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Lee, Jonathan EricPartitioning β-diversity in species-area relationships: implications for biodiversity and conservation
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
The species-area relationship (SAR), a vital tool in community ecology, attempts to quantify the biodiversity of an area by identifying the species richness from sample patches. Diversity within a patch is known as α-diversity while diversity among patches is known as β-diversity. Some ecologists argue that differences in area explain all β-diversity in independent sampling while others argue β-diversity partially results from other factors, such as habitat heterogeneity or stochastic factors. In this meta-analysis of SAR data, β-diversity was partitioned into area-dependent and area-independent components; it was determined factors besides area explain a large portion of β-diversity in independent SAR samples. It was surprising that neither the sampling effort nor study scale had a significant effect on the diversity components.

Committee:

Thomas Crist, PhD (Advisor); Doug Meikle, PhD (Committee Member); Jing Zhang, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Botany; Ecology; Environmental Science; Zoology

Keywords:

diversity partitioning; biodiversity; conservation; species-area relationship; ecology; &945; diversity; alpha diversity; &946; diversity; beta diversity; habitat heterogeneity

Fulford, Cynthia NanevaPreparing Students to Work in a Globally Diverse World: The Relationship of College Students' Backgrounds and College Experiences to Their Orientation Toward Diversity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Higher Education Administration

This research study describes the set of student pre-college and college characteristics that contribute to or predict students’ orientation towards diversity as measured by the four scales of the Miville-Guzman Universality Diversity Scale Short Form (M-GUDS-S) instrument: Diversity of Contact, Relativistic Appreciation, and Overall Attitudes toward Diversity.

Findings from this study were consistent with the literature. First, students who identified as female, first-generation, and non-White, were significantly more likely to have a positive orientation toward diversity. Second, many of the academic and engagement pre-college and college variables were also significant as contributors and predictors of students’ orientation towards diversity. In addition to being female, there were two pre-college variables that positively predicted students overall attitude toward diversity; attending a high school that was predominantly White and participating in community service/volunteer work. One pre-college variable, having a high school peer group that was predominantly White, was a negative predictor of students’ overall attitude and orientation toward diversity.

Of the five college variables that predicted a student’s overall attitude toward diversity, four were positive and one was negative. The variables predicting students’ overall positive attitude toward diversity as college students were: (a) a major strength in discussing controversial topics, (b) often interacting with race/ethnicity groups different from one’s own, (c) took a diversity course, (d) completing the required cultural diversity general education course at Bowling Green State University. However, students who reported often feeling discomfort around racially diverse peers while in college were predicted to have a more negative orientation toward diversity.

Recommendations for increasing students’ positive orientation toward diversity include: Increase or maintain structural or physical diversity of the campus environment; Create multiracial and multiple identity programs and services; Increase secondary and postsecondary school partnerships; Develop and increase pre-college engagement activities; Provide cultural immersion experiences; Develop and increase college engagement activities; Encourage volunteer work and service-learning opportunities; Review and implement diversity courses; and Develop teacher education courses that teach skills around diversity

Committee:

Robert DeBard, Ed.D (Committee Chair); Knight William E., Ph.D (Committee Co-Chair); Coomes Michael D., Ed.D (Committee Member); Brown Sherlon P., Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Intercultural; Interculturalism: Intergroup Contact Theory; Diversity; Diversity Orientation; Pre-College; College; Miville-Guzman Universality Diversity; M-GUDS; UDO; Universality-Diversity Orientation

Pels, Sarah E.INCREASING GENDER DIVERSITY IN THE IT WORKFORCE: CHARACTERIZING AND EVALUATING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFORTS
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2012, Business Administration
The objective of the study is gain a better understanding of gender diversity efforts within organizations and their effectiveness. To this end the study develops a framework for characterizing and measuring the effectiveness of organizational efforts for gender diversity using a comparative case study. An extensive framework is developed that encompasses effort characteristics including catalysts, objectives, methods and practices, and measurement strategies. The framework also captures factors that help gauge effort effectiveness including perceived effort outcomes, barriers and challenge for women in IT, and informal ways women in IT overcome these barriers. The framework is further developed using an empirical comparative case study that evaluates the characteristics of nine organizational efforts. The data proves to be rich and full of interesting trends, as it was analyzed across different companies, industries, initiative types, and employee role types. As a result of the analysis, this study provides five recommendations to improve the current state of gender diversity in the IT workforce.

