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Johnston, Justin DanielThe xYz Quintet: A Case Study in Arts Presentation Strategies
Doctor of Musical Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Music
Beginning in the fall of 2013 and continuing through May of 2014, the xYz Quintet presented a concert season comprising traditional concerts, known as the masterworks series, and an education project called The Chamber Music Experience. In addition to the procedural story of the ensemble’s first season, the author describes the strategic and analytical techniques he employed for the planning, presentation and evaluation of the concert season. The author divides his writing into four principle topics: mission statement, charter, minimum viable product and negotiation technique. Through case studies and practical examples, the author demonstrates the various ways these concepts applied to the planning, presentation and evaluation of the ensemble’s concert season. The author concludes the concert season was moderately successful as it met the goals outlined in the ensemble’s mission statement and project charters but also identifies areas of improvement for future seasons. In addition, the author recommends further research into the role of arts entrepreneurship in the modern music curriculum.

Committee:

David Bruenger, DMA (Advisor); Russell Mikkelson, DMA (Committee Member); Wayne Lawson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

xYz; arts presentation; music entrepreneurship; arts entrepreneurship; woodwind quintet

Stevens, Christopher E.SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND EARNED INCOME OPPORTUNITIES: AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS IN PREDICTING ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTION AMONG NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2008, Organizational Behavior

The increased attention recently paid to the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship has focused little attention on the process of social entrepreneurship or how entrepreneurial decisions are made in a social context. Focusing on the activity of nonprofit organizations that engage in risk-bearing, innovative activities in pursuit of a social outcome (in a nonprofit context, earned income opportunities), I examine the likelihood of entrepreneurial action among nonprofit organizations operating in an environment of resource scarcity. Given the increasingly-constrained resource needs affecting many nonprofit organizations in the United States, rational economic theory would suggest that nonprofit organizations would examine, if not pursue, earned income opportunities (EIOs). Yet, recent investigations of this phenomenon suggest that the rates of activity among nonprofit organizations with regards to EIOs vary greatly from industry to industry, and may be significantly less overall than economic logic would suggest.

I seek to better understand why the presumed positive relationship between economic need and entrepreneurial action does not exist at the level we expect, and suggest that that relationship is mediated or moderated by three key institutional factors: organizational competency/capability, organizational identity orientation, and the salience of stakeholder groups. Through a mixed-methods study employing exploratory and confirmatory interviews and a comprehensive survey of nonprofit executive directors and development executives, I seek to investigate whether these factors result in the conflicted resource-action relationship currently observed and hypothesized in the nonprofit sector.

The findings of my research support the view that institutional pressures, in particular the salience of stakeholders, and the perception of organizational capabilities, serve as key drivers and definers of an organization's likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activity. They also identify important demographic influences on nonprofit entrepreneurial activity in organizational age and revenue base - factors which play a significant role in moderating these institutional pressures. Finally, they point to fundamental differences between current and future entrepreneurial action, with different variables playing differing roles in predicting entrepreneurial activity. These results suggest that not only do the institutional factors examined here impact nonprofit entrepreneurship, but that different types of entrepreneurship exist, each of which may be influenced by significantly different elements.

Committee:

Diana Bilimoria, PhD (Committee Chair); Ronald Fry, PhD (Committee Member); Melvin Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Salipante, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship; nonprofit organizations; earned income; institutional theory

White, Jason C.The State of Entrepreneurship Across The Ohio Arts Sector: Generating nascent data for informing arts entrepreneurship education and practice
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Arts Administration, Education and Policy
Researchers from around the globe have long evidenced entrepreneurship; broadly defined in the literature as the organizing of organizations; usually analyzed through an economic lens and frequently evidenced by way of for-profit business ownership, legal incorporation and/or organizational development. For over half a century of rapid growth in the academic field, the study of entrepreneurship has aided students, researchers, practitioners and policy makers in initiating both business and organizational development within various fields and sectors of human society. However, perhaps due to the prevailing view of entrepreneurship as the establishment of a new for-profit business, the preference for an economic lens of analysis, and to the absence of a national sectoral frame for the arts, entrepreneurship researchers have yet to conduct empirical research evidencing entrepreneurship as it occurs across a defined arts sector. Given the absence of the arts sector as a research focus within top tier entrepreneurship journals, there is a need for researchers to conduct empirical entrepreneurship research for the purposes of informing arts entrepreneurship education and practice. To address this need, the study lays a foundation for comparative analysis of (1) owner/founder demographics, (2) entrepreneurial characteristics, (3) entrepreneurship practice and (4) venture trends and tendencies in a defined arts sector. After generating the data for analysis, I analyze the data through the lens of a conceptual framework, utilizing key findings as a catalyst for guiding and informing research directions for the future.

Committee:

Sonia B. Manjon, PhD (Advisor); Karen E. Hutzel, PhD (Committee Member); Candace J. Stout, PhD (Committee Member); Margaret J. Wyszomirski, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Entrepreneurship; Fine Arts

