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Hubbard, Kemba N.Barriers to Family Involvement in Schools: Exploring the Voice of the Urban, High Poverty Family
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2016, School Psychology
Students typically reach higher levels of success academically when their parents are involved in the educational process. The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers that prevent the participation of impoverished, inner-city families in their children’s education. Using semi-structured interviews, eight parents from an urban school district in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Results demonstrated that economic factors, times constraints, communication, and institutional environments were barriers for the families. Other themes emerged, including: a) families expressing in unison that they wanted their children to complete their school careers with the necessary skills to be productive citizens, b) families expected schools and educators to partner with them in providing their children the academic skills required to reach their full potential, and c) families were inclined to utilize technology, such as e-mail, to be involved in their children’s schools. Implications for educators are discussed.

Committee:

Susan Davies, Ed.D (Committee Chair); Elana Berstein, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rochonda Nenonene, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Educational Psychology; Preschool Education; Psychology; Special Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Urban educators increasing parent involvement; increasing parent involvement in school; high poverty parent; Low income family involvement; Parent involvement in urban education; Barriers to family involvement; Parent involvement in schools

Mack, Gisele L.The Faceless and Voiceless Parents: How They Help Their Children Succeed in School
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Education : Urban Educational Leadership
Parental involvement is an important component to the academic success of children in schools, based on volumes of studies from as early as the 1960’s from Billingsley (1968), Clark (1983), Dauber and Epstein (1989), Jackson (1988), Comer and Poussaint (1992) to the most current research from Epstein (1995),Catsambis (1998), Yan (1999), and Mack (2003). We know that African American parents want their children to succeed in school and that African Americans parents’ that are involved, have expressed areas of concern to improve parental involvement, Mack (2003), Thompson (2003), Chevalier (2003), Lawson (2003) . The purposes of this study were to recognize the “faceless/voiceless” African American parent, those parents perceived as not visible or vocal in our urban schools, investigate how these parents help their children to succeed in school, and give voice to their perceptions of how the school meets the educational needs of their children. A qualitative study was the dominant strategy to gather data from the participants. These participants were recommended by school personnel as not involved or vocal in the school. Each participant completed a brief demographic form and responded to four in- depth interview questions: (1) What are your goals for your children? (2) How do you help your children succeed academically in school? (3) How does the school help in the success of your children? (4) How does the school address your needs and concerns? The attendance records, discipline records, teacher journals, and the student’s cumulative folders were also reviewed for information relevant to the research. The data indicated not only were parents involved at home as well as school, but school administration, teachers and staff needed to be more accessible to these parents and be more attentive to parent’s concerns. The findings from this study may be utilized to develop programs in the local schools that will increase parental involvement, build parent and school relationships, and improve the academic performance of African American children in urban schools. This study may have implications for college teacher education programs, urban school administrators, teachers, support staff, district, state, and federal policy makers.

Committee:

Dr. Nancy Evers (Advisor)

Keywords:

Parent Involvement; African American Parent Involvement; Urban Schools; Parent Involvement in Secondary Schools; Parent's views of school involvement

Couch, Matthew MA Phenomenological Study of Over-Involvement in Undergraduate Students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, EDU Policy and Leadership
Student involvement scholars have long posited that greater social and academic outcomes accrue for students as they become more involved in college (Astin, 1984, 1993; Wolf-Wendel, Ward, & Kinzie, 2009). Questions left underexplored in the extant literature about the possibility of an upper limit of beneficial involvement and an abiding concern about a growing number of Millennial students encumbered by the stress of their co-curricular commitments motivated this study. Four male and four female undergraduate students, all of whom were involved in co-curricular activities at an exceptionally high level and had experienced a variety of challenges as a direct result of so much engagement, were interviewed to explore the phenomenon of over-involvement. This phenomenological study sought to describe the essence of over-involvement experienced by traditional-aged undergraduates at a large research university. Areas of inquiry included details of the lived experience of over-involved students, the challenges they faced, and the students’ motivations for beginning and sustaining such overwhelming levels of activity. Major findings included a lifelong pattern of engagement and desire for achievement prior to college; intense intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to be involved; considerable difficulties faced by over-involved students, including insufficient sleep, poor diet, damaged relationships, and debilitating levels of stress; and cultural norms of students wearing a persona of composure, so as not to reveal their vulnerability to others.

