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Stilson, Mona T.Multi-UAV Control: An Envisioned World Design Problem
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2008, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle assets are in high demand in the theater of operations for supporting the Global War on Terror and this demand is expected to increase. This work involved exploratory case study research into the envisioned world design problem of networked Predator multi-UAV control, as a candidate for meeting higher Predator sortie requirements without the need for a one for one increase in pilots. The concept involves the development of a potential new position for controlling multiple UAVs, called the Multi-Aircraft Manager (MAM). The goal was to analyze work requirements and develop representational models of the structure of this new work domain and develop an initial MAM display design representation (with a temporal emphasis) as a first hypothesis for an iterative program of evaluation and refinement. An additional goal was to discover and document, through this case study, what analysis methods explored helped to inform the design of the display representations. The MAM Tasking and Timeline Display was ecologically designed and mapped from the MAM cognitive work analysis (CWA) as a hypothesis of the work support the MAM will need to perform multi-aircraft management within a Global Unmanned Air System (UAS) work environment. This display includes timeline, status, and workload management vantages intended to complement the traditional geospatial map-based displays used by UAV pilots. This conceptual low fidelity display was used to both further the discussion of MAM among domain practitioners in a concrete way, enrich the work analysis, as well as to gather more display design requirements. The display concept served as an artifact to assist potential future users of MAM displays in envisioning the possibilities for supporting MAM. This is only the first step in an iterative program of evaluation and display refinement research needed for evolving the MAM vision concept and developing advanced human computer interface (HCI) displays in support of MAM.

Committee:

John Flach, PhD (Committee Chair); Valerie Shalin, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Draper, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Cognitive Work Analysis; Cognitive Systems Engineering; Ecological Interface Design; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Multi-Aircraft Management; Multi-UAV Control; Human Computer Interface Design; Timeline Display

Du, YinaA Portable Pediatrics Medical Education Assessment System for the Pediatrics Milestone Project
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Assessment is critically important in medical education. Designing an effective assessment system, however, is very challenging. In this thesis, we developed a portable assessment system based on the Pediatrics Milestone project for fellows and faulty members in Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). The Pediatrics Milestone project is a joint initiative the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Pediatrics to assess resident physicians. Specifically, we first made necessary modification to original assessment framework for real applications on portable devices. Then, our pediatrics medical education assessment system was implemented with cutting-edge mobile technology. iPad from Apple Inc. was chosen by the users as the assessment system platform. Xcode was used for App development. User interface and database were designed on designated integrated development environment. The implemented assessment tool is planned to be used in medical education of CCHMC. With the help of advances in portable devices and applicability of Pediatrics Milestone project, assessment feedback to the students is meaningful and the implemented assessment strategy is anticipated to improve medical education.

Committee:

Chia Han, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Yan Xu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anca Ralescu, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Portable assessment System;Pediatrics Milestone project;Xcode;Mobile Apple APP;Medical Education;User interface design

Catanese, Alexander J.Organic Web Design: Exploring Nature as Metaphor in Responsive Web Design
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
The rise of responsive design as an approach to web design in the last decade has shaped the ways that designers consider the web as a medium. As this approach has developed, its practitioners have begun forming patterns and templates which might limit alternative modes of thinking in the field. Criticism of this approach is still in its early stages, leaving open an opportunity for reflection, expansion, and the exploration of alternative modes of thinking and making for considering the medium. The web browser has properties which are inherently flexible, fluid, and adaptive—begging for a parallel exploration of flexible, fluid, adaptive systems as external inspiration for web design. Nature has been considered as a form of inspiration throughout the history of the arts and design, providing analogical and metaphorical modes of thinking that expand upon traditional approaches. Biomimicry is an emerging practice within industrial design, architecture, and engineering—yet little has been discussed within the field of visual communication design, especially within responsive web design.¿ In this thesis, relationships shared by design and the natural world are investigated through secondary research, and critical making is used as primary research to examine the organic properties of the web browser. Three prototypes were designed to explore, expand, and reflect upon these organic properties within responsive design. Each prototype was subsequently reviewed by design educators and professionals. This thesis proposes that looking to nature’s principles and forms can inform design for the web as a medium, providing an approach which builds upon and extends the capacities of responsive web design.

