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Erginbas, VefaTHE APPROPRIATION OF ISLAMIC HISTORY AND AHL AL-BAYTISM IN OTTOMAN HISTORICAL WRITING, 1300-1650
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
This is a study of Ottoman historical productions of the pre-1700 period that deal directly with narratives of early Islamic history. It specifically deals with the representations of the formative events of early Islamic history. Through the lenses of universal histories, biographies of Muhammad, religious treatieses and other narrative sources, this study examines Ottoman intellectuals’ perceptions of the events that occurred after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 C.E. It particularly provides a perspective on issues such as the problem of succession to Muhammad as leader of the Muslim community; the conflict between `Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu`awiyah and the Umayyad dynasty’s assumption of the position of successor (caliph); and Ottoman views of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs and significant events and persons during the reigns of these two dynasties. Since the great schism between the Sunnis and Shiites began because of their different stances on the issue of succession to Muhammad, studying these perceptions can help to tell us whether the Ottomans were strict Sunnis who favored a rigidly Sunni interpretation of the formative events of Islam. After the death of Muhammad, the Muslim community was divided over how his successor as leader of the community should be chosen. This division resulted in the emergence of the Sunni-Shiite schism. The Ottomans have traditionally been regarded as strict Sunnis. In this study, which utilizes Ottoman Turkish and Arabic manuscript sources, many of which have never been studied before, it is argued that Ottoman Sunnism was not as monolithic as has been conventionally assumed and that there were many intellectual currents competing to shape the nature of Sunnism in the Empire. The study covers a wide range of historians, from the earliest representatives of Ottoman universal history-writers, such as Ahmedi (1334-1412), Enveri (d, 1460), and Sukrullah (1388-1461), to comparatively well-known later intellectual luminaries such as Mustafa `Ali (1541-1600) and Katip Celebi (1609-57), and lesser-known figures such as Mustafa Cenabi (d. 1590) and Muslihuddin Lari (d. 1572). A particularly noteworthy contribution of this study is the analysis of the course of ahl al-baytism in Ottoman historical writing. Ahl al-baytism is a term used to describe the love and reverence that Sunnis show not only to the immediate family of Muhammad but also to the twelve imams of the Shiites. (Ahl al-bayt, literally “people of the house,” refers to the family of Muhammad in broad terms.) It is argued in this study that ahl al-baytism was a widespread cultural phenomenon among Ottoman intellectuals. Based on this evidence, this study challenges the idea that Ottomans were zealous Sunnis. It contends that Ottoman Sunnism can be best understood with reference to divergent and even at times contradictory trends that coexisted. The pendulum, it demonstrates, consistently swung more towards ahl al-baytism and away from zealous Sunnism.

Committee:

Jane Hathaway (Advisor); Stephen Dale (Committee Member); Dale K. Van Kley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Islamic Studies; Middle Eastern History; Middle Eastern Studies; Near Eastern Studies; Religion; Religious History; World History

Keywords:

Early Islamic History; Historical Writing in the Ottoman Empire; Ahl al-baytism; Sunni-Shiite conflict in the Ottoman Empire; Ottoman-Safavid conflict; Ottoman Sunni identity; Twelve Imams; Universal Histories; Cenabi; Lari; Katip Celebi: Historiography

Perry, Rebecca M.Britain in Iraq During the 1950s: Imperial Retrenchment and Informal Empire
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, History (Arts and Sciences)
Following the Second World War and the independence of India in 1947, Great Britain recognized the importance of the Middle East to its postwar economic recovery and to the maintenance of the British Empire and Commonwealth. During the 1950s, British officials turned to Iraq as a crucial foothold from which to both secure Britain's continued dominance of the Middle East and prevent the Soviet Union's penetration of the region. This thesis examines how Britain sustained its position in Iraq during the 1950s by adapting its formal relationships and connections into informal advantages that fit with postwar realities and international, domestic, and regional attitudes and pressures. Ultimately, Britain managed to maintain its position in Iraq through the pursuit of informal economic, cultural, and military influence.

Committee:

Peter John Brobst (Advisor); Chester Pach (Committee Member); Katherine Jellison (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

British Empire; Middle East; Iraq; Informal Empire; Anglo-American Relationship; 1950s

Souder, Eric MatthewThe Circassian Thistle: Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy's 'Khadzhi Murat' and the Evolving Russian Empire"
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, History
The following thesis examines the creation, publication, and reception of Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy’s posthumous novel, Khadzhi Murat in both the Imperial and Soviet Russian Empire. The anti-imperial content of the novel made Khadzhi Murat an incredibly vulnerable novel, subjecting it to substantial early censorship. Tolstoy’s status as a literary and cultural figure in Russia – both preceding and following his death – allowed for the novel to become virtually forgotten despite its controversial content. This thesis investigates the absorption of Khadzhi Murat into the broader canon of Tolstoy’s writings within the Russian Empire as well as its prevailing significance as a piece of anti-imperial literature in a Russian context.