Committee:

Susan Jones, Ph.D. (Advisor); Marc Johnston-Guerrero, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Terrell Strayhorn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

over-involvement; overinvolvement; over-involved; overinvolved; student involvement; engagement; phenomenology; persona; vulnerability; undergraduate involvement; Millennial students; stress; anxiety; motivation; overwhelmed

Mahoney, Margaret A.The Relation between Parent Involvement and Student Academic Achievement: Parent, Teacher, and Child Perspectives
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2010, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Using a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement, this study examined the relations between academic achievement and parent involvement across three informants (parents, teachers, and children), explored the dimensions of parent involvement that best predict student academic achievement, and examined the extent to which children's perceptions of involvement mediated the relationship between parent involvement and academic achievement. Participants were 275 elementary school students, their parents, and teachers from a rural school district. Measures of parent involvement were completed during the 3rd quarter of the academic year based upon perceptions of parent involvement during the first two quarters of the year. The parent involvement dimensions assessed included parent educational expectations, home involvement/supervision, and school contact/participation. Teacher and parent reports were found to be strongly associated. Reports of parent involvement from the child perception differed significantly from parent and teacher. Across all predictors, parent educational expectations (as perceived by parents and teachers) were found to be the strongest predictor of academic achievement, accounting for 9.4 to 19.6 percent of the variance in GPA (depending on the model), beyond that accounted for by socioeconomic status. Parental education, family configuration, and socioeconomic status played a significant role in the relation between parent involvement and academic achievement. Implications and future directions are presented.

Committee:

Julie Owens, PhD (Advisor); Timothy Anderson, PhD (Committee Member); Christine Gidyzc, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Parent Involvement; Academic Achievement; Home Involvement; School Involvement; Expectations

Lyman, Jeffrey TImpact of Parental Involvement and Poverty on Academic Achievement
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2014, Educational Psychology
Recent research has indicated that parental involvement can increase a student’s academic achievement, but the literature still has not determined which specific aspects of parental involvement help to increase academic achievement for economically at-risk students. This study examined the impact of parental homework involvement and parental school involvement on the academic achievement for a sample of 219 economically disadvantaged students attending 36 schools in a Midwestern state. Parental involvement was measured using factors derived from a parent survey and academic achievement was measured using results from an individually-administered norm-referenced achievement test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between a set of two parental involvement variables (i.e., parental homework involvement and parental school involvement) and an academic achievement outcome variable. Regression analyses revealed that parental homework involvement significantly predicted academic achievement, but parental school involvement did not. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Committee:

Amity Noltemeyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Kevin Bush, PhD (Committee Member); Doris Bergen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Parental Involvement; Parental School Involvement; Parental Homework Involvement; Poverty; Academic Achievement

CARR, VICTORIA WILSONPERCEPTIONS OF PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS FROM FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SPECIAL NEEDS
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : Special Education
The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of parental involvement of families who have children with special needs and families who have children without special needs from preschool through grade three. A survey of families with regard to parent involvement was conducted in Ohio. Responses from a sub-sample of 781 families who did not have children with special needs and 145 families who had children with special needs was analyzed. In general, few significant differences were found between the perceptions of parents of children with and without special needs. The differences found were related to the importance of family support and learning at home. In addition, differences in how well schools initiated and implemented parent involvement were found in volunteering and decision making dimensions. Specifically, parents of children with special needs placed more importance on receiving information about community services and discussing hopes and future plans for their children than did parents of children without special needs felt the schools did a significantly better job of inviting parents into the classroom to help. In addition, although both groups of parents rated serving on decision making committees low, parents whose children did not have special needs rated this dimension more satisfactory. No other areas within the six dimensions for both the importance of parent involvement and how well schools initiated and implemented parent involvement were found significantly different between the two groups of parents. Overall, parents perceived the schools as being moderately receptive to parental involvement.

Committee:

Dr. Lawrence Johnson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Special

Keywords:

parent involvement; families; school involvement; decision-making in schools; disabilities and parent involvement

Detisch, Elizabeth WehrerParticipation In Transition Within A Family Systems Framework
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Education, Health, and Human Services / Department of Educational Foundations and Special Services

The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of families of transition-aged students on the importance and influence that their family’s attitudes, beliefs, and values had on the nature and level of their participation in the transition process. For consistency of the sample and to examine perspective from a similar group of families, each of the six families interviewed had a child diagnosed with Down Syndrome aged 16-23 who was in or who had completed the high school to adult world transition.

Active, collaborative family involvement in the special education transition process is supported through legislative mandates, research, and best practice. Unfortunately, families are still often viewed by educators as not having equal status or power in the decision-making and are not perceived as actively involved in the special education decision-making process.

Gaining an intimate, real life understanding of families experiences of involvement in the special education transition process was the focus of this study. As all family members experiences affect the other members, this study was grounded in family systems theory.The following overarching themes emerged from this study. The issue of active family involvement and participation in special education and transition has been and continues to be an issue of great importance. Secondly, the unique beliefs, values,attitudes, customs, and characteristics of each family are part of their individual family system and do affect the family’s level and nature of involvement in the transition process. Thirdly, families indicate that educators have the most important role to play in supporting family’s active involvement and participation in the transition process.

