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Luke, Brandon ThomasROMAN POMPEII, GEOGRAPHY OF DEATH AND ESCAPE: THE DEATHS OF VESUVIUS
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Pompeii suffered a famous volcanic disaster in 79 AD. This led to a tremendous loss of life. This thesis examines that loss of life and the geography of death left behind by the eruption. Where did the citizens of Pompeii die, and how could they have avoided their fate? These are issues that are examined through geographic methodologies and the use of GIS. The results indicate a people that could have been spared with proper hazards management, and one that shows through mapping the large loss of life that accompanied one of history's most famous volcanic eruptions.

Committee:

James Tyner (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Geographic Information Science; Geography

Keywords:

GIS; Historical GIS; Critical GIS; Cultural GIS

WEI, HUENTERPRISE GIS IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: A CASE STUDY OF CINCINNATI AREA GIS
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Community Planning
This thesis is to formulate the implementation process and the organizational structure of an enterprise GIS in local government. Management issues are the focus of the thesis. Enterprise GIS is a coordinated geographic information system that supports and promotes coordinated geo-spatial data development across jurisdictional and organizational boundaries. Enterprise GIS is a revolution in local government. To achieve the advantages of an enterprise GIS, several important issues must be addressed: policy, management, and technology. The most efficient way to design an enterprise GIS is to consider the development process as a cycle of several stages with emphasis on organizational structure. The phases of an implementation plan allow an organization to establish a clear set of tasks and responsibilities within an understandable decision-making framework. Organizational restructuring is both a precursor and response to successfully adopting enterprise GIS. Cincinnati Area GIS (CAGIS) is an enterprise GIS implemented to improve service delivery and decision support across various businesses of its participants. CAGIS pioneered the concept of multi-agency cooperation in the development of geographic systems and sharing geographic data in Cincinnati Area. Like other large GIS projects, CAGIS has had both successes and failures. CAGIS is a successful enterprise GIS in terms of improved efficiency, effectiveness and enterprise benefits.

Committee:

Xinhao Wang (Advisor)

Keywords:

enterprise GIS; enterprise GIS development process; enterprise GIS organization structure; Cincinnati area GIS

McCool, Jon-Paul P.PRAGIS: a test case for a web-based archaeological GIS
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Arts and Sciences: Geography
Archaeology, like many disciplines, has employed GIS as a tool which allows a diversity of new research agendas, from predictive site modeling to combining of spatial data sets, which were once too cumbersome to be handled in entirety. With the explosion of web mapping applications over the past decade, the opportunity now exists to bring these capabilities, which once required specialized education and software, to the entire archaeological community. The Puuc Region Archaeological Geographic Information System (PRAGIS) is a methodological foray into bringing spatial analysis to professionals regardless of their computer mapping experience. With the combination of data sets pertaining to site location, landforms, modern features, recent land use patterns, as well as several basemaps, it is intended that this type of program will provide the intermediary functionality between the options of static viewing of sites and the full suite of spatial tools, and corresponding knowledge base for their implementation. http://egis.artsci.uc.edu/PRAGIS/

Committee:

Nicholas Dunning, PhD (Committee Chair); Changjoo Kim, PhD (Committee Member); Hongxing Liu, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

GIS;Archaeology;Maya GIS;PRAGIS;Puuc;Web GIS;

Topmiller, Michael A.Access, Neighborhood Walkability, & an Urban Greenway: A Qualitative GIS Approach
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Arts and Sciences: Geography
Most studies that examine the equity in spatial access to parks rely on geographic information systems (GIS) and secondary data, and measure access strictly in terms of distance, leaving out other important determinates of access. A need exists for measures of spatial access that include environmental factors such as perceptions of safety, the presence and quality of sidewalks, and heavy traffic, all of which influence levels of physical activity. This dissertation details a qualitative GIS approach that moves beyond distance-based access measures to physical activity resources and engages local adult and youth residents in a participatory research process. The qualitative GIS approach combines GIS-based distance measures with environmental audits, digital photography, Group Level Assessment, and participatory mapping in order to gain local knowledge of the environmental factors that facilitate or inhibit access to the Licking River Greenway and Trails (LRGT), an urban greenway in Northern Kentucky. Including local perceptions of the built environment provides a more realistic portrayal of access, one that includes local insights to the barriers to physical activity and that reveals potential issues related to inequities in access. By identifying equity issues and creating maps that can be utilized by local residents, this research may help ensure that the LRGT is built in a way that improves access for low-income and minority areas.