Keywords:

arts entrepreneurship; arts policy; entrepreneurship; arts management

Mendoza Abarca, Karla IvettEssays on Social Venture Antecedents, Consequences, and Strategies
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Social ventures are organizations created to exploit opportunities for social value creation (Lumpkin et al., 2011; Zahra et al., 2009). In fact, scholars argue that the main distinction between commercial and social entrepreneurship lies in the relative priority given to social wealth creation versus economic wealth creation (Mair & Marti, 2006). Given the increasing importance of social ventures, understanding the internal and external dynamics of such organizations would be beneficial for research and practice. The following three essays explore antecedents, consequences, and strategies of social ventures. Essay 1. This essay addresses the need for research concerning environmental influences on social entrepreneurship by specifically focusing on the environmental conditions that affect social venture creation rates. Though some scholars have suggested that entrepreneurs respond to certain socioeconomic conditions by engaging in social venturing activity (e.g. Weerawardena & Sullivan Mort, 2006), compelling empirical evidence is still lacking. A prevalent explanation of social venture creation is the market failure perspective. This perspective holds that social ventures are created to address social issues that the market and the government have failed to deal with effectively (Austin et al., 2006). In this essay, I delve into the market failure perspective to explain social venture creation rates and provide an empirical test at the macro-level. The results in this essay support the market failure perspective by suggesting that social venture creation rates increase with suboptimal economic conditions and high levels of government failure in dealing with social issues. Essay 2. Research investigating how social entrepreneurship influences commercial entrepreneurship remains scarce in the social entrepreneurship literature. Following an ecological perspective (Hannan & Freeman, 1977), Essay 2 predicts that social venture creation exerts a negative influence on commercial venture creation, as social and commercial ventures compete for similar resources at the time of founding. Previous research has also suggested that a positive relationship exists, but it has failed to account for the mechanism through which a positive influence may occur. Following the social entrepreneurship and new venture creation literatures, it is proposed that such mechanism is social value creation. That is, social ventures create better environments in which commercial ventures can be created. This effect, in turn, diminishes the negative influence suggested by population ecology. The results strongly support the hypothesized competitive relationship between social and commercial ventures. Similarly, the results suggest that social ventures, in fact, create social value that improves the wellbeing of the region in which they operate. Essay 3. Social entrepreneurship scholars have called for research that addresses factors that may lead or prevent failure among social ventures (e.g. Haugh, 2005). Essay 3 examines a series of factors that affect social ventures’ failure at different levels of analysis, specifically at the firm- and environmental-levels. Following both Resource Dependence Theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) and the Resource Based View (Barney, 1991), I propose that nonprofit social ventures engage in strategic actions to ensure the continuous flow of resources. Such actions, in turn, reduce the probability of organizational failure. The results suggested a U-shape relationship between earned income and the probability of nonprofit failure. This relationship holds when the nonprofit social venture generates high proportions of income from unrelated business activities, but becomes an inverted-U when the proportions of unrelated business income are smaller. The availability of financial capital had a similar effect on the relationship. Some concerns are raised regarding one of the definitions of entrepreneurialism in the nonprofit sector. That is, the requirement that nonprofits generate a good proportion of their income from commercial activities. The results suggest that earned income generation is a good strategy to prevent failure among nonprofits, as long as these organizations do not over rely on this source of revenue.

Committee:

Sergey Anokhin (Committee Chair); Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Member); Guiffrida Alfred (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship

Keywords:

social entrepreneurship; nonprofit entrepreneurship; market failure; population ecology; social value creation; resource dependence theory; social venture creation; social venture failure

Baker, David LeeToward a Theoretical Model of the Principal Determinants of Country-Level Entrepreneurship
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Business Administration / Department of Management and Information Systems

This dissertation distinguishes the potential causalities of country-level entrepreneurship (CLE). The literature reveals structural differences among nations, noting that more advanced countries have an improved foundation of financial resources and stronger infrastructure of telephone and Internet lines, along with roads and railroads to adequately service businesses. I gather from the literature that there are six main factors to which references are often made. These factors can be organized into an original 2x3 model so as to provide symmetry to the study. From this matrix I infer six independent variables and determine how these variables forecast CLE intensity by taking the characteristics of a nation’s abilities into account. These variables are divided into the two categories (the matrix’s columns) of resources and infrastructure, and then these categories are further partitioned into three clusters each (the matrix’s rows) consisting of their specific physical, movable and virtual realms. Following up with empirical research, I select and compile a data set of 183 countries and then I divide them into three classes, based upon their levels of gross national income (GNI) per capita, as the underdeveloped, developing and fully developed. (Some nations fell out of the analyses due to lack of data). My study undertakes a dual research thrust, the first of which entails hypotheses on the similarities and dissimilarities in entrepreneurial activity between the three categories of world countries from an entrepreneurial and innovative competitiveness standpoint.

A dual question is: For those country classes, could my dependent variables to be tested also be viewed as new proxy variables for entrepreneurship and determined by comparison with the more customary entrepreneurship measures? The literature review uncovers that entrepreneurship researchers traditionally use either Business Entry Rate (new registrations as a percentage of the total) or New Businesses Registered pc (the number of registrations on a per capita basis) as vital indicators and proxy measures for CLE. Since entrepreneurship data of this type are often unreliable for the underdeveloped nations but not the others, a distinctive approach to provide some alternate proxy variables appears more appropriate. Invention being an important contributor to entrepreneurship, I take into account a country’s intellectual property rights and propose using Royalties Paid and Royalties Received as more convenient, alternate proxies for the customary ones. Regressed separately on all six independent variables of my proposed 2x3 matrix, these alternate proxies of CLE appear comparable to the two customary proxies. As seven of the hypotheses were supported, with four of them strongly supported, this study makes a contribution towards an understanding of country-level entrepreneurship by practitioners and academics.