Committee:

Robert Flexer (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Special

Keywords:

family involvement in special education; family involvement in transition

Goldsberry, Kimberlie LynnEngaged Citizens: Connections Between Collegiate Engagement And Alumni Civic Involvement
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Educational Administration (Education)

Higher education has responded to the call of society to strive for the development of future citizens. While upheld in college and university mission statements throughout the United States, there is little known about the relationship between collegiate engagement and the civic involvement of Xavier University alumni. To explore this relationship, a web-based survey of young alumni was administered to gather information about their engagement in activities outside of the classroom while in college and their current involvement in community and the political process. The relationships among the pre-collegiate, collegiate and post-collegiate variables were analyzed through correlation and regression.

The analysis indicated significant relationships among collegiate engagement variables and the civic involvement of young alumni and the attitudes of young alumni regarding involvement. Collegiate engagement in service activities, clubs/organizations, collegiate conversations and acquaintances all contributed to the alumni civic involvement regression model.

Committee:

Marc Cutright (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

Civic Engagement; Collegiate Engagement; Alumni Involvement; Civic Involvement

Campbell, Linda M.A Study of Student Involvement Variables in Higher Education: Their Influence on Success on the Uniform CPA Examination
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Judith Herb College of Education

Accounting educators are continually seeking ways to better prepare their students for success after graduation. One path to this goal is the successful completion of the CPA exam. This national exam provides an endorsement of the knowledge and comprehension that has been achieved by the candidate and opens up opportunities for advancement.

The purpose of this study was to address the various academic factors that are hypothesized to have influenced performance on the CPA exam. This study focused on Ohio candidates who sat for the Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (FAR) section of the CPA exam.

This study applied Astin’s Theory of Student Involvement to understand how to improve the learning environment for accounting students. The Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model served as the conceptual framework in order to study the relationship between the inputs and the environment and evaluate their possible influence on the dependent variable - performance on the FAR section of the CPA exam. This dissertation provided new, useful information for educators and administrators in their goal of promoting academic excellence

Committee:

Ronald Opp (Committee Chair); Stephen Ball (Committee Member); Diana Franz (Committee Member); Brian Laverty (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Accounting; Higher Education

Keywords:

Uniform CPA Exam; Astin's Theory of Student Involvement; Student Involvement; Masters in Accountancy; Input-Environment-Output Model

Tefteller, David HjortaasThe Influence of Father Involvement and Family Structure Variables on Young Adult-Father Relationship Quality
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2014, Counselor Education and Supervision-Marriage and Family Therapy
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influences of the created constructs of father involvement, family structure (marital status), parental relationship quality, and paternal religiosity on young adult-father relationship quality. Data from all three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households were used to test the present study’s hypotheses. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between the eight independent variables (four from each of the first two waves) and the two dependent variables of interest (both from the third wave). Within the framework of Systems Theory, it was hypothesized that each of the constructs of father involvement, family structure, parental relationship quality, and paternal religiosity would be statistically significant predictors of the constructs of young adult-father relationship quality per parental and young adult reports, to varying degrees. All of the created constructs had acceptable or strong internal reliability. Potential contributions of the present study include a better understanding of the relationship of certain family structure and father involvement factors on children’s relationships with their fathers in young adulthood, as well as on their overall development. Such understanding could aid clinicians, researchers, parents and educators in better understanding the role of these family structure variables on young adult-father relationship quality.

Committee:

Karin Jordan, Dr. (Advisor); Xin Liang, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Reynolds, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca Boyle, Dr. (Committee Member); Rikki Patton, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Mental Health; Personal Relationships; Religion; Therapy

Keywords:

fathering; fathers; father involvement; family structure; father involvement; parental relationship quality; marriage; cohabitation; divorce; paternal religiosity; religiosity; father-child relationships

Detwiler, Robert R.Assessing Factors Influencing Student Academic Success in Law School
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Higher Education

The literature on student academic success of law students is limited to mostly single institution studies, and as such, a nationwide, multi-institutional empirical study of the factors that predict student academic success is greatly needed by higher education scholars, law school admission officers, faculty, and administrators. This dissertation analyzed what effect, if any, undergraduate GPA and LSAT scores, in addition to environmental variables, has on cumulative law school GPA among full-time third-year law students in the United States responding to the 2008 Law School Survey of Student Engagement. A regression analysis revealed five input measures, one between-college characteristic, and fifteen environmental measures were significant predictors of cumulative law school GPA among third-year law students (n=1,756).