Committee:

Wendy Eisner, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Changjoo Kim, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Farrah Jacquez, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Raleigh, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

access;walkability;greenway;participatory GIS;qualitative GIS;equity

Park, Sang JunCCTV Evaluation in Cincinnati within GIS Environment for Crime Prevention.
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
This paper evaluates the newly installed Closed-circuit television (CCTV) at selected sites in Cincinnati, OH, for one year before and after camera installation dates to understand its effectiveness in crime deterrence. In order to determine the expected crime control area a viewshed study was conducted with 2D and 3D GIS mapping. To measure relative impact, the Corryville study area was compared to two other local CCTV areas in Cincinnati. There was minimal total crime reduction after CCTV installation in two selected comparison sites relative to the Corryville study area. To evaluate the different results, this paper analyzes evaluates not only the camera’s location but also social and physical characteristics of the sites to understand other possible factors affecting crime rates. The paper concludes that CCTV is not very effective in deterring certain types of crime. Moreover, the effectiveness is different depending on the physical and social characteristic of a given neighborhood. However, it is still effective in reducing some types of crime, even more so if the study area is a residential area with less mobility and limited accessibility from other high density neighborhoods. It is almost impossible to conclude that crime is reduced by CCTV because this study only considers a one year period and there are many other factors and limitations. Thus, future observation in crime rates for these areas is necessary to determine if there is a lagging effect of CCTV installation.

Committee:

Francis Russell, M.Arch B.A. (Committee Chair); Changjoo Kim, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Xinhao Wang, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

CCTV;Crime Prevention;GIS;3D GIS

Winn, Neil ThomasModeling Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Subalpine and Alpine Lakes With GIS and Remote Sensing
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2008, Geography
We use remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) tools to develop simple predictive models to define relationships between watershed variables known to influence lake DOC concentrations and lake water color in the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness in Montana and Wyoming, USA. Variables examined include watershed area, topography, and vegetation cover. The resulting GIS model predicts DOC concentrations at the lake watershed scale with a high degree of accuracy (R2 = 0.92; p = <0.001) by including only two variables: vegetation cover (representing sites of organic carbon fixation) and areas of low slope (0-5%) within the watershed (wetland sites of DOC production). Modeling with Advanced Land Imager satellite remote sensing data provided a somewhat weaker relationship between water color and DOC concentrations (R2 = 0.672; p = <0.001). We compare model predictions to each other to determine success of DOC modeling methods (R = 0.761; p = <0.001).

Committee:

Robbyn Abbitt (Advisor); Craig Williamson (Committee Member); William Renwick (Committee Member); Mary Henry (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Hydrology; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

dissolved organic carbon; GIS; land cover mapping; CDOM; Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness; GIS; remote sensing

Palem, Srikanth VenkataDesign and implementation of an Internet based Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS) for Freight Management
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2004, Geography and Planning
Growing freight has been a major concern for the transportation planning community. Increasing freight movements by all modes of transportation across the nations has lead to congestion and inadequate infrastructure. There is a rising need for Internet based freight management spatial decision support systems (SDSS) exploiting the latest Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies that can assist the transportation planning community in making informed decisions about freight related issues consisting of congestion, demand and capacity. The system being an online or web based system has the advantage of being accessed from anywhere thus making it an easy tool for sharing information across different regions. This can also be utilized for asset management, data dissemination and to model alternative freight management plans and “what if?” scenarios. There is no established framework to date for the development of such systems. A pragmatic approach is taken in this study to design and develop a conceptual framework for an Internet or web based freight management spatial decision support system (SDSS). Different components, features and technology that are required to create such systems were discussed in detail along with a variety of development and implementation strategies. The developed framework was utilized in creating a freight management SDSS for the Upper Midwest Freight Corridor Study currently underway at The University of Toledo encompassing the states in the Midwest. This has given an opportunity to look at the feasibility of implementing such systems and the difficulties faced. The freight management SDSS is currently online and is anticipated to be used by Department of Transportation officials, urban and transportation planners and homeland security officials in making informed decisions. Thus, the conceptual framework developed in this study can be used as the rudimentary framework for creating a robust freight management SDSS in the future.

Committee:

Peter Lindquist (Advisor)

Keywords:

GIS; Remote Sensing; Internet GIS; SDSS; Freight Management SDSS; Online SDSS

McHaney, MeganIntra-Hospital Transfers and the Associated Risk of Hospital-Onset Clostridium Difficile Infection
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2018, Geography
One of the greatest challenges faced by modern hospitals is the mitigation of nosocomial infections. Part of what makes their elimination so elusive is that hospitals have yet to fully understand the many facets that allow them to spread so successfully. The synergism of the hospital environment, medical practices, and the patients themselves create an ever-shifting landscape, making the infections difficult to pinpoint. Patient level factors that contribute to the acquisition of illnesses are generally well understood, as are the environmental. However, commonplace medical practices, such as intra-hospital patient transfers, could be propagating nosocomial infections. This research explores if the number of intra-hospital transfers a patient experiences could be associated with the likelihood of them being diagnosed with hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection, a common nosocomial illness. This is accomplished through mixed methods including logistic regression, social network analysis and spatial analysis utilizing geographic information systems. These indicate that there is a positive association between the number of intra-hospital transfers and diagnosis with hospital-onset Clostridium difficile. Further, local spatial dependency was found when examining the location of rooms associated with the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile. The results provide several potential avenues of intervention including reduction of unnecessary intra-hospital transfers and better targeted sanitization regimes.