Committee:

William Acar, PhD (Committee Chair); Sergey Anokhin, PhD (Committee Member); Jaume Franquesa, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Ellis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship; Management; Marketing

Keywords:

entrepreneurship; country-level entrepreneurship; country class; business entry rate; new businesses registered per capita rate; royalties paid; royalties received

Heidelberg, Brea M.The Language of Cultural Policy Advocacy: Leadership, Message, and Rhetorical Style
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Arts Policy and Administration
Since the creation of the NEA in 1965, arts advocates have had an established venue, at the federal level, to advocate for favorable policy incomes, usually in the form of continued or increased public arts funding. Engaging in advocacy as part of a larger policymaking process requires actors inside and outside of government to employ various methods of persuasion. My dissertation explores some of these methods, particularly rhetorical techniques as a way to investigate policy change management. I employ theories from political science, public policy, and rhetoric to analyze advocacy arguments employed by NEA chairs. To conduct the study, I constructed a theoretical lens that provides a foundation, rooted in the policymaking process, that incorporates the importance of ideas and their rhetorical expression. This project explores the ideas used to construct arts-advocacy arguments, their rhetorical evolution, the various ways rhetorical leaders use them, and finally, how those arguments are used to create or manage policy change. Although some previous research discusses advocacy arguments, the role rhetoric plays in the strategic navigation of the policymaking process deserves additional scholarly attention. This is especially true in the specific context of public art funding. To date, research about arts advocacy has not provided a holistic view of the policymaking process, or of the range of advocacy arguments. By addressing both these gaps, though, I do not seek to imply a causal relationship between particular advocacy arguments and financial rewards. Instead, I identify and present themes in past arts-advocacy arguments to assist with the construction and deployment of future arts advocacy.

Committee:

Margaret Wyszomirski, PhD (Committee Chair); Wayne Lawson, PhD (Committee Member); Gerald Kosicki, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Communication; Cultural Resources Management; Entrepreneurship; History; Public Policy

Keywords:

advocacy; arts advocacy; arts policy; cultural policy; policy entrepreneurship; National Endowment for the Arts; federal agency leadership; public arts funding; advocacy coalition; advocacy rhetoric

Rousseau, John PeterThe History and Impact of Unit 8200 on Israeli Hi-Tech Entrepreneurship
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2017, Business Administration
This thesis examines the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) military intelligence Unit 8200 and its propensity for producing successful high-tech entrepreneurs. The paper begins with a historical background of Unit 8200 and a description of its current state. It then introduces Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) as a conceptual framework for analysis. To assess the EO of Unit 8200 alumni, three methods are utilized: semi-structured interviews with members of Israel’s startup community supplemented by relevant media reports, computer-aided-textual-analysis (CATA) of Initial Public Offering (IPO) prospectuses from firms founded by Unit alumni, and financial ratio analysis of those same firms. The results show that these companies have a higher propensity for autonomy, risk-taking, and innovativeness than industry peers. It also showed a negative propensity for proactiveness.

Committee:

Ikenna Uzuegbunam (Advisor)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship

Keywords:

Israel; Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Orientation; IDF; Unit 8200

Radulovich, Lori AnnAn Empirical Examination of The Factors Affecting The Internationalization of Professional Service SMEs: The Case of India
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2008, Nance College of Business Administration
This dissertation examines the factors contributing to the internationalization and performance of professional service small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in emerging markets. Specifically, this research documents the relationships among a professional service SME’s entrepreneurial orientation, human capital, the degree of internationalization, service innovation, and financial performance. Entrepreneurship literature has recently been extended to the international environment, confirming a positive influence on firm internationalization. Research which examines human capital is limited, yet has potential to contribute to service research. Separately, innovation has been examined from several research disciplines, yet has not been integrated in a model with an entrepreneurial orientation, firm internationalization, and human capital. This dissertation research integrates literature from multiple disciplines to create and test an integrative framework of professional service SME internationalization and performance. The largest contribution of this research is to the fields of entrepreneurship and international business, resulting from confirmation of the positive effect of an entrepreneurial orientation on SME internationalization. However, it is also the researcher’s intent to recognize the unique contribution of human capital to the profitable internationalization and performance of knowledge-intensive professional services firms. A multidisciplinary integrative service performance framework that extends international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, management, and strategy literature is supported by a sample of international professional service SMEs in India. Research conclusions and managerial implications are also provided.

Committee:

Rajshekhar Javalgi, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Robert Scherer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Andrew Gross, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nozar Alaolmolki, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Marketing; Statistics

Keywords:

Services, Entrepreneurship; Internationalization; Human Capital; Innovation; Performance; Emerging Market; Professional Services

ZOZULYA, ANTONINASMALL BUSINESS FINANCING PROGRAMS IN THE US AND THE POTENTIAL FOR THEIR APPLICATION IN UKRAINE
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Community Planning
The present research is devoted to small business financing programs in the United States with a view to formulating appropriate recommendations for Ukraine. Small businesses benefit the economy by employing a disproportionate number of people, if compared to larger companies. They also offer economic opportunities for women and the economically and socially disadvantaged. In addition, small companies act as a barometer of economic performance and shock absorbers in periods of economic recession. However, both in the United States and in Ukraine, the small business sector faces many challenges, particularly financial ones. Since Ukraine is moving toward a market economy, the development of the small business sector is one of its top priorities. However, the existing macroeconomic, market, administrative and legislative conditions are not conducive to business start-up and development. Furthermore, small business financing programs in Ukraine have not been fully developed and tested. As a result of this research, it has been proved that the financial framework of economic policy plays a crucial role in entrepreneurial and small business formation and growth. To overcome the small business problem of gaining access to traditional sources of financing, and thus, to assist them in meeting their financial needs at various stages, a variety of private and public sources, or a combination of the two has been created in the US. While traditional sources of financing have proved least effective and hard to obtain, such alternative sources as venture capital, mezzanine, and angel financing, as well as several government-sponsored federal, state, and local programs, have been found to be fairly effective. The 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program and the 504 Loan Program were accessed to be the most important lending programs in the US with the potential for being replicated in Ukraine.