Committee:

Jessica Barness, MFA (Advisor); Ken Visocky O'Grady, MFA (Committee Member); Aoife Mooney, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Biomimicry; Responsive Web Design; Medium; Critical Making; Web Design; User-Interface Design;

McEwen, Timothy RyanDevelopment and Evaluation of an Ecological Display for the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2012, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Ecological interface design (EID; Vicente & Rasmussen, 1992) is a discipline that emphasizes the necessity of understanding the laws and constraints of a domain in order to make meaningful design decisions. We applied EID principles to create an ecological interface aimed at helping physicians with the detection, evaluation, and treatment of cardiovascular disease risk (specifically for hypertension and hyperlipidemia) and then evaluated it in two exploratory studies. In the first study, twenty-three internal medical residents participated viewed data from twelve patients (in six blocks) in a repeated measures study that measured which risk factors participant felt required follow-up and if their treatment decisions agreed with medically established guidelines (e.g., ATP-III for hyperlipidemia and JNC-7 for hypertension). The results indicate that residents were significantly more likely to follow up on metabolic syndrome when using the ecological display (p <. 0004) and that in 3 of the 6 trial blocks, they were more likely to choose treatment decisions that agreed with medical guidelines when using the ecological display for LDL cholesterol. Two faculty and two residents participated in our follow-up study, which included a simplified version of the first study but utilized an interactive version of the display and where performance and interactions were recorded and analyzed. It also included interviews regarding usability issues. The results demonstrated a preference for greater guideline agreement when using the ecological display in only one block of trials, even though almost all participants reported high levels of confidence that their decisions were in agreement with medical guidelines. The usability interviews suggested many ways in which the ecological display could be changed in future re-designs in order to better serve various user groups and purposes. The many positive reactions from our participants, in conjunction with our results, suggest that that further design and evaluation of the ecological display would likely be beneficial in medical decision making.

Committee:

John Flach, Ph.D. (Advisor); Nancy Elder, M.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Altman Klein, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

ecological interface design; medical decision making; graphical user interface; cardiovascular risk; clinical informatics

Cook , Henry ErnestEFFECT OF ENACTIVE-INTERFACE CONSTRAINTS ON USER BEHAVIOR IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2013, Art
An issue that the users face when employing a controller in virtual environments (VE), is effectively using the afforded actions necessary for task-relevant goal achievement. A virtual reality game was used to investigate the link between the physical constraints of a controller-interface, the behavioral (postural) control strategies that develop and subsequent performance within the VE. Postural motion was examined using a motion capture system, and the differences that emerged as a result of the controller interface-order using various synchronicity-non-linear procedures. A significant interaction was found between user performance and controller-interface order. These findings suggest that the constraints of the controller does not necessarily create performance differences at face value though the increase or decrement of performance is grounded on how the user gains information through interacting with the specific controller interface as well as how that interaction shapes their ability to learn, adapt, and develop successful, relevant control strategies.

Committee:

Leonard Smart, Jr./PhD (Advisor); Leonard Mark, PhD (Committee Member); David Waller, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology

Keywords:

Human Factors; Enactive Interface Design; Human Performance & Motor Learning; Perception & Action; Ecological Psychology; Fractal Behavioral Analysis