Committee:

Elisabeth Root (Advisor); Courtney Hebert (Committee Member); Harvey Miller (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Clostridium Difficile;hospital-onset infection; CDI; hospital GIS; GIS; SNA

Ricci, Marcus EnricoUSING CONSERVATION GIS TO BUILD A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR OAK SAVANNA ECOSYSTEMS IN NORTHWEST OHIO
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Biological Sciences
The Oak Openings Region in Northwest Ohio is one of the few remaining remnants of oak savanna and oak barrens, or “oak savanna complex.” It is a 33,670 ha complex of globally-significant ecosystems and has more listed species than any other similarly-sized region in the state. Agriculture, drainage and fire suppression have reduced its area by half, underscoring the need to locate and prioritize appropriate habitat for acquisition and conservation. Land managers often have difficulty in implementing regional conservation efforts due to a lack of detailed ecological knowledge or habitat quality data. I used ArcGIS 9.1 to build a predictive geographic model (PGM) to detect oak savanna complex remnants and restorable patches by determining significant ecological variables from known remnant patches. Software and data used was constrained to readily available sources and ecological variables investigated included soil type, elevation, slope, topographic position and aspect. This research used predictive modeling in a new way by using it to predict areas of high probability of a rare ecosystem, rather than its typical use for creating predictive habitat models for individual taxa, multiple taxa or vegetative communities. The resulting model succeeded in locating potential remnants and restorable patches at the landscape level, as well as creating a suitability index to rank the probability of accurately predicting oak savanna complex presence at the landscape level. Both simple statistics and regression analysis were used to determine the significant predictors of oak savanna complex presence: suitable soil types; mean elevation and topographic position. Single-variable predictive models reduced the county-wide search area as much as 93% with a predictive accuracy of 87–100%. However, combining these models into a multi-variable model reduced the search area as much as 99%. Regression analysis determined that the model explaining the highest amount of variance used only two ecological variables: suitable soils and mean elevation. Validation of this two-variable model on a randomly-generated data set proved it was 90% accurate in locating high-probability areas of oak savanna complex. This research produces a scientifically robust predictive ecosystem model that more simply and systematically locates and prioritizes conservation at a landscape scale.

Committee:

Helen Michaels (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Ecology

Keywords:

Conservation GIS; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); Oak savanna; Predictive models; Restoration

Owusu, Alex B.Problems in the Design and Implementation of GIS for Urban Green Development in Ghana
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2005, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

Olembo and Rham (1987) demonstrated the age-old belief by urban dwellers that urban greens make cities livable although few solid scientific data are available on the measurable benefits of greens on the urban environment. With the advent of GIS and remote sensing technologies, the American Forests Organization has measured the role of urban greens in dollar terms in some selected American Cities. This is seen in terms of physical or tangible benefits, environmental and health benefits, stormwater control, air quality control, energy conservation, social and other non-quantifiable benefits. Similarly the idea of green development in urban areas of developing countries, including Ghana, has come of age, with the call for identification of suitable sites for green development through capture, storage, integration, manipulation, analysis, querying and displaying of data that are spatially referenced. It is in this view that this study analysis problems that are likely to be encountered in the design and implementation of a GIS for urban green development in Ghana.

While GIS and remote sensing technologies have the capacity to be utilized in the urban green development, its application in cities of Ghana may not be without problems. Some of the possible problems identified in this study, include data availability, data currency, accuracy and precision. Other data problems relate to data standardization, data merging and the database design and management. In addition to data problems, there are other problems such as personnel, financial and other resources, political and bureaucratic procedures involved and other socio-cultural barriers such as the traditional land tenure system, perception of development and attitudinal factors.

In spite of these problems, a journey of a thousand miles begins with a step; it is against this study suggested that a successful GIS development project begins on a pilot basis, involving situational assessment, needs of the end users, software and hardware requirements, requirements of the GIS (implementation plan), education and training, database design, implementation and system maintenance requirements.

Committee:

James Lein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

GIS; Green Environment; Urban Environment; Urbanization and Environment; Urbanization in Ghana; GIS and Urban Green Development

Hawthorne, Timothy LeeA People-Centered GIS Analysis of Healthcare Accessibility and Quality-of-Care
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Geography
Geographers play important roles in public health research, particularly in understanding healthcare accessibility and individual healthcare experiences. Most geographers recognize the multi-dimensionality of accessibility, including distance to provider, cost, provider availability, service accommodation, and service satisfaction. Most accessibility studies have benefited from the increased sophistication of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the availability of geocoded data. Some studies have been enhanced with semi-structured in-depth interviews to understand individual experiences of people as they access healthcare. However, few accessibility studies have explicitly utilized individual in-depth interview data in the construction of new GIS accessibility measures. Using mixed-methods including GIS analysis and individual data from semi-structured in-depth interviews, I offer satisfaction-adjusted distance (SAD) as a new way of conceptualizing accessibility in GIS. Based on my fieldwork in a predominantly lower-income community in Columbus, Ohio, I find that many residents felt neighborhood healthcare facilities offered low-quality care. Such comments suggested residents may have an added psychological distance as they attempt to access high-quality healthcare facilities. The satisfaction-adjusted distance measure, based on individual level data, accounts for the psychological distance some residents feel as they search for high-quality healthcare in urban neighborhoods. In moving beyond conventional GIS and re-conceptualizing accessibility in this way, I offer a more realistic portrayal of the issues lower income urban residents face as they attempt to access high-quality healthcare facilities. The work has theoretical implications for conceptualizing healthcare accessibility, advances the mixed-methodologies literature, and argues for a more equitable distribution of high-quality healthcare services in urban neighborhoods.