Committee:

DAVID EDELMAN (Advisor)

Subjects:

Urban and Regional Planning

Keywords:

entrepreneurship; government small business financing; venture capital; angel financing; Ukraine

SMITH, BRETT R.ENTREPRENEURIAL TEAM FORMATION: THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INTENSITY AND DECISION MAKING ON ORGANIZATIONAL EMERGENCE
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Business Administration : Business Administration
This dissertation offers a lens to understand the critical processes of organizational emergence by examining the network processes and outcomes in the development of early stage entrepreneurial founding teams. In addition, this dissertation explores the important boundary condition of high technology and its effect on the early stage network processes. Using a mixed methodology approach, this dissertation explores the question of how founders construct organizations. In the quantitative section, panel data is used to explore how the level of technological intensity affects the organizational demography and social network structure of the founding team. Results from logistic regression show the level of technology affects the motives through which founders constructed organizations. Increasing levels of technology are associated with greater demographic diversity and lower density social networks. These findings highlight the role of technological intensity as an important antecedent to organizational demography and social network structure. In the qualitative section, in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 early stage entrepreneurs and team members to explore how the decision making process affects the construction of organizations. Through this analysis, a series of three grounded conceptual models are developed to explain the mutual decision making process of entrepreneurial team formation: 1.) the first model highlights the role of individual level factors (e.g., attitude towards networking) and situational factors (e.g., geography) in the identification and screening processes of decision making; 2.) the second conceptual model explores the opportunity costs of pursuing different search processes in the identification of team members; and 3.) the third model identifies the overall marginal benefits of different search processes after accounting for both the benefits and costs of each search process. Taken together, these models describe how the decision making process affects organizational emergence.

Committee:

Dr. Glen Kreiner (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Management

Keywords:

entrepreneurial teams; entrepreneurship; organizational emergence; social networks; demography; high technology

Curtis, Wayne R.Social Entrepreneurship and Wealth-Building Plans: Creative Strategies for Working Class Americans
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
This study investigated how the elements of social entrepreneurship with wealth-building strategies can advance the creation of wealth and serve as a mechanism for social change. This research takes a modest first step toward demystifying social entrepreneurship, better understanding the phenomenon, and exploring the relevance of wealth-building in social entrepreneurial activity. Specifically, this exploratory study used a multiple case study design to understand how existing social entrepreneurial ventures include wealth-building strategies, such as employee stock ownership plans for working class Americans. The concept of social entrepreneurship is relatively new. There is general agreement that the concept combines a passion for pursuing social mission with business discipline and innovation to achieve sustainable social change, such as wealth-building for employees. There is considerably less knowledge about the connection of social entrepreneurship to wealth building; these two concepts are generally treated as separate and often unrelated. Nonetheless, there are various tools utilized to advance wealth building, such as savings plans that are matched by foundations, debt-reduction counseling services, and entrepreneurial training programs to help start small businesses. This exploratory study may represent the first attempt to combine the discussion of social entrepreneurship and wealth building in the same research discussion. The final cases used in this study represent three distinct business industries: the educational sector, the advocacy industry, and a professional firm specializing in design and build architecture. Each of the three cases has been in existence for a minimum of 25 years, and the founders of the companies are directly or tangentially still involved in day-to-day operations. Two of the cases have an employee stock ownership plan and the remaining one another form of wealth building. This dissertation is accompanied by the author’s MP4 file, titled Author_IntroductionCurtis.mp4. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at Ohiolink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Elizabeth L. Holloway, PhD (Committee Chair); Mitch Kusy, PhD (Committee Member); Lisa Kreeger, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Thompson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Costs; Economics; Finance; Labor Economics; Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Social Research

Keywords:

business costs; economics, social entrepreneurship; wealth building; labor economics; organizational behavior; organizational theory; finance; financial independence

Veach, June PainterPreparation for entrepreneurship in Home Economics education : a national perspective /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1987, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Home economics;Entrepreneurship

Woldegies, Belete DeribieEconomic Empowerment Through Income Generating Activities and Social Mobilization: The Case of Married Amhara Women of Wadla Woreda, North Wollo Zone, Ethiopia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
Wadla Woreda is located in North Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. The woreda is predominantly agrarian and the population produces mainly subsistence food crops with small amounts of cash crops. Access to basic social and economic services such as health, education, and employment for rural communities is limited due to poor development of rural infrastructure. Wadla is one of the food insecure woredas in the region. As a result some of the people are internally displaced and a portion of the population is included in safety-net programs. The Wadla Woreda is prone to famine due to severe droughts, soil degradation, primitive modes of production, religious and cultural attitudes toward work, and bad governance. Due to male domination, women are victims of social discrimination, gender-based violence, and other socio-economic barriers. In the woreda women have limited access to resources. Their employment rate and representation in local government are low. Their economic status is marginal. At times, their income generation is negative, meaning their returns are less than what they invested, leading them into absolute poverty. To redress existing economic problems and tendencies in relation to women, there are some initiatives organizing women in the woreda into groups and clusters so they can better tackle poverty themselves. The purpose of the study is to add empirical evidence to existing knowledge on Income Generating Activities (IGA) by identifying opportunities for women in the woreda and by sharing success stories of women’s advancement while also identifying barriers. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide information to concerned stakeholders for scaling up IGAs and for enhanced social mobilization. The dissertation builds upon an earlier project I conducted that included income generating activities and advancement among the women. In this follow-up research study a qualitative methodology is used based on case study interviews of 10 married women entrepreneurs already benefiting from Nurture Education and Development (NED) and other similar NGOs and stakeholders. Focus group discussions including their supporting family members are also used. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Philomena Essed, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Laura Morgan Roberts, Ph.D (Committee Member); Norma Romm, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Area Planning and Development; Economics; Finance; Gender Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

married women; income generating activities; economic empowerment; entrepreneurship; Ethiopia; Amhara; Wadla; North Wollo; wives; gender equality; micro-finance; human rights; gender; leadership; social mobilization