Committee:

Stephen Norris, Ph.D. (Advisor); Daniel Prior, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Ziolkowski, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Literature; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Leo Tolstoy; Tolstoy; Khadzhi Murat; Hadji Murat; North Caucasus; Chechnya; Daghestan; Russian Empire; Russian Literature; Censorship; Literary Criticism; Empire; Nicholas I

Wickman, Peter A.China and the Origins of the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2008, History (Arts and Sciences)
British imperial policy in East Asia during the latter decades of the 19th century was informed primarily by a strategic agenda. It was focused on preventing Russia from gaining control of ports of population centers on the periphery of the Eurasian landmass. Using a combination of primary and secondary sources, this paper will argue that Britain's initial interest in East Asia was primarily economic, by 1895 both diplomatic and economic policy had been thoroughly subsumed by strategic imperatives. However, by that same decade British resources were stretched maintaining security commitments at a variety of points around the globe. A new imperial contest in East Asia presented fresh challenge to these already strained budgets. An alliance with a technologically modernizing Japan represented an effort by both Britain and Japan to limit Russian expansion, and to prevent any future conflict that did break out from spreading into a global conflagration.

Committee:

Peter J. Brobst, PhD (Advisor); Steven Miner, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Jordan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

British Empire in China; Sino-Japenese War; British Empire, East Asia

Poyraz, SerdarScience versus Religion: The Influence of European Materialism on Turkish Thought, 1860-1960
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History

My dissertation, entitled “Science versus Religion: The Influence of European Materialism on Turkish Thought, 1860-1960,” is a radical re-evaluation of the history of secularization in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey. I argue that European vulgar materialist ideas put forward by nineteenth-century intellectuals and scientists such as Ludwig Büchner (1824-1899), Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Jacob Moleschott (1822-1893) affected how Ottoman and Turkish intellectuals thought about religion and society, ultimately paving the way for the radical reforms of Kemal Atatürk and the strict secularism of the early Turkish Republic in the 1930s. In my dissertation, I challenge traditional scholarly accounts of Turkish modernization, notably those of Bernard Lewis and Niyazi Berkes, which portray the process as a Manichean struggle between modernity and tradition resulting in a linear process of secularization. On the basis of extensive research in modern Turkish, Ottoman Turkish and Persian sources, I demonstrate that the ideas of such leading westernizing and secularizing thinkers as Münif Pasha (1830-1910), Beşir Fuad (1852-1887) and Baha Tevfik (1884-1914) who were inspired by European materialism provoked spirited religious, philosophical and literary responses from such conservative anti-materialist thinkers as Şehbenderzade Ahmed Hilmi (1865-1914), Said Nursi (1873-1960) and Ahmed Hamdi Tanpınar (1901-1962).

Whereas the westernizers argued for the adoption of western modernity in toto, their critics made a crucial distinction between the “material” and “spiritual” sides of western modernity. Although the critics were eager to adopt the material side of western modernity, including not only the military and economic structures but also the political structures of Europe, they had serious reservations when it came to adopting European ethics and secular European attitudes toward religion. The result was two different and competing approaches to modernity in Turkish intellectual history, accompanied by great social tension, which continues to this day, between those who want to Europeanize entirely and those who want to modernize while preserving what they perceive as the “culturally authentic” spiritual core of their society.

Committee:

Carter V. Findley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jane Hathaway, PhD (Committee Member); Alan Beyerchen, PhD (Committee Member); Douglas A. Wolfe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; European History; History; Islamic Studies; Middle Eastern History; Middle Eastern Literature; Middle Eastern Studies; Near Eastern Studies; Religion; Religious History; Science Education; Science History; World History

Keywords:

Ottoman Empire; Turkey; Modernization; Westernization; Religion; Science; Said Nursi; Ahmed Hilmi; Tanpinar; Baha Tevfik; Munif Pasha; Besir Fuad

Barber, Cary MichaelA Case for Corruption
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2010, History
This work sets out to investigate official corruption in Late Antiquity in general, and in the office of the provincial governor in particular. In light of continued modern scholarship on the subject, as well as changing views concerning late antique governance as a whole, it seems worthwhile to present a study of this type. While attempting to reconstruct the locations of official abuse in the ancient world, this work seeks to emphasize how fundamental features of Diocletian’s administrative reforms, as well as the difficulties of oversight in the ancient world overall, led to the corruption about which our sources so consistently complain. The study primarily utilizes the works of a range of ancient authors from a number of different regions within the empire who lament corruption and its alleged effects. Legal edicts from emperors and inscriptions made by provincial governors are also employed, as well as modern studies on economic and social features of administrative corruption in contemporary nation-states. The work is, however, largely preliminary. By arguing for the prevalence of official abuse, this study creates a foundation for further investigation into the role of corruption in late antique governance, and into its effects on political, economic, social, and religious developments in this period.

Committee:

Kristina Sessa (Advisor); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member); Nathan Rosenstein (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Classical Studies; History

Keywords:

Provincial government; Roman Empire; corruption; Late Antiquity; Imperial Oversight

Collins-Breyfogle, Kristin L.Negotiating Imperial Spaces: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence in the Nineteenth-century Caucasus
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History

The nineteenth-century Russian imperial state was relatively less transformative in shaping gender, controlling sexuality, and implementing change in marriage and family life in the Caucasus region of the tsarist empire than comparative Western European imperial projects in Asia and Africa. In spite of (and in distinct contrast to) tsarist writers’ condemnations of violence and the subordinate positions of Caucasian women and children in Caucasian family life, tsarist agents who implemented policy and oversaw cases of violence against women and children tended not to intervene in such incidents but rather to leave Caucasian communities to adjudicate matters based upon their own legal systems. While the discourse of empire justified tsarist control as a means to transform the lives of women in the region, in practice women and children in the Caucasus often found the touch of empire to be relatively light on their lived experience. Even when they turned consciously to the tsarist legal and gendered systems for assistance they largely found themselves turned away.