Committee:

Mei-Po Kwan (Advisor); Darla Munroe (Committee Member); Amy Ferketich (Committee Member); James Beatty (Other)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

geography; GIS; critical GIS; healthcare accessibility; Near East Columbus; community-based geography; participatory action research

Toussant, Chad AEnvironmental Science in Local Government: A Fellowship with the City of Hamilton, OH
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2013, Environmental Sciences
This report summarizes my experiences as an environmental scientist professional with the local government of Hamilton, OH. This report outlines my responsibilities over an 11-month fellowship, particularly in regards to use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It discusses specific projects such as an inflow and infiltration study with the municipality's sanitary system as well as a GIS model constructed to reenact a historic flood event in 1913. This paper presents the steps that initiated the creation of the model and highlights the procedures needed to build an animated model within GIS. This paper discusses some of the challenges and problem-solving processes used in a professional setting.

Committee:

Jonathan Levy, PhD (Advisor); Adam Berland, PhD (Committee Member); Suzi Zazycki, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Geographic Information Science

Keywords:

Thesis; Internship; GIS; Local Government; GIS Modeling; Local Government Management Fellowship

Strem Cuellar, Rosa InesPopulation Viability Analysis of the Bule-Throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) Using Individual-Based and Cohort-Based PVA Programs
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Biological Sciences
In this study, a demographic model was developed to perform a population viability analysis (PVA) of the Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis), a critically endangered species endemic to Bolivia. PVA simulations were run using individual-based (VORTEX 9.72) and cohort-based (RAMAS GIS 4.0) programs. A baseline simulation allowed the assessment of the status of the species based on estimates of extinction risk and population declines under current conditions of abundance and habitat availability over the next 50 years. The role of multiple demographic, environmental, and anthropogenic parameters was evaluated to assess changes affecting population declines and extinction risk. The baseline simulation showed that the Blue-throated Macaw has a relatively low probability of extinction during the next fifty years, but the consistent declines in abundance, small population size, and the low population growth rates make this species highly vulnerable to any change or threat. Elasticity analysis of the baseline simulation and sensitivity analysis of changes in different demographic parameters demonstrated that increases in adult mortality had the greatest effect on population growth rate and extinction risk. Simulations of anthropogenic impacts showed that small increases in habitat loss (2%) and population harvesting (3%) had drastic effects on population decline. Comparison of PVA outcomes from VORTEX and RAMAS GIS were consistent with previous studies, showing that individual-based programs like VORTEX tend to be more conservative, predicting not only higher probabilities of extinction but lower population growth rates than the cohort-based program RAMAS GIS. Results from this study emphasize the need for conservation actions aimed at protecting breeding individuals (decreasing adult mortality), preventing poaching activities, and promoting the conservation of available habitat (particularly for nesting sites). Active conservation strategies will be essential for the long-term persistence of this species.

Committee:

Juan L. Bouzat, PhD (Advisor); Karen V. Root, PhD (Committee Member); M. Gabriela Bidart-Bouzat, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Zoology

Keywords:

RAMAS GIS; BLUE-THROATED MACAW; GIS; extinction

Bain, Emily CClean Air in South Texas: An Estimation of Biogenic Tropospheric Ozone Precursors Using Various Models
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

The Clean Air Act stipulates tropospheric ozone compliance. As a result, states monitor and quantify sources of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution. As biogenic pollution is difficult to measure, models estimate biogenic emissions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Biogenic Emissions Inventory System 2.3 model and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commissions’ Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System (GloBEIS) 2 model provide emission estimates for the Corpus Christi area in Texas. Comparing model estimates, GloBEIS provides a more refined analysis of the area as it incorporates more localized data, allows for greater spatial resolution, and uses state-of-science algorithms. Two GloBEIS GIS grids, 16 and 4 square kilometers, depict variation in the spatial resolution of emissions. Regulations stipulate the application of a single day’s (i.e., State Implementation Plan Day) estimates to the remaining year. Expanding the estimates to include two three day periods, high and low ozone, and two single days, random and SIP, demonostrates the temporal variability of the model’s emission estimates. Yienger and Levy’s model provides a more refined analysis of nitrogen oxide emissions.