Welter, Christopher ThomasDistinguishing Opportunity Types: Why It Matters and How To Do It
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Business Administration
While opportunities have become a focus of entrepreneurship research, the understanding of different opportunity types has not yet become clear. Prior research has struggled to empirically separate discovery opportunities from creation opportunities. This dissertation addresses discovery and creation opportunities in three ways. The first chapter further develops the theory behind opportunity types in order to clarify the boundary conditions between discovery and creation opportunities. The second chapter addresses the empirical challenges of investigating opportunity types by conducting a mixed methods study of the impact of opportunity type on competitive advantage in the face of information disclosure. The study uses frequentist statistics, Bayesian statistics, and qualitative analysis to demonstrate the robustness of the findings. The third chapter clarifies the boundaries between creation opportunities and two other constructs in entrepreneurship research: effectuation and bricolage. This dissertation contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by advancing the understanding of opportunity types, investigating their relationship to firm performance, and distinguishing opportunity types from other concepts in the field.

Committee:

Sharon Alvarez (Advisor); Jay Barney (Committee Member); Ben Campbell (Committee Member); Shaker Zahra (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship

Keywords:

entrepreneurship; opportunities; creation; discovery; effectuation

Chang, Woong JoSmall Arts Organizations: Supporting their Creative Vitality
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Art Education
Small arts organizations (SAOs) have not been studied in the field of cultural policy and arts administration, despite their purported importance. This dissertation is intended to identify ways to support the creative vitality of SAOs. To that end, it examines the dynamic ecology of SAOs, highlighting their significant role in the arts world. It explores SAOs’ relationships particularly by looking at their entrepreneurial practices, use of IT, and their support systems. Conducting extensive personal communications with various agents involved with SAOs, this study incorporates Multiple Case Narratives on selected SAOs in Columbus, Ohio and cross-references them with an in-depth case study on a local small theatre. The findings indicate that SAOs’ entrepreneurial practices and their effective use of technology are crucial for stabilizing the balance between their mission and money, thus enhancing their creative vitality. Finally, implications are discussed, and recommendations are made to create cultural policy that is custom tailored for SAOs.

Committee:

Wyszomirski Margaret, PhD (Committee Chair); Michael Camp, PhD (Committee Member); Funk Clayton, PhD (Committee Member); Lawson Wayne, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Public Policy

Keywords:

small arts organization; entrepreneurship; bricolage; technology; social media; arts administration; cultural policy

Stephens, Heather MarieThree Essays in Regional Economics
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics

In the United States, the economic recession and the ongoing economic restructuring have led researchers and policy makers to revisit their assumptions about the drivers of economic growth.

My research seeks to understand the drivers of economic growth in two regions of the United States that have suffered the most during the recent period – Appalachia and the Great Lakes Region. Appalachia is a predominantly rural region with a long history of high poverty and economic isolation. Because this region has low levels of human capital and the other resources that are typically associated with economic growth, in Chapter 1, I consider whether entrepreneurs can contribute to growth in that region. Using proprietor and small business shares as proxies for entrepreneurship and self-employment, and employing instrumental variables (IVs) and other approaches to control for endogeneity, I find that self-employment is positively associated with employment and income growth. This suggests that building entrepreneurial capacity may be one of the few economic development strategies with positive payoffs in the Appalachian region.

The Great Lakes region is comprised of eight states which border the Great Lakes and which historically benefited economically from this proximity. The eastern portion of the Great Lakes region is the heart of the nation’s rust belt. With the decline of manufacturing and the ongoing economic restructuring, this region’s economy has suffered. Policymakers are interested in whether there are economic development opportunities associated with access to the Great Lakes and their natural and recreational amenities and if and how environmental and industrial disamenities might affect this potential.

In Chapter 2, I look at county-level population and employment growth in the Great Lakes region, drawing on the Tiebout (1956) notion that “people vote with their feet” and reside in places with particular bundles of economic and site-specific public goods and amenities, which may include urban, natural, and environmental amenities (or disamenities). I find little evidence that lake amenities are associated with overall population and employment growth in the region. However, consistent with natural amenities being normal or superior goods, I find that individuals with higher human capital are more likely to migrate toward counties located on one of the Great Lakes.

By using county-level data I may not be able to distinguish between those households that live directly on or within a short distance of one of the Great Lakes and those that live within a coastal county but farther from the lake. Thus, in Chapter 3, I use individual housing transactions for Northeast Ohio to examine more closely the value of lake amenities. This analysis will use the Rosen (1976) hedonic framework in which, within a labor market, housing prices can be used to uncover the values associated amenities and disamenities. Using a unique dataset that includes detailed geographically defined amenities and disamenities, I find that there is strong value from being immediately next to Lake Erie, but little evidence of additional willingness to pay by households in this region for other lake-related amenities.

Committee:

Mark Partridge (Advisor); Elena Irwin (Advisor); H. Allen Klaiber (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

regional economics; economic development; entrepreneurship; natural amenities; housing demand; Great Lakes

Shirkman, JordanThe Viability of the Low-Profit Limited Liability Company: What it Will Take for the L3C to Become Social Entrepreneurship's Next Big Thing
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2011, Business Administration
The low-profit limited liability company (L3C) has emerged as a result of the growing fourth sector of the American economy. As social entrepreneurship grows and a desire for businesses to make a social impact along with profits continues, some believe the solution is a “for-profit business with a non-profit soul” as the L3C creator Robert Lang has dubbed the new legal entity. L3C legislation has been ratified in eight states, starting with Vermont. Due to the ambiguity and newness of the L3C, there are a number of unanswered questions about the legal status, from funding to branding. Debates have swirled about the legitimacy and necessity of the L3C status since its inception. This paper attempts to answer the question of what must change for L3Cs to become the legal option of choice for social enterprise. By conducting phone interviews with founders and managers of 16 Vermont-established L3Cs and asking questions about the hurdles, hardships and happenings of L3Cs, this paper concludes L3Cs should take advantage of their branding platform to advance as the legal status of choice for social business, and that L3Cs must individually pursue foundations with nearly identical social missions if they hope to acquire program related investments. Using qualitative-interpretivist exploratory interviewing methodology, this is one of the first qualitative research studies on low-profit limited liability companies.

