysis was inductive, allowing themes and patterns to emerge from the data. In the final analysis, the emerging themes, patterns, and relationships were analyzed and contrasted with existing motivational frameworks. Results indicate that students tend to think about language learning tasks in terms of distinguishable categories. These categories are intricately connected to each other, to motivation, and to motivated behaviors in the classroom. Although the emerging patterns from the study are tentative and need further empirical confirmation, they could contribute to the work on conceptualizing task-motivation in the language learning classroom. The findings also inform classroom practice, confirming and complementing existing motivational strategies in the pedagogical literature.

Committee:

Mary Benedetti, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Susan Watts Taffe, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Cathryn Crosby, Ph.D. (Committee Member); James Koschoreck, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

English As A Second Language

Keywords:

language learning;education;task;perceptions;engagement;motivation

Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie I.Collaborative Writing and Individual Writing: Improving Writing in an L2 Class
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Linguistics (Arts and Sciences)
This research study reports on a mixed-methods study about potential learning gains with collaborative writing using web-based word processing software (Google Documents). It seeks to determine whether web-based collaborative writing helps English language learners improve their individual writing scores. Participants were 59 learners in a large Midwestern university in a fundamental writing skills class. The study examines if the experimental group students, after completing four in-class collaborative assignments, achieve better gain scores than the control group, which completed four in-class individual writing assignments. Qualitative data explores teacher and student attitudes towards web-based collaborative writing as well as class observation data. The findings of the study show that learners of the experimental group showed better mean score gains than learners of the control group. Data also indicates that the overall attitude towards in-class collaborative writing was positive among learners and teachers.

Committee:

Greg Kessler, Dr. (Committee Chair); Dawn Bikowski, Dr. (Committee Member); Abraham Reshad, Mr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Language; Linguistics

Keywords:

collaborative writing; second language writing; computer assisted language learning; Google Documents

Kessler, GregComputer Assisted Language Learning Within Masters Programs for Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2005, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)

This study was conducted to evaluate the perception of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) within Teacher of English to speaker of other languages masters degree programs. Two groups evaluated hypothetical masters program’s of study: one including CALL coursework and an identical program without CALL coursework. The literature reveals little about the extent, focus, and perception of such training. The study also identified the contribution of formal CALL teacher preparation and informal CALL teacher preparation upon attitude toward technology through use of a multiple regression test. Finally, a paired samples t-test was conducted to compare the values of formal CALL teaching preparation and informal CALL teaching preparation.

A web-based survey was completed by 108 graduates of Teacher of English to speakers of other languages masters degree programs. The data reveal that there is a significant difference in rating of the hypothetical programs reflecting a significant preference for the program which included CALL. The study also concluded that informal CALL teaching preparation contributes to attitude toward technology while formal CALL teaching preparation does not. Further it appears from other data collection that most of what people attribute to their knowledge of CALL is based upon personal experience. The literature suggests that reliance upon this kind of preparation may not best serve pedagogical needs due to distinctions between personal and pedagogical use.

A number of additional observations were made based upon individual questions and demographic information. Among these, attitude toward technology was rated extremely high, suggesting that the teacher of English to speakers of other languages professionals are very technologically confident.

The formal CALL training evaluation does not seem to differ among decades of graduation among respondents: 1965-1975, 1976-1985, 1986-1995, 1996-2005. Respondents felt their informal CALL preparation was more effective at preparing them to make decisions regarding the use of CALL. Respondents were more confident using technology for instruction than creating technology-based materials. Respondents were more confident using internet related materials for instruction than multimedia. They were least confident using audio and video related materials and teaching speaking through the use of CALL.

Committee:

Teresa Franklin (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Technology

Keywords:

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL); Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL); Instructional Technology (IT); English as a Second Language (ESL)

Li Chun, Sylvianne Fei-AiA History of the Education of the Chinese in Hawaii
Master of Arts, Oberlin College, 1940, Education

In the transplanting of any race or people, a period of acclimatization by the process of natural or formal education must inevitably ensue if that group wishes to survive both mentally and spiritually; and in many cases physically.

In any community a human, in order to make himself agreeable and useful, must learn to cooperate with his or hers neighbors. This is usually accomplished by first learning the language of one's country of adoption, then to learn the philosophy of the inhabitants already established there, and finally to apply one's self diligently by industry and perseverance to occupation.

The Chinese in Hawaii have shown their ability in adapting themselves to American ways and learning, and have succeeded in making themselves amongst the most powerful and progressive forces in the educational and economic life of the Islands.