Committee:

Kevin Crist (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

Biogenic Hydrocarbons; Beis 2.3; Clobeis; Air Pollution; GIS

Temple-Miller, Kathleen G.Use of Radiotelemetry and GIS to Distinguish Habitat Use between Graptemys ouachitensis and G. geographica in the Scioto River
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2008, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)
A disjunct population of G. ouachitensis co-exists and interacts with G. geographica a more abundant and geographically widespread riverine species. Visual surveys in the spring of 2008 from Commercial Point to Portsmouth, OH (200km), show patchy distribution of G. ouachitensis whereas G. geographica appears more widespread. G. ouachitensis prefers wider river areas and habitats closer to shallow bars than G. geographica. However, G. geographica prefers habitats closer to tributaries than G. ouachitensis. I monitored both species during 2007 using radiotelemetry in a four-mile river reach by evaluating their habitats and species distribution using quantitative methods in GIS. Results show that G. ouachitensis prefers finer substrate and deeper water than G.geographica and random points. The habitat range examined by the adaptive local convex-hull (LoCoH) method reveals that the two species marginally overlap. Population estimates appear stable but may need monitoring should this environment change in subsequent years.

Committee:

Willem M. Roosenburg (Advisor); Matthew White (Committee Member); Michele Morrone (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology

Keywords:

Graptemys geographica; Graptemys ouachitensis; GIS, LoCoh, Scioto River; Radiotelemetry

Kitheka, Bernard M.INVENTORY OF STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE CITY OF OXFORD, OHIO
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
This report is an inventory of types of stormwater management practices, both the poor and the best, in the City of Oxford. A structure or practice is regarded as a “poor stormwater management practice” if it increases peak flow, decreases base flow, increases or does not eliminate pollution, exacerbates erosion and degrades aquatic habitats. These practices include connected impervious surfaces, poorly designed or poorly managed stormwater infrastructure, uncollected trash and pet waste. A structures and practices is regarded as a stormwater “best management practice” if it reduces peak flow, increases baseflow, eliminates or does not contribute to stormwater pollution and does not degrade streams and aquatic habitats. Such practices include pervious pavers, filter strips, storm drains, rain gardens, disconnected impervious surfaces, street sweeping, vegetated depressions and retention gardens. This study does not attempt to uncover issues of policy regarding stormwater management in the city. Some recommendations on how the City of Oxford could encourage stormwater best management practices are given in the end. A glossary of key stormwater terms is also provided.

Committee:

Mark R. Boardman, PhD (Advisor); David L. Prytherch, PhD (Committee Member); Donna S. McCullom, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Hydrology

Keywords:

Impervious cover; baseflow; peakflow; GIS; NPDES; watershed; biofilter, retention pond, vegetated swale; pervious paver; infiltration; point-source pollution

Thompson, GrantEffects of DEM resolution on GIS-based solar radiation model output: A comparison with the National Solar Radiation Database
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Geography
Solar radiation is a driving force in numerous processes on Earth. Several solar radiation models have been created to increase the areal coverage of solar radiation data. This research compares a satellite—derived solar radiation model within the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), to a GIS-based solar radiation model. This is a black-box approach that compares solar radiation model output only, internal processes and equations are not under investigation. The NSRDB is nationally available and covers 1,454 sites within the United States. The NSRDB can be used as a preliminary source of solar radiation estimates. Varying resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to determine what resolution will yield GIS-based model values that are most similar to the NSRDB. Root mean square error (RMSE) and Mean bias error (MBE) are used to compare the values of these two models. A detailed investigation of the spatial variability of the RMSE and MBE at NSRDB sites located within the study area may reveal potential sources of divergence between the two models. The comparison revealed that higher resolution DEMs did not produce solar radiation values that were closer to the NSRDB. 90 meter resolution DEM input was found to generate values closest to the NSRDB.

Committee:

Lin Liu, PhD (Committee Chair); Kevin Raleigh, PhD (Committee Member); Howard Stafford, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Solar radiation models;Digital Elevation Model;Root mean square error;Mean bias error;National Solar Radiation Database;GIS

Barsai, GaborDATA REGISTRATION WITHOUT EXPLICIT CORRESPONDENCE FOR ADJUSTMENT OF CAMERA ORIENTATION PARAMETER ESTIMATION
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Geodetic Science and Surveying

Creating accurate, current digital maps and 3-D scenes is a high priority in today’s fast changing environment. The nation’s maps are in a constant state of revision, with many alterations or new additions each day. Digital maps have become quite common. Google maps, Mapquest and others are examples. These also have 3-D viewing capability. Many details are now included, such as the height of low bridges, in the attribute data for the objects displayed on digital maps and scenes. To expedite the updating of these datasets, they should be created autonomously, without human intervention, from data streams. Though systems exist that attain fast, or even real-time performance mapping and reconstruction, they are typically restricted to creating sketches from the data stream, and not accurate maps or scenes. The ever increasing amount of image data available from private companies, governments and the internet, suggest the development of an automated system is of utmost importance.