Kuhlman, Lane M.Gesture Mapping for Interaction Design: An Investigative Process for Developing Interactive Gesture Libraries
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Industrial, Interior, and Visual Communications Design
Gestures play important roles as facilitators of language development, temporal-spatial learning, and non-verbal communication. Gesture-based interaction design seeks to capitalize on this natural method of human communication by using gestures as a means of interfacing with digital content. While technological factors address important issues related to sensing gestural input, design factors are the most critical factors relate to developing useful and approachable gesture-based interactivity. The goal of this research is to articulate more clearly some intrinsic characteristics of gesture that are significant to gestural interface designers, while providing methodologies that designers can use to gather and implement this information in a fashion that suits their unique design processes. Gesture researchers have published a great deal of research that has significant implications related to gestural interface design, but most research in the field of gesture studies relates to gestures that are produced in combination with speech or in place of speech. Directly applying this research to visual interface design is difficult because many of the examples of gestures provided by these researchers analyze gesture in terms their linguistic characteristics. Because interface designers are seeking gestures that can be incorporated into interactive scenarios, there is a need for example of gestures produced in response to visual-spatial cues. The aim for this study and beyond is to create a library of gestures that can serve as a reference to designers who are seeking visual-spatial representations of a broad range of gestural expression. This study presents methods of visual and spatial contextualization that can be applied or expanded upon by gestural interface designers who are seeking to build unique gestural vocabularies on a project-by-project basis. This document outlines a pragmatic approach to gestural interface design that aims to inspire designers toward further investigation. This thesis documents the development processes for several interactive prototypes. Each of these prototypes helped to define specific research questions that may be important issues as gesture-based interaction design moves forward as a field of research. Discussion of interactive prototypes is followed by documentation of a user centered research study. This study presents new strategies for provoking, documenting, analyzing and contextualizing gestures within specialized visual-spatial scenarios. The results of this study include documentation of an approach that can be used to generate libraries of interactive gestures. Several categorical patterns of gestural expression emerged from this research study, which reaffirms the potential for standardization of gestural interaction. Because gestures have recognizable visual and formal relationships to the things that they represent, their interpretation is closely tied to the context in which they are used. Through a process of contextualization, interaction designers can create visual-spatial frameworks for understanding the intended meaning of the gestures that a user produces. This thesis discusses best practices for applying gestures within interactive scenarios by defining many characteristics of gesture that represent a broad range of gestural expression.

Committee:

Alan Price (Advisor); Liz Sanders (Committee Member); Maria Palazzi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

gesture-based interaction; gestural interaction; interactive gestures; multi-touch; multi-user; multi-model; user interface design; interaction design; generative design research; user centered design research

Jordan, Laura LExploring How Design and Digital Interactive Technology Assists in Health Information Communication in the Context of Missed Oral Contraceptive Pills
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Design
An overwhelming number of people in the United States possess a below basic health literacy level. They are unable to or have difficulty gathering, processing and understanding health information and services necessary to make appropriate health decisions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Currently, the state of communication of health information is widely diverse and in many instances, not effective to meet users’ informational needs. The intent of this research was to explore through a human-centered design approach how design and digital interactive technology can contribute to health literacy – specifically, the communication of missed oral contraceptive pills information to female college students. Often, women using this type of contraception lack understanding about the medication, struggle to take it accurately and effectively, which in many cases leads to unintended pregnancies. The outcome is a proposed interaction model that focuses on direct manipulation interfaces, digital representation of physical objects (pill package and inserts) and tailored cause and effect results seeking to more effectively personalize and communicate medication information. The implementation of the model is portrayed in a prototyped product solution that was guided by research of previous studies, user needs, behaviors and goals. The prototype embodies a webpage displayed through a smartphone that was evaluated by users through an iterative design process. The results conclude that a human-centered designed digital product that sensibly employs interactive features can elevate the current state of communication and delivery of information for missed oral contraceptive pills.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Advisor); Carolina Gill (Committee Member); Lorraine Wallace (Committee Member); Maria Palazzi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Health; Health Care; Health Education

Keywords:

health literacy; oral contraceptives; design; interaction design; interface design; health information communication; human-centered design; goal-directed design; interactive technology; design research; product design

Leonard, James W.Replacing indirect manual assistive solutions with hands-free, direct selection
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2011, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
Case study BK is a teenage male who suffers from severe cerebral palsy, making communication very difficult using his current assistive technology. His performance with a manual switch was compared to a hands-free system for computer interaction (Cyberlink Brainfingers/ NIA). BK uses a switch scanning menu, which steps through predetermined options till he chooses the current option being read aloud by pressing a button. A yes/no menu was used for the switch scanning interface for both manual and hands free conditions, as well as the point and click condition. In both hands-free conditions, BK was as fast and accurate as he was with his manual assistive solution that he has been using for almost 10 years now. Results indicate that a hands-free system is a valid assistive technology direction for BK. As in Marler (2004)- perhaps the greatest benefit from a point and click hands-free system could be increased engagement.