Since economic development is a factor which influences the educational opportunities of the state, this thesis will attempt to treat the progress of the Chinese in industry, commerce and the professions in their relation to the cultural and educational progress which is co-relative to the former.

Committee:

(Advisor)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Education; Education History

Keywords:

Hawaii;Chinese;history;education;language;learning;

Shepherd, Eric ToddA pedagogy of storytelling based on Chinese storytelling traditions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, East Asian Languages and Literatures
This dissertation is an historical ethnographic study of the Shandong kuaishu (ɽ¶«¿ìÊé) storytelling tradition and an ethnographic account of the folk pedagogy of Wu Yanguo, one professional practitioner of the tradition. At times, the intention is to record, describe and analyze the oral tradition of Shandong kuaishu, which has not been recorded in detail in English language scholarly literature. At other times, the purpose is to develop a pedagogical model informed by the experiences and transmission techniques of the community of study. The ultimate goal is to use the knowledge and experience gained in this study to advance our understanding of and ability to achieve advanced levels of Chinese language proficiency and cultural competence. Through a combination of the knowledge gained from written sources, participant observation, and first-hand performance of Shandong kuaishu, this dissertation shows that complex performances of segments of Chinese culture drawn from everyday life can be constructed through a regimen of performance based training. It is intended to serve as one training model that leads to the development of sophisticated cultural competence.

Committee:

Galal Walker (Advisor)

Keywords:

Chinese language; Chinese culture; language pedagogy; storytelling; oral traditions; folklore; cultural anthropology; ethnography; second language acquisition; foreign language learning; East Asian languages; qu yi; Shandong Province; Shandong kuai shu

Rocha, Josiany SallesTranslation and Perspective Taking in the Second Language Classroom
MA, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
Research about translation as a learning tool and how it can help learners become aware and adjust to the perspective encoded in a second language is lacking in the literature. This study investigated whether translation helps learners acquire the perspective (different ways of seeing the world) encoded in a second language and thus communicate more effectively. Writings of native and non-native speakers were compared by means of an ANOVA test to see how they differed among each other before and after practice on how to write descriptions. In order to operationalize the concept of perspective and allow for assessment of the value of translation as a learning technique, the descriptions were analyzed with respect to information organization at the clause level in accordance with thematic structure as proposed by functional grammarians. Two groups of non-native speakers practiced how to write descriptions. The control group practiced writing descriptions by means of techniques currently used in second language teaching, while the experimental group’s practice was based on translation assignments. The study demonstrated that the experimental group proved to adjust to native-like ways of writing descriptions and thus to the perspective encoded in the second language, while the control group stayed basically the same. In addition, surveys were carried out to investigate learners’ opinions about the use of translation in the second language classroom. The results show that, generally speaking, learners have a positive view on the use of translation as a learning tool in the second language classroom.

Committee:

Klaus Gommlich, PhD (Advisor); Karl Uhrig, PhD (Committee Member); Kristen Precht, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Teaching

Keywords:

second language teaching; second language learning; translation; perspective taking

Cooper, AdamCo-Teaching Science Courses for English Language Learners
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Literacy and Second Language Studies
ABSTRACT A history of co-teaching research in English as a Second Language and Special Education has identified prerequisite conditions necessary for successful co-teaching, such as administrative supports and parity, however the field has failed to move much beyond this initial level of support. With the current demand to use evidence-based practices, practitioners utilizing a co-teaching methodology need evidence supported by student outcome data and measurable accountability. To begin this study, prerequisite conditions were used to identify three co-teaching dyads in one urban fringe middle school, each consisting of one science teacher and one ESL educator at the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade level. Each dyad possessed a unique set of prerequisite conditions. They participated in a six-month Participatory Action Research (PAR) project focused on improving implementation of co-teaching models, as well as developing outcomes for instructional practice. Success was measured by tracking efforts to reach self-identified goals. Participants’ contributions were recorded with digital audio and written notes by the researcher, who served as a professional development facilitator. Coding of classroom observations and co-planning meetings revealed the potential for intensive professional development with embedded support, indicators of necessary prerequisite conditions, as well as attainable goals for teachers’ instructional design and student performance. co-teaching, content-based language learning, Participatory Action Research, sheltered instruction, Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), ESL program design

Committee:

Stephen Kroeger, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Anne Bauer, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Gulbaha Beckett, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Chester Laine|, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