The intended outcomes of the dissertation are twofold. First, law school faculty and administrators can use this information to promote student involvement that has been shown through this dissertation to influence students’ GPA, which is well known in the legal education environment to be critical in the internship and job search process. Second, future studies of law students and other fields of professional education are encouraged to examine what role, if any, student involvement has on outcomes.

Committee:

Ronald Opp, PhD (Committee Chair); Llewellyn Gibbons, JD (Committee Member); Debra Gentry, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Yonker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Law schools; student involvement; graduate and professional education; involvement theory; assessment; Law School Survey of Student Engagement; law school GPA; IEO Model; graduate enrollment management; Alexander Astin

Brown, Kristin N.STRENGTHENING THE HOME-SCHOOL LITERACY CONNECTION
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Reading
The purpose of this study was to investigate the issues impacting the home-school connection, by exploring the following questions: What issues do parents face that affect the amount and quality of literacy activities taking place in the home, and what do parents suggest for teachers to strengthen the home-school connection? The study examined the underlying causes that prevent parents from supporting their children. The study also explored parents’ perceptions of the classroom teacher and her parent involvement techniques. Using active interviewing (Holstein & Gubrium, 1997), this study examined the responses of a teacher and parents to determine the issues that affect parents’ abilities to work with their children. The results of this study suggest that there are factors in the home environment that affect interactions that take place in the home. The study revealed that there is a need for teachers to understand the home environments that students come from.

Committee:

Timothy Murnen (Advisor)

Keywords:

parent involvement; home-school connection; parent involvement in reading; reading and home environments

Yagnik, Arpan ShaileshKnowledge (K), Attitude (A), and Practice (P) of Women and Men about Menstruation and Menstrual Practices in Ahmedabad, India: Implications for Health Communication Campaigns and Interventions
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Media and Communication
This study follows the example of early research in other taboo health topics such as family planning, leprosy, and HIV/AIDS, by first examining baseline Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) variables to build an initial research base for a menstruation- related health communication study. The primary objective of this study is to explore the relationship among important psychosocial variables pertaining to menstruation and menstrual hygiene; hence, the variables selected include: knowledge of menstruation and menstrual practices, attitude towards menstruation and menstrual practices, cognitive involvement in menstruation and menstrual practices, behavioral involvement in menstruation and menstrual practices, and adoption of menstrual practices. Another objective is to determine which of the above-mentioned factors are predictors of correct and safe hygienic practices in the context of menstruation. A quantitative methodological approach was adopted to conduct the study. A structured questionnaire was used to survey respondents and collect data. Sample size of the study was 475. A probability random sample consisting of both women and men, from Ahmedabad city, India, was selected using multi-stage clustered sampling technique. Descriptive and analytical statistical techniques were employed to analyze the data and prepare the findings. SPSS software was used to conduct appropriate analyses. It was found that knowledge, attitude, and cognitive involvement in menstruation and menstrual practices were high whereas, behavioral involvement in menstruation and menstrual practices were low. Hypothesized relationships between knowledge and attitude towards menstruation among men; knowledge, attitude towards menstrual practices and adoption among women; cognitive involvement and knowledge of menstrual practices in men and women; and behavioral involvement and knowledge of menstrual practices for men and women were statistically significant. Descriptive statistical analyses, correlation, and regression were statistical techniques used in this study. The outcomes of this study will assist in creating specific menstruation-related intervention strategies for public health communication campaigns. This study facilitates interactions between practitioners and researchers, and sharing and creating strategies to increase the relevance and uptake of research findings. Importantly, the results of this study empower girls and women by providing research-based data on crucial aspects of menstruation, which will lead to greater information of and lower stigma attached to menstruation and menstruating females.

Committee:

Srinivas Melkote, Dr. (Advisor); I-Fen Lin, Dr. (Other); Sung-Yeon Park, Dr. (Committee Member); Ewart Skinner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Health Communication Campaigns; Health Com; Menstruation; KAP; Knowledge; Attitude; Practices; Menstrual Practices; Ahmedabad; India; Campaigns; Behavior Change; Cognitive Involvement; Behavioral Involvement; Taboo Communication; Taboo; Stigma;

Kostek, John A.Work Centrality: A Meta-Analysis of the Nomological Network
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
Work centrality is the belief regarding the value and importance of work in a person's life. This manuscript provides the results of a quantitative review of the antecedents and consequences of work centrality. An analysis of 95 independent samples, yielding 343 correlations, indicated that work centrality is strongly related to several personality and work related variables such as protestant work ethic (ρ = .41), organizational commitment (ρ = .42), intention to quit (ρ = -.38) and job satisfaction (ρ = .26). Moderator analysis revealed troubling findings regarding one commonly-used measure of work centrality. These concerns are addressed and recommendations are offered for future research.