Committee:

Hala Annabi, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Gender; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems; Information Technology

Keywords:

gender diversity; diversity; IT; Information Technology; workforce diversity; organizational initiative; gender initiatives; initiative evaluation; program effectiveness

McCann, KimCommunication Policy and Public Interests: Media Diversity in Public and Commercial Broadcast Television in the U.S
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Communication Studies
Promoting media diversity in a society is imperative for the social benefits that allow citizens to make informed decisions through exposure to a broad range of viewpoints. In spite of its significance, two major hindrances to media diversity identified so far are conceptual disagreement, that renders divergent approaches to the diversity analysis, and market forces, in which media are centered on a profit seeking mechanism. Responding to these two major issues of media diversity, the study explored the policy effectiveness within the notion of the First Amendment conflict and assessed diversity in both the public and commercial broadcast television industries. This study proposed the integrated theory of diversity, which could identify multiindicators of the dimension of the diversity, such as source, content, and audience diversity; thus, it allowed assessment of the multi-levels within political and economic contexts. The application of the public sphere model helped establish public interest criteria and thus could provide more consistent policy goals in promoting media diversity. The structural conduct model allowed assessment of source diversity by identifying the relationship among the market structure of the broadcast television industry, product strategies, and diversity. The application of the public policy model and the program choice model allowed measurement of content diversity distinctively produced by both public and commercial broadcast television by identifying different programming The analyses of the study provided three major substantial findings: 1) Conceptual disagreement of media diversity and ineffectiveness of the policies on media diversity largely stemmed from the FCC’s inconsistency in establishing public interest criteria.strategies.This inconsistency hindered justification of any regulatory intervention to protect public interest and to effectively respond to market failure in terms of media diversity. 2) The diversity offered by public and commercial broadcast televisions was different in terms of programming strategies, types of programs produced, and both number of channels and diversity level offered. The critical variables influencing the diversity were a moral obligation to serve the public interest in public television and the economics of programming in commercial broadcast television. 3) The expressive function of media diversity, reflecting audience demand on media content, is problematic because it basically obeys a majoritarian rule that satisfies the immediate gratification of as many audiences as possible, and audience gratification in accessing ideas is rarely balanced, nor is it on the basis of rational demands.

Committee:

John Makay (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

Media diversity; audience selection; content diversity; source diversity; public interest; competition; concentration.

Monago, Emily A.University Diversity Training Needs Assessment: The Perspectives of African, Latina/o, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American Students
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Communication Studies
Communication scholars have acknowledged that racial diversity does not receive adequate examination from organizational communication scholars. This study examined race-related diversity training at a predominantly white Northwest Ohio university from the perspectives of undergraduate African, Latina/o, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American (ALANA) students. Research demonstrates that on predominantly white campuses, ALANA students may face unique challenges that may differ from the experiences of their white peers. However, race-related diversity training programs are frequently developed without assessing the needs of ALANA people. This research used open-ended surveys with 127 ALANA students, audiotape recorded interviews with seven ALANA students, and a diversity training manual. Grounded theory was used to develop themes. The manual themes were compared to ALANA-generated themes to assess whether students needs were being met by the current diversity training program. There were three race-related themes that materialized as unmet needs for the participants. The three unmet needs were assistance with coping with the biases of others; the ability to recognize support and develop richer interpersonal relationships; and the obligation to educate others about ALANA people while simultaneously representing all people from their respective ALANA groups. There were two themes that manifested differently in the manual and student data. These themes were examining natural behaviors and actions and making connections with life experiences. In conclusion, the diversity training activities contained in the manual do not fully meet the needs of ALANA students. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the findings, implications, and future recommendations.