Committee:

John Flach, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Bennett, PhD (Committee Member); John Gallagher, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Design; Developmental Biology; Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Educational Software; Educational Technology; Engineering; Experimental Psychology; Experiments; Health

Keywords:

disability; locked-in; interface; design, manual control, hands-free control; BCI; brain; computer; brainfingers; NIA; EMG; EEG; EOG; adolescents; solutions; rehabilitation; cursor; mouse; switch

Oates, Shawn P.CHILD-COMPUTER INTERACTION: EXPLORING INTERFACE DESIGN
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2005, Psychology
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) holds great promise for increasing access to information and for facilitating learning. Unique to CAI programs are their multifaceted user-interface designs. This study examined key aspects (i.e. context and embedded text) of user-interface design to determine their impact on word-object association in young children. Sixty-seven children in their final semester of kindergarten were recruited for this study. The dependent measures, accuracy and latency were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance design. The within-subjects factors were interface design (appropriate context, inappropriate context and non-context) and word condition (embedded and non-embedded). It was found that children were more accurate when using the non-context display design and considerably less accurate when using the inappropriate display condition. They were also found to be more accurate when the word was embedded within the visual scene. Lastly, children were found to responded faster when using the appropriate context display design and considerably slower when using the inappropriate display design. The findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the way in which context is used in display design. A less detailed interface for certain tasks may provide children with an advantage over an elaborate or complicated interface design. These findings have implications for the development of educational software for young children.

Committee:

Leonard Smart (Advisor)

Keywords:

interface design; human-computer interaction; children

Holt, Jerred CharlesEmergent Features and Perceptual Objects: A Reexamination of Fundamental Principles in Display Design
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2013, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
Objective: Our purpose was to discuss alternative principles of design (emergent features and perceptual objects) for analogical visual displays, to evaluate the utility of four different displays for a system state identification task, and to compare outcomes to predictions derived from the design principles. Background: An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alpha-numeric) is provided from an emergent features perspective. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed to leverage powerful perception-action skills using principles of cognitive systems engineering / ecological interface design (i.e., direct perception). Methods: An experiment was conducted to evaluate these four displays. Primary dependent variables were accuracy and latency. Results: Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alpha-numeric, polar graphic. Conclusions: The findings are difficult to reconcile with principles of design based on perceptual objects but perfectly consistent with principles based on emergent features. Limitations of the most effective configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided to address them. Applications: The principles of ecological interface design that are described here (i.e., the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display, and observer constraints) are applicable to the design of all forms of displays for all work domains.

Committee:

Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Advisor); John Flach, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Herb Colle, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

cognitive systems engineering, analogical visual displays, ecological interface design, system state identification, direct perception, emergent features, perceptual objects, decision support, semantic mapping, display design

Behymer, Kyle JosephInterface Design for the Supervisory Control of Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2017, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
In order to meet the demand for enabling one operator to control multiple heterogeneous unmanned vehicles numerous automated support systems are being developed. These systems are too often focused on replacing, rather than supporting, the human decision maker. In contrast, the Intelligent Multi-UxV Planner with Adaptive Collaborative/Control Technologies (IMPACT) system was designed from a collaborative systems approach that allowed human operators to work with autonomous systems to accomplish mission tasks. Multiple cognitive task analyses were conducted with base defense experts as well as unmanned vehicles (UV) operators to inform the development of human-autonomy interfaces (HAI) that were designed to support an operator’s skill-based, rule-based, and knowledge-based behaviors using ecological interface design principles. This research describes the development and empirical evaluation of the IMPACT HAI using a synthetic task environment in which participants used twelve UVs to support base defense operations. A 2 X 2 within-participants experimental design was used to compare IMPACT’s HAI to a Baseline HAI condition across two levels of mission complexity. Eight participants completed four hour-long trials in which they were responsible for responding to incoming mission tasks. Participants both preferred and performed better with the IMPACT HAI as compared to the Baseline HAI. These results suggest that ecological interface design principles can be used to generate user interface concepts that not only support skill-based behaviors, but also rule-based and knowledge-based behaviors.