My research rethinks how we understand the form and function of tsarist imperialism and unveils its limits and parameters. Traditional literature focuses on the Caucasian wars and sees the Russian empire as heavy handed and invasive. In contrast, by examining the social and cultural history of the Caucasus through themes of gender, sexuality (adultery cases), sexual violence (bride stealing and rape), and familial structures (blood vengeance, domestic/familial violence, challenges to marriage unions), my work reveals an empire that was largely hands off.

This dissertation finds a new side of Russian empire – one characterized largely by tsarist officials reticent to implement change when it came to the position of Caucasian women in society, to sexuality, and to Caucasian family and married life. The Russian empire championed the use of its legal system to change and reform what it saw as the “uncivilized” Caucasians. In practice, however, it imposed its policies in an inconsistent, haphazard, and halting manner due to a variety of factors which included a fear of inciting local elites, an administrative system that limited the abilities of its officials to implement change, and cultural misunderstandings and ignorance. This dissertation argues that conceptions of gender, sexuality, honor, violence, and justice shaped interactions between Caucasian indigenous peoples and tsarist officials (indigenous elites included) and determined the outcomes of those interactions, often leading to inaction or compromise on the part of tsarist officials, few alternatives for indigenous populations, and little change in Caucasian family life.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle, PhD (Advisor); David Hoffmann, PhD (Committee Member); Alice Conklin, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Suchland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender; History; Law; Modern History; Russian History; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Empire; gender; Russia; the Caucasus; sexuality; violence; crime; honor; violence

Sinha, MadhudayaMasculinity Under Siege: Gender, Empire, and Knowledge in Late Victorian Literature
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : English and Comparative Literature
Using the works of Rider Haggard, Jules Verne, Rudyard Kipling, and Bram Stoker, this dissertation critically reassesses the state of masculinity in the Victorian fin de siècle. The last quarter of the Victorian era witnessed a proliferation of narratives emphasizing the role and importance of the ‘manly man.’ Rejecting the comforts of domesticity and household duties, men fled to the far corners of the British Empire. Here they hunted both man and animal while establishing an authoritative presence through the appropriation of native customs and cultures. I also contend that a stable masculinity was shaken and the ‘flight from domesticity’ was a reaction against anxieties both at home and abroad. The empire itself was perceived to be in danger since other European nations were also entering the imperial arena. Further, a language of degeneration and the rise of Social Darwinism led people to fear for the virility and vigor of the British man. Moreover, the rise of the New Woman created a great degree of anxiety on the part of men. My dissertation discusses the ways in which men, reacting to these disturbing new developments, rebuilt and refashioned masculinity both at home and abroad. In order to support my argument I make use of the hunting grounds of Africa in Rider Haggard’s She, the cosmopolitan traveler in Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days, the adolescent who ‘passes’ as the native in Kipling’s celebrated novel Kim, and the tussle between masculine rationality and the feminine occult in Bram Stoker’s Mystery of the Sea. In conclusion I consider the early twentieth century hero, T.E. Lawrence and the ways in which heroism continued to be constructed by new media forms.

Committee:

Wendy Heller, PhD (Committee Chair); Jana Braziel, PhD (Committee Member); Barbara Nell Ramusack, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

English literature

Keywords:

Masculinity;Victorian;Empire;Gender;Knowledge

Ewing, Hannah E.A “Truly Unmonastic Way of Life”: Byzantine Critiques of Monasticism in the Twelfth Century
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History
This dissertation examines twelfth-century Byzantine writings on monasticism and holy men to illuminate monastic critiques during this period. Drawing upon close readings of texts from a range of twelfth-century voices, it processes both highly biased literary evidence and the limited documentary evidence from the period. In contextualizing the complaints about monks and reforms suggested for monasticism, as found in the writings of the intellectual and administrative elites of the empire, both secular and ecclesiastical, this study shows how monasticism did not fit so well in the world of twelfth-century Byzantium as it did with that of the preceding centuries. This was largely on account of developments in the role and operation of the church and the rise of alternative cultural models that were more critical of traditional ascetic sanctity. This project demonstrates the extent to which twelfth-century Byzantine society and culture had changed since the monastic heyday of the tenth century and contributes toward a deeper understanding of Byzantine monasticism in an under-researched period of the institution.

Committee:

Timothy Gregory, PhD (Advisor); Anthony Kaldellis, PhD (Committee Member); Alison Beach, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Medieval History

Keywords:

Monasticism; Twelfth century; Monastic critiques; Byzantine Empire; Constantinople; Greece; Byzantine intellectuals; Byzantine church

Raterman, Jacob Stuart(Mi)lieux critiques : Hybridité et hétérotopie dans La Curée et Au Bonheur des Dames
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2015, French
This thesis, composed in French, explores the use of bourgeois urban space in two novels of Emile Zola’s Les Rougon-Macquart. Specifically, by situating these works in the context of Zola’s moralistic naturalism, this paper examines the ways that the author uses literary techniques to effect an imbrication of the spatial and the social, and analyses how these instances of hybridity take on critical weight. While the main focus of this study is on the attention given to descriptions of space and to characters’ interactions with it, Zola’s use of rhetorical strategies, including but not limited to metaphor and metonymy, also undergoes close inspection. In addition to current scholarship on Zola, the theoretical framework developed in this thesis comprises seminal works on the philosophy of space, most notably Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopia. Having elucidated the the methods by which Zola simultaneously depicts and critiques the socio-spatial evolutions of the Second Empire, the conclusion illustrates the contemporaneity of his assessments of urban space.