Committee:

Lynda Dixon, PhD (Advisor); Milton Hakel, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Lengel, PhD (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Communication; Higher Education; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Native Americans

Keywords:

diversity training; African American; Latino; Latina; Asian; Pacific Islander; Native American; grounded theory; needs assessment; multicultural education; diversity; minority; racial diversity

Curry, Brett W.The courts, congress, and the politics of federal jurisdiction
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Political Science
Although the institutional relationship between the federal courts and Congress has been the subject of substantial empirical research, scholars know relatively little about the specific role that jurisdiction plays in structuring that relationship. Most prior scholarship has focused on ways in which Congress has attempted to use its influence over court structure and judicial personnel to impact the federal courts. However, Congress’s ability to expand or limit the types of cases eligible for federal court review has received much less attention. By analyzing congressional efforts to limit federal jurisdiction in two major areas of law, this dissertation sheds light on jurisdiction’s role in the relationship between these governmental branches and, more generally, the degree of autonomy from congressional oversight that the federal judiciary possesses. The dissertation’s assessment of this jurisdictional activity begins with a technical area of federal statutory jurisdiction known as diversity jurisdiction. There, I examine the impact that judicial outcomes, court caseloads, and group involvement have played in motivating congressional attempts to limit diversity jurisdiction’s scope. I conclude that, while administrative caseload factors have accounted for much of Congress’s jurisdictional activity in this area of statutory law, dissatisfaction with federal court outcomes has also contributed to Congress’s jurisdictional activity in a more limited way. The dissertation then moves to an analysis of congressional attempts to curtail federal jurisdiction over certain areas of constitutional law. I assess the impact of judicial outcomes, public opinion, Congress’s ideological preferences, and several related factors on the intensity with which legislators have sought to exclude certain constitutional claims from the purview of the federal courts since the 1950s. The results of these analyses indicate that the tenor of federal judicial outcomes, the preferences of the general public, and the likelihood of judicial reversal all relate to the intensity with which members of Congress pursue this jurisdiction- or court-stripping legislation. Taken together, the dissertation’s results suggest that jurisdictional politics may be more critical to the relationship between the federal courts and Congress than most scholars have acknowledged. At a minimum, the dissertation’s results intimate that separation-of-powers models of the courts and Congress cannot be complete without an acknowledgement of jurisdiction’s potential importance to the relationship between these two institutions.

Committee:

Lawrence Baum (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

Jurisdiction&160;&8211; United States; Judicial process&160;&8211; United States; Federal Jurisdiction&160;&8211; United States; Diversity of Citizenship; Diversity Jurisdiction; Court-Stripping; Jurisdiction-Stripping

Rieger, Jennifer E.Genetic and morphological diversity of natural populations of Carica papaya
Master of Science, Miami University, 2009, Botany
Dioecious, small-fruiting common papayas have been observed growing in Costa Rica within secondary lowland forests. These naturally occurring populations may serve as a reservoir of genetic and morphological diversity for cultivated papaya; therefore, we characterized their morphological and genetic diversity. Morphological diversity among 252 papaya plants growing in different geographic regions of Costa Rica was assessed through chi-square heterogeneity, cluster, and discriminant analyses. A significant amount of morphological diversity was observed throughout the country, especially within reproductive characteristics. Twenty microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity of 184 plants from natural populations and ten cultivars to determine levels of heterozygosity, genetic differentiation, and population structure. Comparisons between natural populations and cultivars indicate a greater amount of genetic diversity existing within the natural populations. These results suggest that germplasm from natural papaya populations growing within Costa Rica should be collected and used as a reservoir for genetic and morphological diversity.