Committee:

John Flach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ion Juvina, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Hughes, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Design; Experimental Psychology

Keywords:

Human-Autonomy Interaction; Ecological Interface Design; Unmanned Systems; Supervisory Control; Display Design

Kapadia, NirajUser | Interface
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture

User interface design is the study of the interaction between man and machine. Advancements in user interface stem from both technological innovations as well as social changes in our world. This thesis aims to apply the principles of user interface to enhance the interaction between humans and the built environment; a relationship that inherently has the intimacy and tangibility that the tech world may never experience, yet is oftentimes estranged from the user.

Architecturally, this interface can occur at thresholds, details, or material joints. As a means to test the advantages that user interface oriented design can have on a space, these principles will be applied towards redesigning an entrance to the Bay Area Rapid Transit subway station located at the Embarcadero in San Francisco. A transit station affords the greatest opportunity for interface as it requires special attention to material quality, wayfinding, lighting, security, and information transmission. By applying the adaptability of computational interfaces to the tactility of architectural spaces, a more meaningful interface between user and building can be explored.

Committee:

George Bible, MCiv.Eng (Committee Chair); Michael McInturf, MARCH (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

user interface design;transit station;interactive;interface;San Francisco

Church, Donald GlenReducing Error Rates in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Anomaly Detection via Information Presentation Optimization
Master of Science in Industrial and Human Factors Engineering (MSIHE) , Wright State University, 2015, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering
In the ISR domain, time-critical decision-making and dealing with multiple information feeds places high demands on the human. When designing aids and tools, the decision maker must be taken into account. This research looks toward designing a decision aid based the personality type of the operator. The BFI is used to determine the impact of personality and decision aid type (graphical vs. textual) on performance. Results show Openness and Agreeableness to be the strongest single factors for decision aid impact on performance. A model was also developed to show how the human takes the information and relates it to a mental model for use in making an identification. This can assist the ISR community in developing an adaptive aiding system to reduce the cycle time in the decision making process and have the greatest impact on performance.

Committee:

Mary Fendley, Ph.D. (Advisor); Richard Warren, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Pratik Parikh, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Information Technology; Personality Psychology

Keywords:

Personality; BFI; Big Five; ISR; Intelligence; Surveillance; Reconnaissance; SDT; Signal detection; visual aid; graphical aid; textual aid; interface design; perception; cognitive fit; perception model; information processing; human factors

Alsubail, Rayan A.Aesthetics vs. Functionality in User Prompt Design: A Mobile Interface Usability Study on the iOS Touch ID Feature
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
The usability of smartphone software presents unique challenges as compared to desktop software. Both aesthetics and functionality play an important role in mobile interface design. In this paper, we examined the usability of the iOS Touch ID feature with different user prompts. We compared three different types of user prompt designs for the touch ID feature, including a user prompt with no guidance (NG), a user prompt with aesthetic-first guidance design (AF), and a user prompt with functionality-first guidance design (FF). An experiment with 30 participants showed an improvement for 90% of them when using the FF prompt for the fingerprint inputs, as compared to when using the AF prompt. Additionally, the fingerprint inputs were improved for all participants using the FF prompt as compared to the NG prompt. We concluded that user prompt designs do have a material impact on the usability of mobile software, and that functionality rather than aesthetics should be the primary consideration in user prompt design.

Committee:

Chang Liu (Advisor); Frank Drews (Committee Member); Jundong Liu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Experiments

Keywords:

Usability; Touch ID Usability; Touch ID; iPhone Usability; Interface Design; User Prompt Design; Aesthetic; Aesthetic Design; Aesthetic and Usability

Cheng, YongliangDesign a Management System for Livewell Collaborative
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Livewell Collaborative is a consortium of member companies, UC students and faculty working in research and development for the 50+ market. Currently, there is no useful and usable management tool for them to manage the studio projects going on in each quarter. There are some web-based management systems that are widely used in the industry. But these current systems are not designed for managing the projects that meet the typical users’ requirements in the Livewell Collaborative. In this thesis, a new management system is designed based on the Goal-Directed Design approach to improve the user experience and facilitate the activity and service in the Livewell. Due to the time constraint, usability test is not in the scope. This thesis only focuses on research and design phases.

Committee:

Craig Vogel, MD (Committee Chair); Benjamin Meyer (Committee Member); Dale Murray, MA (Committee Member); Paul Zender, MFA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

user exprience design;management system;interface design;personas and scenarios;Goal-Directed Design;interaction design;