Committee:

Jonathan Strauss (Advisor); Elisabeth Hodges (Committee Member); Anna Klosowska (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; European Studies; Gender Studies; Labor Economics; Modern History; Modern Literature; Philosophy; Rhetoric; Science History; Social Structure; Urban Planning

Keywords:

zola; space; Second Empire; 19th-century; urbanism; bourgeoisie; heterotopia; non-place; hybridity; Paris; spatial philosophy; novel

Humphrey, Robert ARepresenting Race, Gender, and Sexuality in Empire: (Counter)Hegemonic Masculinity, Black Fatherhood, and Homosexuality in Primetime Television
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Popular Culture
As a site of representational African-American culture, the television program Empire works to deconstruct many of the normative prejudices about masculinity and sexuality in the national community broadly, and in the Black community specifically. To do so, the series ties in issues of homosexuality with the traditionally heterosexist genre of hip-hop/rap music. Given that hip-hop is conventionally a Black, male, heterosexual space, it is significant that Empire creates a narrative around issues of masculinity and sexuality within this genre by prominently featuring someone of a marginalized group (i.e., the gay community) as being heavily entrenched in this particular music scene. Additionally, many of the ways in which Empire also deconstructs hegemonic ideals is through the portrayal of the character Lucious Lyon, who actually upholds hegemonic norms of masculinity and sexuality. It is when Lucious's heteronormative hypermasculinity is juxtaposed with other characters that much of Empire's cultural commentary comes through. While this can be seen in his interactions with women and his colleagues, a clear social critique of Black fatherhood is represented in Lucious's interactions with his three sons: Andre, Jamal, and Hakeem.

Committee:

Angela Nelson (Advisor); Becca Cragin (Committee Member); Jeff Brown (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American Studies; Black Studies; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; Mass Media

Keywords:

Empire; critical race theory; Black masculinity; Black fatherhood; homosexuality; hip-hop; rap; race; gender; sexuality; television; popular culture

Winegardner, ZacharyThe Digital Tool in the Curious Maker’s Hand: Critical Exploration Processes to Engage Historical Paintings for New Inquiry and Dialogue
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2018, Design
Virtual 3D media, immersive environments, interactive media, and digital image manipulation are just a few examples of digital tools that can provide a new perspective and engagement with visual subjects of interest. When exercised within critical making and play processes, digital tools can create opportunities for new observations and new inquiry surrounding an image’s formal and narrative construction. This thesis explores how digital media can be employed in making and play processes to function as a method of inquiry when examining complex visual content. Historical paintings possessing elements of believable environments serve as a case study, in which the method of digital inquiry is applied via research-oriented design. The result is a non-linear customized methodology that draws upon critical making, critical play, digital craft, experiential learning, and rhizomatic thinking to synthesize new understandings. This document surveys several theories supporting the construction of the research methodology followed by an overview of creative projects that contributed to its conceptual development. The methodology itself consists of a selection of events, which can progress flexibly to fit the researcher’s curiosity. The methodology review is accompanied by samples from a creative project exemplifying each event in the process.

Committee:

Jeff Haase (Advisor); Maria Palazzi (Committee Member); Deborah Scott (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Fine Arts

Keywords:

critical making; critical design; critical play; Thomas Cole; The Course of Empire; digital exploration; digital inquiry; digitally exploring paintings; Oath of the Horatii;

McCullough, Kayli L.Lady Maria Nugent: A Woman's Approach to the British Empire
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2012, History
By 1850 the British Empire had proven to be a success. The story of why the empire succeeded however, is a collection of individual stories, from both those at home in the metropole and in the colonies. One woman, Lady Maria Nugent, accompanied her husband to two different colonies, Jamaica and India, living in each for a few years in the early nineteenth century. During this time she kept diaries that detailed the day-to-day happenings as well as her observations of the people and the land. Her story demonstrates the ways in which a woman had to change her own expectations and actions dependent upon the nature of the colony, which were comparable to the accommodations made by her male contemporaries.

Committee:

Andrew Cayton, PhD (Advisor); Renée Baernstein, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Pestana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

British Empire; Maria Nugent; nineteenth century; colonial history; Jamaica; India