English As A Second Language

Keywords:

co-teaching;content based language learning;Participatory Action Research;sheltered instruction;Systemic Functional Linguistics;program design

Hosseini, SaeidehIranian Immigrant Women’s Gender Identities, Agency, and Investment in Second Language Learning
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian women’s gendered identities and language learning through the theoretical frameworks of feminist poststructuralism of gender and language, imagined communities, and communities of practice. Additionally, these theoretical constructs were linked to the concepts of agency and investment in second language learning. This qualitative study aimed at answering the following research questions: 1. How do the Iranian immigrant women’ imagined communities and gender identities affect their investment in second language learning before coming to the United States? 2. How do these women view their positions as Iranian immigrant women in the current communities of practice in the United States? 3. Do the imagined communities they formed before coming to the United States match the realities of the current communities of practice? 4. In what ways do these women’s present perceptions of being a woman affected their adoption of agentive roles for participation or nonparticipation in the United States communities of practice, and investment in second language learning? 5. How do these women’s present imagined communities and gender identities shape their decisions about future participation in the United States communities of practice and investment in second language learning? For the research design of the present study, Seidman’s (2013) three-series interview method was utilized to capture these women’s past, present, and future life perceptions regarding their gender positioning and second language learning trajectories. The data obtained from the interviews were coded, thematically analyzed, and compared to answer the research questions of the study. The findings of the study revealed that although most of these Iranian immigrant women achieved higher academic and social statuses after their immigration to the United States, their journeys, both in their homeland, Iran, and in the United States, were not easy. In each of these contexts, they underwent various either gender or gender and racial discriminations. As the results of the study further displayed, such ambivalent positions in the American communities of practice had both positive and negative impacts on their second language learning trajectories. Those women who were marginalized due to their Iranian and immigrant identities invested less in second language learning. However, those participants whose language skills were not remarkable, perceived knowing English as the only way to gain the entry into the communities of the American society. The results further indicated that for those interviewees who had already been proficient in the English language before immigrating to the United States, knowing the language could not facilitate their access to the communities of practice. These women reported the most marginalization instances they experienced in the United States. The study provided some insights for the ESL educators to consider the unequal discourse of the host societies as a powerful hindrance to immigrants’ socialization and language learning in a new culture. Knowing the language of the host community is not a guarantee to cross the threshold of the target communities of practice. As a matter of fact, the knowledge of the language can be an enlightening tool for understanding the hidden racism and antiimmigrant discourse of a society or a region. Having known the target language, the proficient language speakers had the confidence in their linguistic abilities to gain the full membership of the native speakers’ communities. However, they lost their initiatives as they confronted the unequal power structures which marginalized these immigrants due to their nationality and race.

Committee:

Ginger Weade (Committee Chair); Ludmila Marchenkova (Committee Member); Adah Ward Randolph (Committee Member); Eugene Giest (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Foreign Language; Middle Eastern Studies; Sociolinguistics; Teacher Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Gender Identity; women; Immigration; Agency; Investment in Second Language Learning; Community of Practice; Imagined Community

Amaral, Luiz ADesigning intelligent language tutoring systems for integration into foreign language instruction
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Spanish and Portuguese
Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) is a multidisciplinary area of research that combines Natural Language Processing (NLP), Intelligent Tutoring System development, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and Foreign Language Teaching and Learning. So far, most of the work done in ICALL has primarily focused on the development of NLP technology for error diagnosis, and very few systems have been fully implemented to the point where they could be used in an existing foreign language program. The work presented here proposes to develop an ICALL system focusing primarily on the needs of foreign language students and instructors. The research project started with a survey with foreign language instructors on how ICALL could support their everyday practice. The survey was followed by an analysis of the capabilities of NLP technology, and a study on how some of the NLP tools could be used to produce a system that presented activities which could be incorporated into actual language programs. The final step was to develop a system that provides intelligent feedback following the pedagogical principles outlined. The specific context of the study was the Portuguese Individualized Instruction Program (IIP) at the Ohio State University. The main research contribution of the project is to show one way NLP technology can be used to cope with the real needs of language learners following precise pedagogical specifications. The concrete contribution of this research is an intelligent electronic workbook that is currently being used by IIP students. The overall contribution of the project is to take a concrete step in the direction of bridging the gap between the development of NLP technology for ICALL and the actual use of such technology in real life foreign language programs.