Committee:

Scott Highhouse, PhD (Committee Chair); Steve Jex, PhD (Committee Member); William O'Brien, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

work centrality; work involvement; job involvement; meaning of work; work-role centrality

Bocian, James BrianParental Involvement in the Digital Age: Examining Parental Access to Student Web Portals in Grades 7-12
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), University of Findlay, 2016, Education
Parental involvement in schools has been accepted as essential in effective education. In the present study, the researcher determined if parental access to student web portals had an impact on academic outcomes for students in grades 7-12. The study utilized 600 pre-existing student data sets that included parental log entries into student web portals. Using the same sample, the researcher determined the information parents accessed most from student portals and examined how parents used the information. No significant relationship was found between the academic outcomes for students whose parents accessed their web portals. Results indicated that parents accessed student grades and interacted with their child most often after logging onto web portals. These findings suggest that educators should not rely solely on web portals as means to foster parental involvement in their schools.

Committee:

Kathleen Crates, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Melissa Cain, Ph.D (Committee Member); Gregory Lesinski, Ph.D./MPH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology

Keywords:

parental involvement in schools, student web portals, PowerSchool, strategies for parental involvement, adolescent education, middle school, junior high school, high school

Robinson, Dwan VanderpoolThe Engagement Of Low Income And Minority Parents In Schools Since No Child Left Behind: Intersections Of Policy, Parent Involvement And Social Capital
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, ED Policy and Leadership

This qualitative study explores engagement experiences of low income and minority parents in the work of schools since the implementation of No Child Left Behind in order to understand relationships between parental involvement, school improvement, and parental support for student academic achievement. This inquiry observes an urban, Midwestern school district that has implemented parent liaison programs designed to empower parents toward active participation in the academic lives of their children. Through this qualitative study, I explore district-wide parental engagement efforts to assess how low income and minority parents are included in parent involvement initiatives.

Specific methodology for this study includes observations, interviews, focus groups and document analysis. Case study data from two schools is examined in depth. Findings from the case studies are then used to compare to overall district patterns. Data from this research is analyzed using literature on parental engagement and school improvement, and theoretical frameworks of social capital, implementation theory, and democratic theory.

Committee:

Philip Daniel, PhD (Advisor); Ann Allen, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Glassman, PhD (Committee Member); James Moore, PhD (Committee Member); Jill Rafael-Fortney, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

parent involvement; parent engagement; social capital; No Child Left Behind; democratic schools; school home partnerships; school improvement; parental involvement; parental engagement; school improvement.

Mewezino, AbrahamImproving Schools By Improving Parental Involvement
Master of Science in Education (M.S.E.), University of Dayton, 2010, Interdisciplinary Education

In the past few decades, state and federal laws have promoted school collaboration, and a stronger role for parents in their children’s education. Collaboration has been one of the cornerstones for several educational movements, including school accountability and community schools, therefore it is vital that parents contribute to the process by becoming active participants. As a result, collaboration strategies have become central policy tools or instruments for improving education that is embedded in a variety of educational laws (e.g., the No Child Left Behind Act).

Research shows that parental involvement at all grade levels, can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. When parents work collaboratively with schools, they assist in ensuring that effective practices are employed. Kochhar-Bryant (2008) notes that the ability of professionals and parents to collaborate to solve problems and to improve education has become so important that just about every set of new standards for the preparation of teachers, administrators, and related school personnel now addresses collaboration. Collaborative endeavors refer to relationships and strategies designed to ensure that quality services are Provided to meet every student’s educational needs.

Collaboration has gained increasing attention because people accomplish more and make better decisions when they work effectively together. For too long parents were not included in the collaborative experience, therefore their concerns were not voiced. It is not surprising that collaboration between teachers and parents has become even more important because of the relevance in achieving new school reform requirements that promote equitable practices for every student. The reality is that these higher expectations for schools demand that educators develop a wider range of collaborative skills to partner with parents and communities.

Committee:

Carolyn Talbert-Johnson, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Lou Andrews, PhD (Committee Member); Diana Hunn, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Teacher Education

Keywords:

Parents' Involvement; Parents; Involvement; Education

Appleman, Ashley R.POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT OF MILLENNIALS ON A SMALL COLLEGE CAMPUS
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2010, Educational Leadership
The purpose of this study was to assess whether one private, residential campus had created an atmosphere and culture that encouraged political involvement and civic engagement. This ethnographic study consisted of observational findings, content analysis of institutional documents, and three focus groups composed of residential students who attended Midwestern College. Five central themes were indentified as meaningful influences on Millennial students' levels of political involvement and civic engagement: (a) Campus Connection with the Community, (b) Family-like Campus Atmosphere, (c) Emphasis on Community Service, (d) Awareness of Local, National and Global Issues, and (e) Foundational Quaker Values. These themes were integrated into varied aspects of campus life, developing a campus climate that positively influenced students' levels of civic engagement and political awareness. It was found that the core Quaker values were the foundation for students' levels of political involvement and civic engagement, as well as the other four themes.