The proposed framework can create 3-D views autonomously; which extends the functionality of digital mapping. The first step to creating 3-D views is to reconstruct the scene of the area to be mapped. To reconstruct a scene from heterogeneous sources, the data has to be registered: either to each other or, preferably, to a general, absolute coordinate system. Registering an image is based on the reconstruction of the geometric relationship of the image to the coordinate system at the time of imaging. Registration is the process of determining the geometric transformation parameters of a dataset in one coordinate system, the source, with respect to the other coordinate system, the target. The advantages of fusing these datasets by registration manifests itself by the data contained in the complementary information that different modality datasets have. The complementary characteristics of these systems can be fully utilized only after successful registration of the photogrammetric and alternative data relative to a common reference frame. This research provides a novel approach to finding registration parameters, without the explicit use of conjugate points, but using conjugate features. These features are open or closed free-form linear features, there is no need for a parametric or any other type of representation of these features The proposed method will use different modality datasets of the same area: lidar data, image data and GIS data. There are two datasets: one from the Ohio State University and the other from San Bernardino, California.

The reconstruction of scenes from imagery and range data, using laser and radar data, has been an active research area in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Automatic, or just less human intervention, would have a great impact on alleviating the “bottle-neck” that describes the current state of creating knowledge from data. Pixels or laser points, the output of the sensor, represent a discretization of the real world. By themselves, these data points do not contain representative information. The values that are associated with them, intensity values and coordinates, do not define an object, and thus accurate maps are not possible just from data. Data is not an end product, nor does it directly provide answers to applications, although implicitly, the information about the object in question is contained in the data. In some form, the data from the initial data acquisition by the sensor has to be further processed to create useable information, and this information has to be combined with facts, procedures and heuristics that can be used to make inferences for reconstruction. To reconstruct a scene perfectly, whether it is an urban or rural scene, requires prior knowledge, heuristics. Buildings are, usually, smooth surfaces and many buildings are blocky with orthogonal, straight edges and sides; streets are smooth; vegetation is rough, with different shapes and sizes of trees, bushes. This research provides a path to fuse data from lidar, GIS and digital multispectral images and reconstructing the precise 3-D scene model, without human intervention, regardless of the type of data or features in the data. The data are initially registered to each other using GPS/INS initial positional values, then conjugate features are found in the datasets to refine the registration. The novelty of the research is that no conjugate points are necessary in the various datasets, and registration is performed without human intervention.

The proposed system uses the original lidar and GIS data and finds edges of buildings with the help of the digital images, utilizing the exterior orientation parameters to project the lidar points onto the edge extracted image/map. These edge points are then utilized to orient and locate the datasets, in a correct position with respect to each other.

Committee:

Alper Yilmaz, PhD (Advisor); Carolyn Merry, PhD (Committee Member); Alan Saalfeld, PhD (Committee Member); Ron Li, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Computer Engineering; Geographic Information Science

Keywords:

automatic registration; 3D reconstruction; lidar; GIS; digital image; point free registration

DIXIT, VRUSHALIASSESSING THE APPLICABILITY OF LINKING A HYDROLOGIC MODEL WITH GIS SIMULATION TO PLAN FOR STORM WATER RUNOFF CONTROL IN THE MILL CREEK WATERSHED OF CINCINNATI
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Community Planning
Urbanization and land use change is inevitable in many watersheds. The way urbanization has been occurring till now it has been observed that the hydrologic characteristics of watershed are adversely affected in terms of ground water recharge, water pollution and storm water drainage. Urbanization leads to creation of impervious surfaces, which causes an increase in the storm water runoff volume. Runoff has traditionally been viewed as a nuisance, and a major contributor to the environmental degradation to waterways. Careful physical planning is required to minimize the disturbance caused by runoff on urbanizing watersheds. For this, planners need a vision to foresee the hydrologic impacts of land use change. A need was felt to develop a hydrologic model in a GIS platform for modeling hydrologic processes and computer simulation of catchment behavior of watershed, which would aid in relating storm water runoff to the land use change. In this research project, the TR-55 Model, one of the simpler hydrologic model that does not require extensive data inputs has been used. It employs simple, straightforward yet sophisticated techniques for runoff estimation using Curve Number method of the Soil Conservation Service and is well suited for planners, water resource professionals and decision-makers. The results from modeling suggested that urban sprawl is a major contributor to storm water runoff in the region. There are some local as well as state organizations in Cincinnati working on storm water management program but after studying their primary goals, it was observed that neither of them concentrates on curbing the adverse effects of runoff discharges into water bodies. To plan effectively to protect the watershed and other natural features, it is essential to assess the impact of different land use types in the watershed region on the runoff volume. This thesis acts a guide for planners to use hydrologic modeling in estimating runoff in urbanized and urbanizing watersheds to protect the streams, and water bodies from pollution due to storm water runoff discharges.