Committee:

John Grinstead (Advisor)

Keywords:

Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL); Foreign Language Instruction; Natural Language Processing; Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems

Vitanova, GerganaGender and Agency Practices in a Second Language
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Education : Literacy
This two-year qualitative inquiry examines the everyday language practices of four East European couples acquiring English as a second language in the United States. The participants were highly educated in their home countries. Two of the couples were in their late forties and early fifties, and the two younger couples were in their mid-to-late twenties. Gender and agency are the two focal issues of this project. The researcher was interested in how these two categories were discursively constructed in the learners' lived experiences. Challenging humanistic approaches to agency, which treat the individual as an independent social actor, the study offers an alternative, Bakhtinian perspective. This framework of agency emphasizes the dialogic nature of the self, and involves a creative, responsive understanding of one's socio-cultural realities. In becoming speaking agents, the female and male participants voiced different discourses, and, in this sense, their agencies were gendered. In authoring themselves, for example, the women adopted discourses of emotions, responsibility, and formal, studial approaches to learning. However, the women's emotional discourses were not interpreted as vulnerability. Rather, they were expressions of agency. The project illuminates how these immigrants author themselves in the second language through negotiating their positions in the L2. The primacy of language in this process is emphasized throughout the project. Of particular significance to this study is that the learners' agencies are embedded in everyday, seemingly mundane language practices. The negotiation of power between the self and the Other is located within discourse. Thus, the author recommends that teachers should raise their students' consciousness of how discourse positions them in the L2 social contexts. She also suggests that language researchers should abandon the traditional view of affective characteristics (anxiety, self-esteem, attitudes) as restricted to the learner. Feelings play a key role in analyzing one's social position and in language learning, but they are not "individual." They originate in the dialogic interplay between speakers and discourses. Finally, by linking two theoretical frameworks-feminist poststructuralism and Bakhtin's view of language and subjectivity-the study also traces a trajectory for our pedagogic work in classrooms and immigrant communities.

Committee:

Dr. Deborah Hicks (Advisor)

Keywords:

gender; agency; second language learning; discursive; East European immigrants

Spivey, Kaleena CheyenneWritten Corrective Feedback in ESL: Strategies, Approaches, Influences, and Factors
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, College of Languages, Literature, and Social Sciences
This study looks at the factors that influence ESL writing instructor’s feedback practices. Interviews were conducted with five participants who are currently ESL writing instructors. A variety of questions were asked about their current feedback practices, personal preferences, potential influences on their feedback practices, specific situations for giving feedback, and workload.

Committee:

Melinda Reichelt (Committee Chair); Anthony Edgington (Committee Member); Barbara Schneider (Committee Member)

Subjects:

English As A Second Language

Keywords:

English as a Second Language; Written Corrective Feedback; Corrective Feedback; Second Language Learning

Ahmed, Areej A.The Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Instruction for Reading Intervention on Reading Comprehension and On-task Behavior of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders in a Second Language Classroom
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on college students’ on-task behavior, and reading comprehension levels who were diagnosed with ADHD in a second language classroom. In addition, a control group of college students without ADHD enrolled in the same second language class were also studied. The purpose of the control group was to determine whether or not students with ADHD achieved the same level of on-task behavior and reading comprehension as students without ADHD through the use of computer-assisted instruction. Moreover, this study investigated participants' perceptions of using CAI to aid in second language learning. The results showed a significant impact of computer assisted instruction as a reading intervention on students’ on-task behavior as well as reading comprehension. Furthermore, interviews with participants revealed positive perceptions regarding the use of technology for college students with ADHD in a second language classroom.

Committee:

Dianne Gut, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Language; Special Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

ADHD; second language learning; reading comprehension;Computer-Assisted Instruction; college students with ADHD; On-task behavior

Mose, Patrick O.A Phenomenological Study of Learner Autonomy in Less Commonly Taught Languages (Swahili)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Instructional Technology (Education)
Learner autonomy is a fundamental phenomenon in the teaching and learning of languages. The growth of digital technology and the Internet appears to have changed the manifestation of learner autonomy, particularly in Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs). The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to examine the experiences of LCTL instructors and students by discussing how LCTL instructors and students describe the phenomenon of learner autonomy, investigating what strategies are perceived to promote learner autonomy in LCTLs and report on how to create more opportunities for promoting learner autonomy. The researcher applied a qualitative phenomenological approach to gather and analyze data through memoing and interviewing nine participants. Three themes emerged from the data: description of learner autonomy; authentic language-learning experiences; and strategies for promoting learner autonomy. Overall, motivation, authentic experiences, and use of technology were identified to play a vital role in promoting learner autonomy. Data generated from this study lead to recommendations for utilizing personalized instructional design principles for learning that allows language learners to collaborate using technology tools that promote engagement, create an authentic language-learning environment for language learners, and exploiting iPedagogy opportunities presented by the 21st century technological tools that foster autonomy and encourage learner control.