Committee:

Justin L. Davis, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship

Keywords:

L3C; low-profit limited liability company; social entrepreneurship; fourth sector; Vermont; qualitative interviews

Fox, Julie MOrganizational entrepreneurship and the organizational performance linkage in university extension
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Agricultural Education
Entrepreneurial actions are viewed as critical pathways to improved performance in organizations of all types, sizes, and ages. Within the growing body of literature there is a need to investigate entrepreneurship in order to provide theoretical and practical applications for existing organizations. This study examined the relationship between Organizational Entrepreneurship and Organizational Performance within the Cooperative Extension System, a national educational network extending the research-based knowledge of land-grant colleges and universities. This study measured both Entrepreneurial Orientation, based on Covin and Slevin’s scale (1989), and Entrepreneurial Management, based on a scale developed by Brown, Davidsson, and Wiklund (2001) that operationalized Stevenson’s (1983) conceptualization of entrepreneurship as a set of opportunity-based management practices. Extension Directors in the United States and territories were invited to respond to a questionnaire, reporting on Organizational Entrepreneurship and Organizational Performance based on both financial and non-financial indictors. Seventy percent of the Extension directors responded and results were aggregated by regional categories. Substantial Organizational Entrepreneurship was evident in Extension organizations in all four region. This study measured Organizational Performance based on a five year funding trend, as well as on non-financial indicators through a Performance Satisfaction index. Results from multivariate data analysis indicated that risk taking and tenure accounted for the highest relative contribution to the dependent variable Performance Satisfaction. Strategic orientation and risk taking accounted for the highest relative contribution to the dependent variable, percent change in total funding. As Extension organizations nationwide address more diverse audiences, an increasingly complex funding mix, and rapidly evolving technologies, the field of entrepreneurship offers principles to continuously improve performance. This study contributed to the field of entrepreneurship and to organizational development in university Extension.

Committee:

Joseph Gliem (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, General

Keywords:

entrepreneurship

Rosenblatt, Noah SamuelCommercialization of Bio-Technological Ventures: A Business Plan On Vaylenx LLC.
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2016, Business Administration
The following paper overviews an empirical approach to business planning methods with a practical application in the form of a traditional business plan. The paper identifies the main methods for approaching entrepreneurial bio-technology ventures and strategic actions necessary for successful commercialization. The study correlates a business plan being written concurrently with the study taking place. The entirety of the business plan for the bio-technology startup is held within this document. The conclusion looks at how academic institutions assist in the creation of successful biotechnology business plans and aid in the commercialization of bio-technology.

Committee:

Luke Pittaway, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Business Education; Entrepreneurship; Technology

Keywords:

business plan; entrepreneurship; lean startup; bio-technology; academic; commercialization; technology; new venture; creation; startup

Woods, Jeremy ADominant Logic, Decision-making Heuristics and Selective Information Processing as Antecedents to Financial Escalation of Commitment in Small Family Firms
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Business: Business Administration
The tendency of decision-makers to “stay the course” and continue with a course of action that is failing to accomplish optimal financial results is a phenomenon known as financial escalation of commitment. Persevering with an initially unsuccessful course of action sometimes leads to eventual financial success, but it often leads to chronic financial under-performance and/or bankruptcy. It is surprising how often different decision-makers facing the same type of decision – subject to the same constraints and privy to the same information – come to different conclusions about what course of action is most likely to produce optimal financial results. This research presents new empirical results which help to explain why some small family firms are more profitable than others. It elucidates five specific cognitive biases inherent when using a representativeness heuristic (closed-mindedness, insensitivity to base rate frequency, over-weighting of isolated positive/negative information, preference for redundant indicators, and insensitivity to mean regression) which lead decision-makers to persist with financially sub-optimal courses of action. It provides evidence that involvement with industry associations mitigates this negative financial performance – a major contribution to the family firm governance literature. Perhaps of greatest interest to family business scholars and practitioners alike, it shows that, if decision-makers can look beyond maintenance of the loyalty of their key customers, the non-financial goal of maintaining ownership, control, and family involvement also produces above-average financial results.

Committee:

Charles Matthews, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Alan Lee Carsrud, Ph.D. Ec.D. (Committee Member); Joshua Clarkson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Dalziel, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Administration

Keywords:

Family Business;Decision-Making;Behavioral Strategy;Entrepreneurship Cognition;Escalation of Commitment;Small Business