Committee:

Dr. Carla Chifos (Advisor)

Subjects:

Urban and Regional Planning

Keywords:

GIS; Hydrologic model; Mill Creek of Cincinnati; watershed; urbanization

Carlson, William EEvaluating Hydrologic Controls on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Communities in Ohio’s Western Allegheny Plateau
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

This research is part of a larger project to classify aquatic habitat in Ohio’s Western Allegheny Plateau (WAP). This study (1) correlates hydrologic predictor variables with biological response variables for sites on relatively undisturbed streams in Ohio’s WAP, (2) determines the dependency among 14 hydrologic variables to identify a least autocorrelated set, and (3) develops procedures for estimating hydrologic variables. These were determined via field measurement, linear regression with USGS gage data, basin-characteristics power equations, and GIS. Analysis showed high correlation among some of the variables, reducing the set to12. Aggregate fish (IBI) and macroinvertebrate (ICI) indices do not vary significantly with many hydrologic factors in undisturbed streams. In many cases, the component metrics of IBI and ICI do vary with hydrologic factors.

Committee:

Mary Stoertz (Advisor)

Keywords:

hydology; streamflow estimation; biocriteria; GIS; IBI; ICI

Dunfee, Scott E.Evolution of ORV Trails in the Little Sahara Recreation Area, Utah, 1952 - 1997
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2008, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
The purpose of this research is to produce a map and develop a model using geospatial technology that reveals the spatial and temporal distribution of ORV trails in the Little Sahara Recreation Area (LSRA) near Lynndyl, Utah, by visually extracting ORV trail features utilizing aerial photographs, spanning a timeframe from 1952 to 1997. The first research objective of this thesis is to map and examine the historical through present-day patterns of ORV trail development in the LSRA, which is located in Juab and Millard Counties, Utah. The second objective of this thesis is to develop a conceptual model that will predict the location and extent of present and future ORV trails in the LSRA and to explore the phenomenon of renegade trails and to validate the performance of the ORV trail prediction model. The modeling portion of this thesis is obtained by modeling user-generated ORV trails and environmental variables which are associated with the propagation of ORV trails using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS data are amassed to identify existing and potential ORV trail locations within the LSRA to produce a final map and model of ORV trails.

Committee:

Dorothy Sack, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography; Geotechnology

Keywords:

LSRA; Little Sahara Recreation Area; ORV trails; GIS; geospatial technology; trail development; aerial photography

Bidoshi, KostaVirtual Reality Visualization for Maps of the Future
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Geodetic Science and Surveying
In today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Computer-Assisted Maps, users' perceptual interface with a paper map is replaced, in many cases, by the analytical and logical queries of a spatial database that represents the map in a computer form. The analytical results do not give a full account of the information that can be represented since these results do not include the implicit information contained in the map. The visual display representation of the entire map is very important for the user to determine what kind of information is to be extracted and to understand the interrelations among elements of the map. Current visualization techniques (paper maps and their computer replicas) do not take full advantage of the many modalities of human perception in representing the complete possible range of spatial information. This research investigates the use of virtual reality (VR) in map visualization and reconsiders some of the fundamental concepts of cartography in the context of the VR advances. Our investigation of spatial cognition shows that VR techniques enhance the perception of spatial phenomena in maps. Three-dimensional object visualization and terrain representation are means to increase the level of perception of the real world in maps. Spatial sound techniques used to enhance the perception of real world phenomena and describe cartographic features are considered important additions to the visual representation in a VR map. Dynamic visualization is used to display real world phenomena (like clouds, rain and movement of the cars and rivers) and to attract the map users attention. Important cartographic elements such as georeferencing, scale and symbolization are reformulated in the context of VR map visualization. User interaction with the VR map environment enhances the feeling of the realistic presence within the surroundings. Intelligent VR map visualization improves the perception of spatial phenomena through visual representation of GIS queries and analysis. In all, then, this project aims at setting the framework for building an "virtual perceptual reality" for mapping environments. This will allow us to immerse users into the mapped entities in realistic ways using somewhat conventional desktop computers.

Committee:

Alan Saalfeld (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geodesy

Keywords:

Cartography; GIS; Virtual Reality; Mapping; Spatial Data

Arbour, Thomas PaulINTERNSHIP WITH THE OHIO NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2005, Environmental Sciences
My internship with the Ohio Natural Heritage Program assisted with the transition of the Ohio Natural Heritage Database from a paper to electronic geographic information system. I was hired to convert all data in Ohio’s coastal region to digital information. In addition, I created GIS layers of wetlands and conservation lands. I also developed an ecological monitoring project at Irwin Prairie State Nature Preserve, located in northwestern Ohio.