McInelly, Brett ChanEMPIRE AND THE RISE OF THE BRITISH NOVEL
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2000, Arts and Sciences : English and Comparative Literature
Empire and the Rise of the British Novel Applying Edward Said's ideas regarding the profound influence of imperialism on Western culture and its artifacts to eighteenth-century Britain, this dissertation critically reassesses the work of Ian Watt and Michael McKeon by examining the extent to which an expanding empire affected the rise and development of the eighteenth-century English novel. Specifically, the novel, largely because of its realism and contemporaneity, played a unique role in Britain's imperial venture, investing the colonial terrain with historical and political significance and becoming a medium through which British colonial authority could be asserted. Aphra Behn's Oroonoko in particular is expressly concerned with asserting English colonial authority in South America, a fact that wields a major influence on the formal structures of that novel. Behn's efforts to authenticate an account of events on an actual plantation colony penetrate the dramatic action of a story that, conventionally, is typical of heroic drama. I further contend that notions of a subjective self as well as a national identity emerged, in large part, out of Britain's colonial experience and particularly through its contact with colonized peoples. As their world enlarged through colonial acquisitions, so did the British people's sense of themselves, and they became an increasingly self-referential society, a process both facilitated by and reflected in the novel's preoccupation with individual character. The narrative scope of Robinson Crusoe, for example, is characterized by a double movement: as Crusoe's world literally enlarges through his travels, the focus of the novel narrows to the daily activities of a single (British) subject. I contend that the novel's capacity to engage the particulars of day-to-day life and its attention to individual character are thus tied to the effects of imperial expansion on British subjectivity. Not insignificantly, the colonized world brings Crusoe into contact with Friday, who reflects back to his "white savior" Crusoe's image of himself. Although the colonized Other is often only an assumed presence in later novels, British narcissism-which receives its fullest treatment in the novel-is, I argue, intricately tied to colonial space and is a sign of British colonial authority.

Committee:

Martin Wechselblatt (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature, English

Keywords:

imperialism; empire; British; novel; rise

Melissa, Morris NicoleDiversions of Empire: Geographic Representations of the British Atlantic, 1589-1700
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, History
This thesis discusses the history of English colonization and print culture over the course of the seventeenth century, showing how they came together in geographies, a type of non-fiction that was very popular during this period. Geography books were a uniquely English genre that led readers on a country-by-country journey around the world, describing both the landscape and the peoples. Focusing specifically on representations of four English colonies in the Americas, this thesis will show how geography writers helped enlarge English readers’ sense of their homeland and how these writers promoted notions of Englishness during a period when that concept was in flux.

Committee:

Carla Pestana (Advisor); Andrew Cayton (Committee Member); Steven Norris (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Cartography; European History; Geography; History

Keywords:

England; Colonial America; Geography; Textual Representations; Seventeenth Century; Exploration; British Empire; Print Culture

Walts, Richard LeeImagine There Are No Boundaries: A Philosophical and Critical Discourse Analysis of Empire, Truth, Uncertainty, and the Writing Classroom
Doctor of Education, Miami University, 2007, Composition and rhetoric
This dissertation consists of five chapters dealing with truth, global spatiality, rhetoric, and discourse in relation to the concept of Empire and its impact on the writing classroom. Chapter One, “Empire: The Role of Truth and Subjectivity,” examines the reconfiguration of global space in Empire and its impact on cultures and issues of truth. I trace the history of truth in Western civilization and the ways in which conceptions of truth correlate with the concept of Empire. Chapter Two, “From Truth to Uncertainty: The Ambivalent Spaces of Empire,” addresses the impact of uncertainty in relation to changing notions of truth and the reconfiguration of space in the terrain of Empire. This philosophical examination also highlights the prospects for democracy in light of the globalization project. Chapter Three, “A Critical Discourse Analysis of the National Security Strategy of the United States of America,” provides a critical examination of the discourse embodied in the National Security Strategy of 2002 released by the administration of President George W. Bush. I demonstrate that this strategy acts as a schematic for Empire and the continued encroachment into the territory of sovereign nations. Chapter Four, “Empire and the Communicative Sphere: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Rhetoric Surrounding the Miami University Strike of 2003,” examines the discourse between the University and the Union in documents relating to the strike by Miami service workers in 2003. In this analysis, I investigate the relation between the global aspects of Empire and their impact on local regions of space in the communicative sphere of the university. Chapter Five, “Empire and Uncertainty in the Writing Classroom,” locates the effect of Empire on the various cultures that intersect in the writing classroom. I propose strategies and offer classroom assignments that allow students to critically examine the implications of Empire and the connections between local space and the continuing reconfiguration of global space.

Committee:

LuMing Mao (Advisor)

Keywords:

Empire; truth; uncertainty; critical discourse analysis; writing classoom

Fields, Alison L.The Late Phrygian Citadel of Gordion, Turkey: A Preliminary Study
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Arts and Sciences: Classics
Intensive archaeological research at the site of Gordion, Turkey, the ancient cultural and political capital of the Phrygians, has now reached its sixtieth consecutive year. Large-scale excavations carried out in 1950-1973 under the directorship of Rodney S. Young, in particular, have contributed greatly to our knowledge of Phrygian culture and the history of Gordion. However, Young’s culture-historic approach caused greater scholarly interest of the time periods in which the Phrygian empire was at the peak of its cultural influence, predominantly from the 10th-8th centuries B.C.E. Less attention has therefore been paid to the period in which the site was under Achaemenid rule, the Late Phrygian period (ca. 550-330 B.C.E), as this period represents a decline of Phrygian culture and political dominance. This study seeks to contribute to filling this chronological gap in our knowledge by examining changes in the topography and cultural climate during one of the site’s most complex and interesting periods. As such, this thesis stands as the first in-depth, comprehensive study of the archaeological record of the Late Phrygian period citadel at Gordion. Particular interest was placed on dating the destruction of the traditional, monumental Middle Phrygian (ca. 800-550 B.C.E) structures that is known to have occurred during this period and the subsequent rebuilding program. The gradual, ad hoc replacement of the monumental structures on the citadel with modest industrial and domestic buildings signals a dramatic change in Gordion’s administrative system and the absence of central authority by the mid-4th century B.C.E.a