Committee:

Lawrence Mrozek, MA (Committee Co-Chair); Charles Ryan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Rick Danals, PhD (Committee Member); Suzanne Franco, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

civic engagement; political involvement; community service; Millennials; small private college; Quaker; awareness; community; campus climate

Moreland, Jennifer JoNursing the Identity: The Mediating Roles of Learned Helplessness and Interaction Involvement in Predicting Willingness to Confront Conflict and Anticipated Turnover
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Communication
Nurses function in a complex web of relationships including other nurses, supervisors, patients, and physicians. They are guided through these challenges with the task of managing relationships by professional standards; yet often experience role confusion, conflict, and incompatible goals. Given these conflicting factors, nurses at all levels face the difficulties of both educating and caring for patients while, at times, being each other’s own worst enemy. Numerous nurse researchers have explored the various facets of nurse conflict (e.g., Cavanagh, 1991; Cox, 2001; McKenna et al., 2003; Randle, 2003; Stanley et al., 2007). However, few scholars (for exceptions see Apker et al, 2005; Apker et al., 2009; Nicotera & Clinkscales, 2010; Nicotera et al., 2010) have taken a uniquely communication approach to understanding how the way in which nurses view themselves may predict the nature of their interpersonal communication (e.g., being engaged in conversation inside the organizational context), willingness to confront conflict with other nurses, feelings of learned helplessness, and employment turnover. Through a social identity theoretical lens, this dissertation examines how nurses’ identification with their working small group, unit, or floor, nursing role (e.g., staff ER nurse, nurse practitioner), and the nursing profession relates to nurses interaction involvement, willingness to confront conflict, feelings of learned helplessness, and tenure intentions. Nurse identity is theorized to vary at three levels per nurses’ small group/unit/floor, role, and profession. Key variables were explored via a cross-sectional survey including 446 nurse participants employed at Cleveland Clinic. Tenets of Dillman’s (2007) Tailored Design Method and Total Survey Error Approach (Weisberg, 2005) guided the creation and distribution of this survey. Structural equation modeling was used to uncover direct and indirect effects between the five primary variables in question. Findings demonstrate direct relationships between nurse identity (as a latent variable) and interaction involvement, willingness to confront conflict, and tenure intentions. Feelings of learned helplessness are attenuated by increased nurse identity through interaction involvement and willingness to confront conflict. Additionally, both willingness to confront conflict and learned helplessness mediate the relationship between interaction involvement and nurses’ tenure intentions. Finally, this dissertation contributes to a small body of literature examining identity antecedents to communication phenomenon inside the nursing profession. Theoretical extensions include indirect links between nurse identity and learned helplessness via interaction involvement and willingness to confront conflict and interaction involvement and tenure predictions as mediated by willingness to confront conflict and learned helplessness. Findings in this study (e.g., those related to Packer’s [2008; Packer & Chasteen, 2010] normative conflict model of dissent) also echo prior work conducted by scholars interested in social identity occurrences in organizational arenas. Implications for communication theory development, health communication, and the nursing profession are presented and directions for future research discussed.

Committee:

David R. Ewoldsen, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gerald M. Kosicki, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Osei Appiah, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret F. Clayton, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michelle Ortiz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Health Care Management; Nursing; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

communication and identity; nurse communication; interaction involvement; nurse conflict; staying intentions; learned helplessness; structural equation modeling; mediation analysis

Oswald, Karen M.Positive Behavior Supports: The Involvement of Students in the Process
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Curriculum and Instruction Special Education (Education)
Students who exhibit disruptive and possibly aggressive behaviors pose a challenge for schools, as administrators and teachers are often held responsible for managing these behaviors. The goal of this study is to identify contributing factors to student involvement in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), evidence of overall improvements in discipline problems, and subsequent implications regarding the unique features of student involvement in SWPBS. A phenomenological approach was used to discover and explain the experiences and insights of study participants. Through the use of mixed methods, the effectiveness of student involvement in SWPBS was determined. This included examining office discipline referrals as well as conducting participant observation and semi-structured interviews with students and school personnel.