Committee:

Avram Primack (Advisor)

Keywords:

GIS; Endangered Species; Ohio; Lake Erie; Ohio Natural Heritage Program; Ohio Department of Natural Resources; Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves

Pietrzycki, James MAnalytical Hierarchy Process in Pavement Management Systems
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Civil Engineering
Roadways continually deteriorate and form cracks. These cracks can expand and cause problems for drivers. It is up to an engineer to decide what type of maintenance needs to be done on the roads. By using pavement management systems (PMS), the engineer can make an informed decision for road repair. Currently, analytical hierarchy process is not being used within the City of Toledo Engineering Services PMS. By adding this multi-criteria decision-making into the current system, the engineer can have an initial feasible solution without having to do much work. The current pavement management system involves GIS, Microsoft Excel, and network optimization. GIS contains the information of the cracks within the pavement, but is not used for much else at this point. A database of the roadways is stored in Microsoft Excel and is the primary use of PMS for the city. Network optimization was just introduced to the city and has not been fully implemented yet. While, Excel is a strong tool to use, GIS and network optimization can make the system stronger and more efficient. GIS can be a powerful tool to use for any PMS. Using the ModelBuilder within the program can do all of the PMS work in a short amount of time. Before AHP can be utilized, all of the criteria must be formed. A three-tier hierarchy was formed for this research. The first tier included pavement engineering factors, other engineering factors, and non-engineering factors. The tier below the first included the criteria that made up each of the factors that include traffic level, condition rating, utility projects planned, complaints/input, and roads near an important facility. GIS tools such as buffers and intersects helped create some of the data that was missing from the start. Once the criteria were established, pairwise comparisons were made to formulate the final weights for each criterion. This research integrated AHP into GIS by using the ModelBuilder to give the roadways weights. These weights helped dictate the results by taking the highest weights for each treatment type and assigning them to the budget until it was fulfilled. Network optimization was used to figure out what percentage of the budget would be used for each treatment. This tool uses a linear regression model and the Monte Carlo simulation to figure out how the roadways will deteriorate throughout the years. By placing an end goal, such as only wanting 10% of the roads to be in poor condition, the budget can be allocated to suggest how to improve the roads each year. A $1,000,000 budget was used and allocated in this study. After the roadways were selected, various situations were created to see how the results would differ from the initial solution. The data, AHP weights, the budget, network optimization percentages were all changed to form different results. Network optimization was also taken out for one of the results to see what would happen if you only used the highest weights. Depending on the user, many of these variables will change and it was shown that they could be easily made to form new results. AHP was able to aid in the selection of roadways and form logical results. However, the results should be used as a suggestion and should be further looked into to formulate a final result. The ease of tools of GIS, AHP, and network optimization should be used to make PMS more efficient for any governing city.

Committee:

Eddie Chou (Advisor); Peter Lindquist (Committee Member); Cyndee Gruden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Transportation Planning

Keywords:

AHP; GIS; Pavement Management

Lockshin, SamSpatial characterization of Western Interior Seaway paleoceanography using foraminifera, fuzzy sets and Dempster-Shafer theory
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Geology
The spatial paleoceanography of the entire Western Interior Seaway (WIS) during the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event has been reconstructed quantitatively for the first time using Geographic Information Systems. Models of foraminiferal occurrences—derived from Dempster-Shafer theory and driven by fuzzy sets of stratigraphic and spatial data—reflect water mass distributions during a brief period of rapid biotic turnover and oceanographic changes in a greenhouse world. Dempster-Shafer theory is a general framework for approximate reasoning based on combining information (evidence) to predict the probability (belief) that any phenomenon may occur. Because of the inherent imprecisions associated with paleontological data (e.g., preservational and sampling biases, missing time, reliance on expert knowledge), especially at fine-scale temporal resolutions, Dempster-Shafer theory is an appropriate technique because it factors uncertainty directly into its models. Locality data for four benthic and one planktic foraminiferal species and lithologic and geochemical data from sites distributed throughout the WIS were compiled from four ammonoid biozones of the Upper Cenomanian and Early Turonian stages. Of the 14 environmental parameters included in the dataset, percent silt, percent total carbonate, and depositional environment (essentially water depth) were associated with foraminiferal occurrences. The inductive Dempster-Shafer belief models for foraminiferal occurrences reveal the positions of northern and southern water masses consistent with the oceanographic gyre circulation pattern that dominated in the seaway during the Cenomanian- Turonian Boundary Event. The water-mixing interface in the southwestern part of the WIS was mostly restricted to the Four Corners region of the US, while the zone of overlap of northern and southern waters encompassed a much larger area along the eastern margin, where southern waters occasionally entered from the tropics. In addition to its paleospatial significance, this study introduces a rigorous, quantitative methodology with which to analyze paleontological occurrence data, assess the degree of uncertainty and prioritize regions for additional data collection.

Committee:

Margaret Yacobucci, Dr. (Advisor); Peter Gorsevski, Dr. (Committee Member); Andrew Gregory, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Earth; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Geology; Marine Geology; Oceanography; Paleoecology; Paleontology; Statistics

Keywords:

paleontology; GIS; foraminifera; species distribution modeling; fuzzy sets; Dempster-Shafer theory; paleoceanography; Western Interior Seaway; Cenomanian; Turonian; spatial modeling; Bayesian statistics; Oceanic Anoxic Event; uncertainty modeling; ArcGIS

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