Committee:

David Moore, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Bilingual Education; Educational Technology; Instructional Design; Language; Linguistics; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Learner Autonomy; Less Commonly Taught Languages; Computer Assisted Language Learning; Twenty-first century Learning; Collaboration; Language Pedagogy; Swahili Language; Personalized Learning; Authentic Learning Experience; Motivation; Digital tools

Blanco, HaroldA CASE STUDY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING IN A MULTIMEDIA SPANISH CLASS ENVIRONMENT IN AN UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Instructional Technology (Education)

This dissertation presents a case study that identifies, describes, and reports student experiences with language learning in a multimedia Spanish class for Upward Bound students at Marshall University, as well as the meaning students give to such experiences. The study involved 20, 10th-12th grade students from five different high schools in three different counties in southern West Virginia. Students in the six-week summer program chose to take Spanish as one of their elective classes and agreed to participate in the study. The multimedia class consisted of nine learning modules in elementary Spanish designed, hosted, and delivered using Marshall University’s WebCT-Vista. The class presented the students with a package of materials that included combinations of texts, graphics, still images, animation, video, and audio as they used the newly learned material to actively communicate in a meaningful way with each other, the researcher, and more importantly, other individuals online that could be anywhere in the world. Findings of this study indicated the experiences of the students in the multimedia language learning environment were not limited to experiences interacting with a computer alone. In addition, the curriculum, the interaction among students, the technology implemented, and the theoretical base (constructivism, learning with media, and the communicative approach to language learning) behind these experiences were important components of the learning environment and the meanings derived from it. Students’ experiences and meaning seem to indicating that in many cases, multimedia instruction enhances language learning and that low domain knowledge and/or motivation can be improved with usage of a multimedia environment. According to the students’ responses, there is evidence that suggests a match between multimedia and improved learning in the field of foreign language instruction. Students described their experiences with the class as dynamic, independent, self-paced, relaxed, exciting, and hands-on. Most students described their learning experiences as unexpectedly good, challenging, fun, meaningful, and very well worth the time and effort. The findings of this study yielded several recommendations for the Upward Bound Program, the field of multimedia language learning, and recommendations for future research. The recommendations include implementing a curriculum that combines discussions, collaboration, hands-on activities, communicative initiatives, higher level of thinking, and independence with a multimedia format that provides a multi-sensory approach and delivery. The study also recommends that schools that lag behind in technology, especially those serving minorities and the poor, follow the lead of schools that have moved rapidly to a fairly ever-present use of technology. It also recommends that more research should be completed using this format in other subjects, grade levels, and populations providing a better understanding of the use of multimedia in education.

Committee:

Teresa Franklin (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Technology

Keywords:

Multimedia Education; Language Learning; CALL; Upward Bound; TRIO; Foreign Language instruction

Wang, ChuangSelf-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs of children learning English as a second language
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Theory and Practice
This is a qualitative case study to investigate elementary school children’s self-efficacy beliefs and use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies in the process of learning English as a second language. Drawing upon the social cognitive and sociocultural perspectives of self-regulation, recent studies of students’ self-efficacy beliefs, and language learners’ willingness to communicate, this study provides a “thick description” of four Chinese children’s behaviors associated with self-efficacy beliefs and their strategy use across home-based and school-based contexts. Participants reported self-efficacy beliefs across a variety of language-learning tasks in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This study suggests that self-efficacy is a task-specific construct. Each child’s self-efficacy varies across specific tasks and across home-based and school-based language-learning contexts. All participants in this study reported higher self-efficacy to complete listening and speaking language activities than reading and writing activities. Sources of the children’s self-efficacy were also explored. The participants’ self-efficacy beliefs were associated with their expertise in the content area, self-perceptions of English proficiency level, task difficulty level, social persuasion, physiological or emotional state, interest, attitude toward the English language and the English speaking community, and the social and cultural context. Nearly all 14 classes of the SRL strategies developed by Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986) were reported. Students reported more strategies in reading than writing. The most commonly used SRL strategies employed by all the participants were seeking social assistance, seeking information, reviewing records, and environmental structuring. These findings have extended scholarly work on children’s self-efficacy beliefs and their use of language-learning strategies in the context of second language acquisition. The implications of this study also extend to language classroom teaching since teachers may better understand their students’ self-efficacy and the impact of self-efficacy based on this study. They may incorporate SRL strategies specific to second language learning in the curriculum and enhance students’ self-efficacy beliefs by providing accurate and continuous feedback to the students.