Committee:

Kathleen Lynch, PhD (Committee Chair); Steven Ellis, PhD (Committee Member); Gisela Walberg, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology

Keywords:

Anatolia;Persians;Achaemenid Empire;Phrygia;Gordion;Legacy Data

Nugent, Selin ElizabethA Death on the Imperial Frontier: an osteobiography of Roman burial from Oglanqala, Azerbaijan
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Anthropology
In 2011, excavations at the Iron Age archaeological site of Oglanqala in Naxcivan, Azerbaijan uncovered unexpected human remains dating to the early Roman period (2 B.C. - c. 14 A.D.). At Oglanqala, numerous post-Iron Age interments from the early 20th century have been recovered. However, the early Roman burial represents the only Roman interment discovered at the site as well as in the South Caucasus. Burial WWE.1 was situated at the base of the Oglanqala Iron Age citadel and consisted of a single individual (Individual 21) placed in a seated position inside a large pithos, or urn. While urn burial is a common practice in the Caucasus, the individual was accompanied by a large quantity of fine Roman material objects rarely found in this region, including Augustan denarii, glass unguentaria, gold inlayed intaglio rings on the fingers, a ceramic round bottom vessel, and a large glass bead. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the bioarchaeological identity of Individual 21, focusing on age, stress, status, and mobility and how these factors relate to the unusual burial style. Osteological and oxygen (18O /16O) stable isotope analysis, archaeological context of the burial, and the historical record provide the basis to identify the individual. The result is a detailed osteobiography of the individual that reflects aspects of their life history, and how death in foreign territories alters traditional mortuary conventions. Furthermore, the individual’s relationship with the broader historical context of Rome and the Caucasus reflects the lesser-known aspects of imperial interaction and life in the eastern frontier.

Committee:

Clark Larsen (Advisor); Mark Hubbe (Committee Member); Barbara Piperata (Committee Member); Samuel Stout (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Classical Studies; Physical Anthropology

Keywords:

Osteobiography, Roman Empire, Azerbaijan, Caucasus, Bioarchaeology

Hunt, CatalinaChanging Identities at the Fringes of the Late Ottoman Empire: The Muslims of Dobruca, 1839-1914
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, History
This dissertation examines the Muslim community of Dobruca, an Ottoman territory granted to Romania in 1878, and its transformation from a majority under Ottoman rule into a minority under Romanian administration. It focuses in particular on the collective identity of this community and how it changed from the start of the Ottoman reform era (Tanzimat) in 1839 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. This dissertation constitutes, in fact, the study of the transition from Ottoman subjecthood to Romanian citizenship as experienced by the Muslim community of Dobruca. It constitutes an assessment of long-term patterns of collective identity formation and development in both imperial and post-imperial settings. The main argument of the dissertation is that during this period three crucial factors altered the sense of collective belonging of Dobrucan Muslims: a) state policies; b) the reaction of the Muslims to these policies; and c) the influence of transnational networks from the wider Turkic world on the Muslim community as a whole. Taken together, all these factors contributed fully to the community’s intellectual development and overall modernization, especially since they brought about new patterns of identification and belonging among Muslims. Teachers, religious leaders, journalists, and political activists among the region’s Muslims proved to be essential in this process due to their power of example and capacity of mobilizing fellow coreligionists. During the Ottoman period, Muslims asserted their imperial identity at the expense of religious, ethnic, and local sub-identities whenever community projects were at stake. In contrast, during the Romanian period they emphasized their national identity, even if for a similar purpose. Displays of loyalty were part of a well-thought-out strategy to attract the benevolence of state officials, and in the process, Muslims became active agents in the making of state policies of the empire and of the nation-state, respectively. Such a balancing act allowed them to assert a collective identity formulated in modern and western rather than conservative and religious terms. The focus of this research is unique in the field of Ottoman studies concerning the long nineteenth century. The project exploys official documents, private letters, diaries, and newspaper articles written in Ottoman Turkish, modern Turkish, French, English, and Romanian, as well as a relevant secondary literature. It rewrites the local history of the region’s Muslim population, rejects the exclusive importance of state policies in the process of identity formation, and firmly places the history of western Ottoman borderlands within the broader context of imperial and post-imperial evolution in Europe and the Middle East. The dissertation enhances understanding of the meaning and politics of identity in the late Ottoman Empire and its heir state of modern Romania. It also contributes to a growing trend of including minority populations in discussions of reconstruction and shaping of new national identities after imperial collapse.