Ladd, Edward (Ted)Routines of New Venture Conceptualization: Evidence and Extension of an Entrepreneurial Dynamic Capability
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Management
A dynamic capability consists of routines to reconfigure resources to improve venture performance in a rapidly changing marketplace. Entrepreneurs adopt different routines to collect and interpret new information during the design of a venture concept. One such routine entails generating and testing hypotheses of a business model. This five-phase research stream employs sequential mixed methods to analyze the efficacy, antecedent, and boundary conditions of an entrepreneurial dynamic capability within a cleantech accelerator program. Overall, the study finds mixed support for contemporary routines of venture conceptualization. Teams that validate hypotheses create ventures that perform better. However, a larger number of validated hypotheses does not result in significantly better venture performance. Simple use of the Business Model Canvas does not improve venture success. However, validation of hypotheses simultaneously across a group of key elements – customer segmentation, value proposition and channels – does improve performance. Flexible customer conversations generate more success as a mechanism to collect evidence during hypothesis testing than formal experiments. Yet, contrary to extant literature, these two activities are not always complementary; in this sample, they are substitutive in that the use of both activities reduces the likelihood of success. Only the trait of conscientiousness within the leader of an entrepreneurial team is a significant microfoundational antecedent to its use of experiments. None of the other Big Five traits or a predilection for improvisation is a significant antecedent, implying that these routines are available to any type of entrepreneur. Practicing entrepreneurs adopt an alternative framework for a business model, incorporating the intended customers’ pre-existing habits, mental models and product constellations, thereby embedding the resulting venture more deeply into the context of the marketplace. An amended routine during conceptualization focusing on customer conversations to validate hypotheses within a few portions of the business model forms an entrepreneurial dynamic capability that improves the likelihood of eventual venture success. Additional research would resolve some of the limitations of this research stream and further bridge the literature of entrepreneurship and corporate strategy.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship; Management

Keywords:

entrepreneurship, business model, dynamic capability, lean startup method

Kalakay, Jerrid P.“JUST” Business and Often Personal: An Exploration Into the Incidents Social Entrepreneurs Identify as Critical to Leading Their Enterprises
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
As the number of social issues around the world increases, the need for well-prepared social entrepreneurs to solve and improve those issues also increases. Social entrepreneurs with determination and courage may very well succeed in bringing sustainable social change where others have previously failed. The entrepreneurs who choose to lead social enterprises are distinctly committed to improving society through the creation of social value in addition to wealth creation. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidents social entrepreneurs identify as critical to leading their enterprises. Nineteen United States Ashoka Fellows were interviewed. Participants reflected on the most impactful incidents they experienced in leading their social enterprises and the corresponding antecedents to and outcomes of those incidents. Critical incident technique research method and an emergent coding approach with a constant comparative method of analysis were employed to gain and analyze the data. Nine critical areas emerged from the social entrepreneur data. The critical areas are: Experiencing Beneficial Relationships, Experiencing Difficult Relationships, Founding of Enterprise, Leadership Transition, Experience of Losing Funding, Experience of Obtaining Funding, Recalibration of Enterprise, Recognition, and the Social Entrepreneurial Mindset. This study draws from literature in the following domains: social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurial values, relational leadership, social change leadership, strategic leadership, and social value creation. The combination of these literatures with the findings of this study, provide a deep understanding of the critical incidents that social entrepreneurs experience in leading their enterprises. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/and OhioLink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Harriet Schwartz, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Conway Dato-on, Ph.D. (Committee Member); G. Thomas Lumpkin, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Business Education; Entrepreneurship; Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Critical Incident Technique;Social Entrepreneurs;Social Enterprises;Strategic Leadership;Social Value Creation;Social Change;Social Entrepreneurship

Katre, AparnaDesigning Successful Social Ventures: Hands-on Feedback-Seeking Engagement with Stakeholders to Unravel What To Do Next
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, Management
Social change models based on altruism have proven inadequate to fully address the complete range of basic but unmet societal needs. In recent times, organizations have begun experimenting with profit-generating business models to produce sustained social change; such “hybrid” organizations possess a double bottom line, the goals of generating social and economic value. These organizations range from those which focus largely on economic value creation to others which focus primarily on social value creation; somewhere in the middle there is a more balanced blend of the two. A unique aspect of double-bottom-line organizations (also called social ventures) has to do with their ambidextrous orientation: the imperatives of both social change and marketplace competition are operative. The canvas for social venture research is broad and, for the most part, wide open: little is known through empirical research as to how social ventures come into being and succeed at meeting not only startup challenges but also those resulting from the organization’s dual goals. In addition, research is needed to clarify if and how startup social ventures differ from conventional nonprofit and business venture startups. With significant differences in the motivation to create social and business value in order to yield empirically validated results, this research is restricted to just a subset of social ventures, those which are entrepreneurial. This choice is driven by the fact that even in an economic downturn entrepreneurship has the potential to address intractable social issues. A mixed-method research design is built around three interrelated studies which collectively tell us (1) “the What?” (the actions of social entrepreneurs), (2) “the How?” (approaches employed), and, finally, (3) the impact of both the actions and approaches on nascent stage performance, i.e. perceived social and economic value created. The first study, which focuses on 23 startup social ventures, is qualitative and informed primarily by startup behaviors, nonprofit and entrepreneurial strategy literatures and organizational ecology studies, among others. The emergent findings from this study identify three developmental stages, those of a) social-business concept development, b) product / service innovation and c) operating the social-business, as well as stage-specific actions and entrepreneurial approaches employed across all stages. Two conceptual models of entrepreneurial actions (the What) and approaches (the How) are designed to predict nascent social venture performance. The models are sequentially designed wherein results of the first model influence the second conceptualization and are tested through Studies Two and Three. The model in Study Two is based on emergent findings from the qualitative research. Data from a survey of 196 social entrepreneurs confirmed that entrepreneurial proactivity results in superior perceived performance; however, the effects of experimentation and alertness-to-environment were puzzling. Results from Studies One and Two drove an alternate conceptualization explored in Study Three wherein (a) design theory-driven coding of qualitative data from 23 startup social ventures led to the conceptual model and (b) the survey-based data from 196 social entrepreneurs were used to test the conceptual model. The analysis strongly supported the design-theory based model, suggesting that the three entrepreneurial approaches of experimentation, making connections, and problem-solving are, indeed, central to successfully designing social venture products and processes. In addition, the number of activities engaged in from a stage-specific list determines nascent stage performance. Taken together, the three studies serve to triangulate around the notion that successful ventures are designed by (a) focusing on stage-specific products and processes during development, then (b) continually shaping venture products / processes via behaviors which generate feedback and new knowledge, as well as continuously evaluating development so as to minimize potential losses. This dissertation contributes to an empirically-based understanding of the process of social entrepreneurship, providing tentative constructs to measure entrepreneurial actions, approaches and perceived venture performance. The dissertation provides practical guidance to social entrepreneurs and investors, policy makers, and educators. Its findings indicate that, subsequent to their decision to engage in social change ventures, founders must personally engage in its creation. Founders can balance the tension between achieving social and economic outcomes by designing venture artifacts specific to the development at a particular stage. Designing involves -- engaging constituencies to facilitate diverse views, openness to feedback (even to the extent of embracing radically different solutions than those previously envisioned), reframing the problem to overcome constraints, storytelling and persuasion to invite support, and making creative connections. Regional and national support structures must be instituted to guide the unique requirements of social ventures. This includes guidance on staged development, design approach, and expansion of networks for social and economic outcomes. Finally, educators may complement current business planning approaches to create real-world or simulated settings for students to practice design skills necessary for social innovation and new venture creation.