Committee:

Stephen Pape (Advisor)

Keywords:

self-regulation; self-efficacy; willingness to communicate; language learning strategies; English as a second language

Greenberg, TaliaThe Complicated Relationship Between Music and Foreign Language Learning: Nuanced Conditions Required for Cognitive Benefits Due to Music
BA, Oberlin College, 2015, Psychology
Many people enjoy listening to music while they study, but others find music distracting. Research about the effect of music on performance during a cognitive task mirrors the equivocal nature of this subjective debate. Across 3 experiments, music, either in the background or as an active encoding device, was found to have no effect on foreign language learning. In Experiment 1, participants studied foreign language vocabulary in silence, while listening to instrumental music, or while listening to music with lyrics. There was no effect of music on recall at immediate (p = .52) or delayed testing (p = .80). Participants in Experiments 2 and 3 listened to and then repeated foreign language phrases by speaking or singing them aloud. No significant differences were found in recall for phrases learned by singing and for phrases learned by speaking (p = .827). Experiment 3 assessed whether using a self-composed melody as a musical mnemonic device was more effective than singing a given melody in learning foreign language phrases. Recall for foreign language phrases sung to given melodies was not significantly different than recall for phrases sung to self-composed melodies at any retention interval (all p-values > .50). Despite finding only null results, this research sheds light on the question of when music may be successfully employed to enhance learning and suggests that familiarity of the music and difficulty of the learning task may be important factors.

Committee:

Patricia deWinstanley (Advisor); Nancy Darling (Advisor); Paul Thibodeau (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Educational Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Foreign Language; Language; Music; Music Education; Pedagogy; Psychology; Teaching

Keywords:

Verbal Memory;Foreign Language Learning;Speaking;Singing;Composing;Listening;Background Music;Psycholinguistics;Language Pedagogy;Mnemonic Device;Encoding Specificity Principle;Generation Effect;Cognitive Load;

Lewis, Michelle E.What Personal, Professional, and Contextual Characteristics of Ohio Elementary Principals Influence Their View of FLES (Foreign Language in Elementary School) Programming?
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2016, Educational Administration (Education)
Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) programs in the United States are not flourishing, nor are their middle- and high-school counterparts. The current global recession has imposed marginal decreases on school funding and has thus influenced curriculum decisions to cut back on such perceived frills as foreign language (FL) instruction. Since FL is not part of high-stakes testing, it remains as an extra on the periphery of curriculum, no matter how crucial it might be culturally, intellectually, and perhaps therefore politically and economically. Kindergarten through twelfth grade administrators appear to be in a unique position to shed light on the American foreign language dilemma, as they are in trenches daily with students and teachers and are involved in curriculum and policy decisions. A survey instrument was sent to all of the public school elementary principals in Ohio. Surveys were successfully delivered to 1427 principals. Although 103 survey responses were received, only 95 were complete and used for data analysis, resulting in a 6.66% response rate. The first step in examining the data involved calculating descriptive statistics for each item in the instrument. Next, a regression analysis was used to determine if there was a relationship between the independent variables (personal and contextual) and the dependent variable, principals’ attitudes toward FLES. The regression analysis included nine independent and covariate variables. They are the value of FL and the importance of FL when compared against the covariates of gender, ethnicity, number of years as a principal, number of years as a teacher, the participants’ status as being bilingual or multilingual, the number of FLs studied by the participants, and whether the participants’ schools have a FLES program. The study’s findings indicated that Ohio elementary principals do perceive FLES programs favorably. None of the demographic information individually proved to be important to the perception of FLES programs. Attitude regarding FL proved to be significant in the findings. The two influencing factors that contributed to the manner that the participating principals expressed positivity toward FLES programming pertained to the manner that they valued FL and their perceptions of the importance of FL.

Committee:

Willilam Larson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Robert Robison, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Emilia Alonso-Sameno, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Charles Lowery, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Education; Educational Leadership; Elementary Education; Foreign Language; Language; Pedagogy

Keywords:

Foreign Language in Elementary School; FLES; foreign language; elementary principal; attitude toward foreign language; American monolingualism; foreign language learning; curricular struggles; history of FLES

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