Committee:

Dianne M. Gut, PhD (Committee Chair); Steve Safran, PhD (Committee Member); Tracy Leinbaugh, PhD (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

SWPBS; student involvement; bullying; cognitive development; moral development

Homan, Gregor GExploration of parental, youth sports coach, and 4-H Club advisor pressure and support of youth involvement in school sports and 4-H
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Agricultural Education
The purpose of this correlation and descriptive study was to explore the perceptions that youth involved in school sports and/or 4-H programs have regarding the level of support or pressure from their parents, coaches, and/or 4-H club advisors. A Likert-based written survey was administered to 433 students in the eighth and ninth grade at Coldwater Exempted Village, Convoy-Crestview Local, and Delphos St. Johns Schools. This research did not find a statistically significant difference of parental support perceived by youth participants of school sports versus 4-H clubs. Youth involved in sports, and not 4-H, reported a higher level of pressure from their fathers than from their mothers (z=3.36, p<.05). There was not a statistically significant different level in support of sports involved children by mothers and fathers. There was no significant difference found in the level of support or pressure found by mothers and fathers of 4-H-involved youth. Youth involved in 4-H reported lower levels of pressure from 4-H club advisors than youth in sport reported from coaches (z=2.01, p<.05). There was not a significant difference found in advisor/coach support perceived by youth. Youth respondents whose mothers were alumni of school sports reported higher levels of maternal pressure than those whose mothers were not alumni of school sports (z=2.16, p<.05). Paternal alumni status did not explain any differences in paternal pressure or support of these youths’ extracurricular activities. There were small, but significant correlations found between enjoyment of school sports and coach support (r=.33, p<.05), paternal support (r=.29, p<.05), and maternal support (r=.31, p<.05). When comparing enjoyment of 4-H club involvement, there were small correlations between advisor support (r=.39, p<.05), advisor pressure (r=-.25, p<.05), paternal support (r=.36, p<.05), and maternal support (r=.32, p<.05). When evaluating the likelihood of their continued involvement in sports, there were multiple small, yet significant correlations found for coach support (r=.22 p<.01), coach pressure (-.12 p<.01), paternal support (r=.18 p<.01), and maternal support (r=.18 p<.01). A similar analysis of likely continued involvement in 4-H found correlations with advisor pressure (r=-.35 p<.01), paternal pressure (r=-.30 p<.01), and maternal pressure (r=-.25 p<.01).

Committee:

Jo Jones (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, General

Keywords:

4-H; SPORTS; YOUTH; PRESSURE AND SUPPORT; SCHOOL SPORTS; Paternal; involvement in sports

Earnheardt, AdamExploring Possible Predictors of Television Viewer Judgments of Athlete Behaviors
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies

In this study, I examined whether the extent to which television viewers are fans of sports and their motivation for viewing sports affected judgments of anti-social behaviors demonstrated by athletes. The uses and gratifications theoretical framework guided exploration of possible predictors. The sample (n = 347) consisted of undergraduate students from two midwestern universities. Several instruments were used in this study. The questionnaire included measures of fandom, motives for watching televised sports (i.e., entertaining relaxation, etc.), affinity for watching televised sports, intention to watch televised sports, activities during exposure to televised sports, involvement with televised sports, exposure to televised sports, parasocial interaction with athletes, identification with athletes, and judgments of athlete behaviors (i.e., violent crime, drug use, forging checks/failing to keep promises, and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors).

Results showed that fandom correlated significantly with affinity, motives, intention, involvement, exposure, parasocial interaction, and identification. Fandom was negatively related to judgments of violent crime behaviors and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors. Fandom was not related to judgments of drug use or forging checks. Results suggested that people who reported greater fandom were less likely than their counterparts to judge violent crime and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors negatively.

Separate multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the contribution of the antecedent variables to predicting each behavioral judgment factor. Results of the regression analyses suggested that women who were engaged in other activities while viewing televised sports content were more likely to judge violent crime behaviors as most wrong, or negatively. Additionally, women were more likely to judge drug use and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors as most wrong, or negatively. Path analyses provided further evidence for links between antecedents. Canonical correlation analyses suggested women who reported lower degrees of fandom, weaker affinity for televised sports, weaker intention to watch sports, weaker self-esteem/achievement and entertaining relaxation motives, and paying less attention to televised sports were the viewers who tended to judge athlete violent crime behaviors, uncharitable/dishonest behaviors, and drug and steroid use behaviors as most wrong. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed.