Committee:

Carter Findley (Advisor); Jane Hathaway (Committee Co-Chair); Theodora Dragostinova (Committee Member); Scott Levi (Committee Member); Richard Pogge (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Dobruca, Muslims, ottoman Empire, Romania, identity, subjecthood, nationality, citizenship

Misich, CourtneySocial and Spatial Mobility in the British Empire: Reading and Mapping Lower Class Travel Accounts of the 1790's
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, History
Through textual analysis and mapping of 1790s published travel accounts, this project examines how lower class individuals utilized the growing British Empire to expand their societal status and travel opportunities. Modeled on early novels of the mid-eighteenth century such as Robinson Crusoe and Pamela, these supposedly “true” travel accounts showed their protagonists using personal connections, patronage, and employment to overcome adversity and rise socially. Individuals demonstrated mobility through their public image, dress, and speech. Passing for middle class was difficult, although often achievable through education, conduct, and finances. A publicly available interactive map in ArcGIS Online was created. It shows the routes of travel, characteristics of the travelers’ social status, and quotations from the primary sources, allowing them to be compared. The interactive map was built from the travel accounts descriptions of their travels, social status, financial status, and employment through manual data entry. The map is designed to be accessible and appealing to a broad public, enlarging the audience beyond specialists in digital humanities.

Committee:

Renee Baernstein, Dr. (Advisor); Lindsay Schakenbach Regele, Dr, (Committee Member); Robbyn Abbitt, Mrs. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

British and Irish Literature; European History; Geographic Information Science; Geography; History; Literature

Keywords:

History; British Empire; Eighteenth-Century; GIS; Spatial History; Mapping; Social Mobility; Lower Classes; Travel Account; Literature; Interactive Mapping; Geographic Information Science; Social Status; Financial; Employment; Spatial Mobility

Lywood, William GeorgeOur Riviera, Coast of Health: Environment, Medicine, and Resort Life in Fin-de-Siècle Crimea
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, History

This is a dissertation about a particular place, small in size and population, which existed in fin-de-siècle Russia and was known as the Russian Riviera. Stretching along the south and west coasts of the Crimean peninsula, 1300 miles away from St. Petersburg, Russia’s Riviera was the premiere travel destination within the tsarist empire.

“What was the Russian Riviera?” is the broad question at hand here. How did Russians understand their Riviera? What cultural influences shaped the questions raised by locals and visitors concerning the Riviera’s identity and future development? How did Russians give meaning to the place?

Through a thorough analysis of travel literature (by which I mean guidebooks, pamphlets, advertisements, published diaries, and personal reflections), medical reports, local administrative records, and above all newspapers, this dissertation sets out to answer these big questions. The Russian Riviera’s identity and its meaning as a place came to be directly related to the ways that Russians appropriated spaces in Crimea in new ways—ways that were both distinct to the region but also reflective of broader social and cultural processes taking place in the late tsarist empire. Russian travelers used them as a conduit to education and enlightenment. Crimea’s natural world was also rendered as a space of health and modern medical treatments. I suggest that the exploration and understandings of those natural spaces also gave Crimea new meaning as an integrated part of the Russian imperial and national homeland. The growth of resorts for Russian travelers also created new urban spaces in Crimea. The towns and small cities of the coastlines were built up as sanitary spaces by local planners, doctors and engineers; as spaces of leisure for the tourist public; and they were also spaces of social interaction that revolved heavily around contested notions of masculinity and femininity, fashion, and promiscuity. Ultimately, Crimea’s coastlines became the Russian Riviera, endowed with meaning for Russians, because of the ways that they transformed its physical environment into a place of leisure, enlightenment, imperialism, health, sanitation, and highly gendered social interactions.

The contests over the identity of the Russian Riviera and the meaning that local and traveling Russians gave to it speak to a whole host of anxieties and aspirations that they held at the fin-de-siècle. More than a history of a small part of peninsula thousands of miles from the imperial centers, this dissertation sheds light on real concerns of nineteenth and early twentieth century Russians, including the changing relationships between humans and the natural world, modern medical knowledge, practices, and civil society, rapid urbanization, and the politics and public discourse surrounding sex. Like no other place in the tsarist empire, the history of the Russian Riviera matters as a site that reveals the extensive, interwoven links connecting travel, imperialism, medicine, gendered social environments, and the natural world.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle, PhD (Advisor); Chris Otter, PhD (Committee Member); David Hoffmann, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Crimea; Russian empire; environment; medicine; health; riviera; tourism; travel;

Lywood, William GeorgeFrom Russia’s Orient To Russia’s Riviera: Reimagining The Black Sea Coast/Caucasus from Romantic Literature to Early Tourist Guidebooks
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, History

In the 1870s a new railroad connected the Crimea to Russia’s two capitals, opening the door for tourism on the southern periphery of the Russian empire. Until this time, it was difficult to access the Black Sea Coast, and it was primarily the wealthiest Russians who traveled there. By the 1890s, however, it was possible for a much broader segment of the Russian empire’s multi-ethnic population to access the North Caucasus and eastern coast of the Black Sea by train, opening the door for a tourist industry to blossom in the last three decades of tsarist rule.

This study examines the role of tourist guidebooks in transforming the Black Sea Coast and the Caucasus mountains in the minds of Russian readers into a premiere tourist destination within the tsarist empire. It will consider themes such as orientalism, romanticism, imagined geography, and tourism, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between these themes, tourist guidebooks, and Russian imperial expansion into the Caucasus.

In the first two thirds of the nineteenth century, correspondence from the military fronts of the Crimea and Caucasus (‘pacified’ and ‘incorporated’ into the empire gradually from 1783 to the 1860s) made Russians in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities of the empire envision the Caucasus as Russia’s own orient, a place that was exotic yet conquerable. The Caucasus, more than any other peripheral region in the tsarist empire, was the setting for poems, short stories, drama, and novels that gained widespread readership amongst Russians in the nineteenth century and today. This literature became the center of a discourse about the Caucasus that fashioned an ambiguous and tenuous relationship between Russians and Muslims in the Caucasus.