Committee:

Paul Salipante (Committee Chair); Bo Carlsson (Committee Member); Roger Saillant (Committee Member); Barbara Bird (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Entrepreneurship; Social Work

Keywords:

Social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial behaviors; venture performance; design theory; effectuation theory; ambidexterity; venture creation; organization ecology; qualitative research; quantitative research; mixed methods

Arikan, Ilgaz T.Essays on the theory of auctions and economic rents
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Business Administration
In this dissertation I focus on how firms should buy resources in factor markets to create competitive advantages. When competing in factor or product markets to acquire resources or sell goods, firms often have to make strategic decisions whether to use spot market transactions with posted prices, negotiation markets with bargaining, or auction markets with bidding. Given these three different market mechanisms, what are the firm and industry specific factors that determine different selling/buying devices to occur simultaneously in the market? In the first essay I model dynamic resource acquisition in equilibrium, simultaneously taking into account the characteristics of factor markets from both the sellers' and the buyers' perspectives. Auctions, negotiations and spot markets are compared given heterogeneity of expectations, bargaining power of the participants, market thickness, risk propensity and search costs. In my second essay I empirically investigate and explain the optimal choice between market mechanisms in an entrepreneurial context. Two major markets exist for the sale of an entrepreneurial firm: initial public offering (IPO) versus mergers and acquisitions (M&A) markets. I find that all else being equal, entrepreneurial firms with high bargaining power are more likely to choose M&A versus IPO. Firms that represent high private values are more likely to be sold through auctions versus negotiations. As the market thickness increases, the likelihood of entrepreneurial firms being sold through M&A decreases. However, this finding is reversed for firms with higher private values. For firms with high debt ratios, the likelihood of M&A increases compared to IPOs. I find that as venture capital activity in the focal industry increases, the likelihood of M&As increases. In my third essay, I examine the business-to-business (B2B) industrial parts industry and the procurement practices of several firms by combining this business phenomenon with the auction theory, bidding mechanisms, and the strategic factor markets argument. I analyze the online auction markets as mechanisms that enable affiliated private value exchanges. Theoretically, I find that the creation of a centralized market generates rents for buyers, also, rather than what you buy; how you buy it is more important.

Committee:

Oded Shenkar (Advisor)

Keywords:

Auctions; IPO; M&A; Strategic Factor Markets; Resource-Based View; Business strategy; Entrepreneurship; Exit strategy of entrepreneurs; Auctions and Negotiations; Market mechanisms

Schenkel, Mark T.New Enterprise Opportunity Recognition: Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Dynamism
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Business Administration : Business Administration

Entrepreneurial opportunities are the “fuel” for economic progress. Accordingly, a key question posed by researchers and practitioners alike focuses on why some individuals, but not others, recognize and choose to exploit entrepreneurial opportunity (Venkataraman, 1997). Despite both the theoretical and practical importance of this phenomenon, we know little about the underlying entrepreneurial thought processes that allow opportunities to manifest themselves as credible across individuals in part because researchers have done little to understand their complexity (Krueger, 2003).

This dissertation seeks to extend existing theory on why it is that some individuals come to recognize and exploit economic opportunities by directly examining the theoretical premise that entrepreneurial thinking is both unique, as well as more complex than previous efforts have proposed. More specifically, this research draws on extant theory to investigate whether three broad types of capital – general knowledge, self-knowledge and cognitive motivation – make up a unique, multidimensional resource base that contributes to the recognition and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity. Hypotheses related to the tacit and explicit knowledge sources employed, self-related knowledge, and the influence of individual motivations on nascent entrepreneurial activity and performance-related outcomes are developed and tested.

Data were obtained from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) database, a longitudinal panel survey identifying a sample of nascent entrepreneurs within the United States. Hypotheses were tested and inferences derived through descriptive statistics, logistic and multivariate regression techniques appropriate for examining the central research questions guiding this project. Findings provide robust support for the intuitive and commonly held yet sparsely tested presumption that entrepreneurs can and do think differently than non-entrepreneurs. The results also suggest, however, that while each of these types of factors is generally important to understanding the recognition of and decision to exploit entrepreneurial opportunity, their influence on these processes may vary based upon the specific nature of the particular opportunity. Implications for practitioners and future research directions are discussed.

Committee:

Dr. Charles Matthews (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Management

Keywords:

opportunity recognition; new enterprise creation; cognition; entrepreneurship

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