Committee:

Paul Haridakis (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

television viewing motives; fandom; parasocial interaction; identification; sports; anti-social behaviors; media exposure; uses and gratifications; affinity for television; involvement with television; athlete interaction

Cook, Thomas BradleyRecent Court Involvement and Risk of Suicide: A Population-based Study Utilizing a Comprehensive Criminal Justice Database
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
This study estimates the risk of suicide associated with recent court involvement (criminal, traffic, civil) and related court-related stressors using archived court data, a novel source of exposure data capturing a wide range of both minor and severe life stressors. By including all offenses, claims, appearances and court-related stressors and accurately measuring the timing and sequencing of events in relation to death, this study provides evidence regarding the most relevant period of heightened suicide risk surrounding severe life stressors and recent court involvement. The study utilizes a county-wide electronic archive of court-docket data linked to death certificates for all suicide victims and comparison causes of death in a large urban county of Ohio during the period of 2000-2005. For suicide deaths, medical examiner’s notes were coded and matched to assess co-occurring risk factors, use of mental health and healthcare services, previous suicide attempts and behavioral markers relevant for developing court-based interventions. A matched case control design was used including all adult suicide deaths during the study period (N=315) frequency matched by sex, age, race and residential location to a control group of non-injury related deaths (N=615) and a second comparison group comprised of injury-related deaths (N=615). Nearly a third of all adult suicide victims had court involvement in the year prior to death, twice the proportion observed among non-injury deaths (OR = 2.0, 95% C.I. {1.44-2.75}, p <.001). Among younger men under 35, a majority of suicide victims had recent court contacts, a group with no recent contacts with either primary care or mental health. Involvement in criminal misdemeanors, car accidents and foreclosures each conferred a three-fold elevated risk of suicide. The risk of suicide peaks within three months of an offense or claim suggesting a short but measurable period of latency for targeted interventions. The dismantling of the public mental health system has led to an increase in the number of mentally ill appearing in courts and the criminal justice system. Archived court-data can serve as an evaluation tool to measure client outcomes and help expand and inform court-based suicide prevention strategies beyond reducing suicide within criminal justice facilities.

Committee:

Sana Loue, PhD (Committee Chair); Sara Debanne, PhD (Committee Member); Siran Koroukian, PhD (Committee Member); Martha Sajatovic, MD (Committee Member); Mark Davis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Epidemiology; Public Health

Keywords:

suicide; criminal justice system; court involvement; legal troubles

Ellington, CherylEffects of Divorce on Children and Ways Schools Can Offer Support
Master of Education (M.Ed.), Cedarville University, 2003, Education Department
From 1990 to 1999, almost 15 million children in the United States experienced the divorce of their parents. Children experience varied effects from the divorce process, and they carry these effects with them into the classroom. By knowing what possible effects may occur, educators can be better equipped to effectively teach the children from divorced families who are in their care. It is the purpose of this thesis to explore both the possible effects of parental separation and divorce on children and to discover ways schools can provide support to help the children thrive. A unique characteristic of this study was its setting in a Christian school of approximately 700 students.

Committee:

Stephen Gruber (Advisor)

Keywords:

divorce; children of divorce; effects of divorce on children; children; family problems; school involvement

Giraldo, ReginaIndividual Growth Analysis of Children's Reading Performance During the First Years of School
Master of Education, Cleveland State University, 2010, College of Education and Human Services

Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K)), the study utilized an individual growth model (Bryk & Raudenbush, 2002), the purpose of which was to assess the nature of progress in children’s reading performance between kindergarten and 3rd grade; and second, to determine the extent to which parental involvement predicts both the initial reading ability as well as the rate of progress. Children’s cognitive development in reading was used as the dependent variable and parental involvement as the primary independent variable with gender and race/ethnicity as control variables.The study used four points in time (waves of data): fall kindergarten (1998), spring kindergarten (1999), spring first grade (2000), and spring third grade (2002). The data analysis was performed on 9,032 participants (White, Black and Hispanic); 87% of them had 4 waves of data, and 13% had 3 waves of data collected during a period of 7 semesters.

The measurement of early literacy and reading skills was based on an adaptive item response theory (IRT)-scaled reading assessment, which included questions designed to measure basic skills, vocabulary, and comprehension. Results indicated:(1) parental involvement was higher when children had a low initial reading performance; (2) parental involvement was statistically not significant in predicting the rate of growth in reading achievement; (3) female children were predicted to have higher initial status in reading performance but their rate of growth was only slightly higher than that of their counterparts; (4) Hispanic children were predicted to have a statistically significant lower initial status in reading than other students, but their rate of growth was not significant. Black children were predicted to have a statistically significant low initial status and their rate of growth was statistically significant and slower than the rate of growth of the others. The study recommended that parental involvement programs should be sensitive to gender and race/ethnicity; further research should include a more comprehensive construct of parental involvement and include data on family socio-economic status (SES).

Committee:

Joshua Bagaka's, PhD (Committee Chair); Dinah Volk, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Gove, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Reading Performance; Parental Involvement; Race/Ethnicity; Gender; Individual Growth Analysis

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