The principle argument of this study is that guidebooks changed Russian perceptions of the Black Sea Coast by removing any imperial ambiguity. In this way, guidebooks played a nationalist and imperialist role. They worked to integrate parts of the Caucasus into the Russian empire as an authentically Russian place that was no longer foreign. For tourists, the coast and mountains were indisputably part of the Russian empire, and the right to travel there was hardly questioned. Histories provided in guidebooks did not have the goal of describing cultural diversity and the possible cross-cultural encounters tourists might face along the Black Sea Coast. Quite the opposite, non-Russians were almost entirely written out of the story. Guidebooks offered histories of the region that served to make the potential tourist feel safe, and to make them feel as though, because they were staying in Russia, they were contributing to the welfare of their homeland. The Black Sea Coast may still have been exotic, but guidebooks transformed it into a space of incredible sights, leisure, and health resorts.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle, PhD (Advisor); Alice Conklin, PhD (Committee Member); David Hoffmann, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Black Sea; Caucasus; Russia; Russian Empire; Travel; Tourism; Guidebooks; Leisure

Peck, Joshua J.THE BIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CULTURE CONTACT: A BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROMAN COLONIALISM IN BRITAIN
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Anthropology

The biological impact of colonial expansion and culture contact has emerged as an important focus in bioarchaeological research. This study contributes to our understanding of this phenomenon by addressing the biological impact of Roman colonialism in Britain; namely, this research is interested in the sociocultural implications of urban development and its effect on population health and well-being. Bioarchaeological data are collected from pre- and postcontact populations from northeast England, represented by skeletal remains from the middle Iron Age (450 – 120 BC) and Romano-British period (AD 43 - 457), respectively. These data are used to test the following four hypotheses: (1) a general increase in systemic stress will be observed among the postcontact population; (2) the Roman conquest will be associated with a marked decline in oral health; (3) the postcontact population will exhibit a greater variability and prevalence of degenerative joint disease; and (4) traumatic injury will decrease following the Roman conquest.

Results indicate a significant increase in the frequency of nonspecific indicators of physiological stress during the postcontact period, suggesting greater exposure to the synergistic effects of malnutrition and disease. A decrease in dietary breadth and a less nutritious and more cariogenic diet is indicated by a marked decrease in oral health following the Roman conquest. Changes in workload, activity, and behavior are suggested by the general increase in osteoarthritis and traumatic injury in the postcontact population. These findings suggest populations in Britain experienced a general decrease in health and well-being with the advent of Roman contact. This temporal trend is consistent with sociocultural transformations reported for the Romano-British period. The health impact of Roman colonialism is likely to have significantly affected the social, economic, and political components of Romano-British society; as such, biology is suggested to play an important role in the process of cultural hybridization and identity creation resulting from culture contact.

Committee:

Dr. Sam Stout (Advisor); Dr. Clark Spencer Larsen (Advisor); Dr. Paul Sciulli (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Classical Studies; European History; Health; History; Human Remains; Physical Anthropology

Keywords:

Roman Britain; Bioarchaeology; Biological Anthropology; Colonialism; Culture Contact; Iron Age; Yorkshire; Roman Empire

de la Garza, AndrewMughals at War: Babur, Akbar and the Indian Military Revolution, 1500 - 1605
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History
This doctoral dissertation, Mughals at War: Babur, Akbar and the Indian Military Revolution, examines the transformation of warfare in South Asia during the foundation and consolidation of the Mughal Empire. It emphasizes the practical specifics of how the Imperial army waged war and prepared for war—technology, tactics, operations, training and logistics. These are topics poorly covered in the existing Mughal historiography, which primarily addresses military affairs through their background and context—cultural, political and economic. I argue that events in India during this period in many ways paralleled the early stages of the ongoing “Military Revolution” in early modern Europe. The Mughals effectively combined the martial implements and practices of Europe, Central Asia and India into a model that was well suited for the unique demands and challenges of their setting.

Committee:

John Guilmartin, PhD (Committee Chair); Stephen Dale, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Siegel, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Podalsky, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

History; Military History

Keywords:

History; South Asia; military history; Mughal Empire; 16th century

Ball, Rachael I.An Inn-Yard Empire: Theater and Hospitals in the Spanish Golden Age
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History

This study examines the development of commercial theater in important urban locations of the Spanish Empire during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and compares them with their English counterparts. Based on manuscript and printed sources, it argues that the Spanish theaters developed into a well-entrenched and exportable system of public drama through their financial relationship to hospitals in those cities. Unlike in cities in the Anglo-Atlantic, this meant that theater was centrally integrated into the physical space of cities in Spain and its colonies. This relationship also gave Spanish public playhouses an upper hand when dealing with anti-theatrical moralizers.

Additionally this study examines the impact that various groups had on the development of Renaissance theaters. Actors, playwrights, troupe directors, hospital administrators, actresses, and audience members, as well as imperial, local, and religious authorities, played a role in the creation of the most productive and most attended public drama of the early modern period.

Committee:

N. Geoffrey Parker, PhD (Committee Chair); Dale van Kley, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Elizabeth Davis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; Latin American History; Theater

Keywords:

theater; Spain; cities; hospitals; empire

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