Committee:

Richard Moore, PhD (Advisor); David Gorchov, PhD (Committee Member); Nicholas Money, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Botany

Keywords:

Carica papaya; microsatellites; genetic diversity; morphological diversity

Gacasan, Karla AThe Role of Theoretical Groundings in Diversity Training: A Mixed Methods Case Study of a University Diversity Conference
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
With over $200 million in annual spending by American organizations on diversity training, diversity conferences are increasingly becoming vehicles for information exchange and discussion on best practices in terms of diversity issues. Despite the substantial allocation to diversity training and diversity programs, there remains a gap in identifying where theoretical groundings fit in the dynamic of diversity, and particularly in the development and implementation of diversity training. This case study was an investigation into the roles theoretical groundings played in diversity training, particularly during the design, development and implementation of a university diversity conference. Using a mixed methods approach, the research compared and contrasted theoretical groundings that diversity practitioners valued in a personal and professional capacity with the proposals they submitted to present at a diversity conference.

Committee:

Holly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Marvin Berlowitz, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Edson Cabalfin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vicki Plano Clark, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

diversity;peace education;class;diversity training;race;gender

Greene, Richard RoyceReligious Diversity in the Southeastern United States: An Exercise in Mapping Religious Diversity in the Region from 1980-2010
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2014, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Geographers have traditionally delimited and mapped religious adherence at the national or international scales through the use of small-scale choropleth maps depicting national or international distributions. Because such maps engender a number of shortcomings this study employs publically available county-level data on religious adherence from the Digital Atlas of American Religion, a web-based GIS site that enables researchers using spatially referenced data, to make complex and visually dynamic maps that can be easily interpreted. The analysis employs measures of diversity and isolation drawn from the fields of statistics and biology to develop diversity and isolation indices that will then be mapped employing a GIS in order to produce a more accurate interpretation of religious diversity in the southeastern United States. The study argues that the indices of relative "strength" derived from the methodologies employed in this study will produce a more accurate assessment of religious diversity.

Committee:

Timothy Anderson, Dr. (Advisor); Gaurav Sinha, Dr. (Committee Member); Harold Perkins, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Geography; Religion

Keywords:

religious diversity; southeastern United States; geography of religion, mapping religious diversity; herfindahl index; simpson reciprocal index

JAIN, VISHESHPERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED SELECTION COMBINING IN ARBITRARILY CORRELATED NAKAGAMI FADING CHANNELS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Electrical Engineering
Mobile communication technologies have grown significantly in recent years. In order to satisfy the increasing number of users and their ever increasing requirements, there have been continuous enhancements in present-day wireless standards. With the proliferation of these standards, use of conventional techniques for improving receiver performance becomes very complex. Hence, the design and analysis of low complexity suboptimal techniques, which are comparable to optimal techniques on performance basis and consume less power, has received tremendous interest in a research community. Along these lines this thesis analyzes a suboptimal diversity combining system called generalized selection combining (GSC). In this thesis, we develop an analytical framework for error rate analysis of the GSC technique in a correlated Nakagami fading environment. We derive the moment generating function of the output SNR of a GSC system and, using the moment generating function, the bit error rate of the system is derived. We show that our developed analytical expressions converge to the results presented in literature for the special cases of independent identically distributed GSC with Rayleigh and Nakagami fading, and maximal ratio combining with IID Nakagami fading. Finally, the analytical equations are plotted, verified and compared with the results from system simulations.

Committee:

Dr. James Caffery (Advisor)

Keywords:

GSC; Diversity Combining; Antenna diversity; Correlation; Nakagami fading; Generalized Selection Combining

Guidroz, Ashley MichelleHow Much Diversity is Diversity?
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
The role that diversity plays in the workplace has increased over time as more companies adopt diversity management strategies in an effort to increase performance or attract new employees (Hays-Thomas, 2004). Little research has been directed, however, toward understanding how diversity perceptions are impacted by the amount of diversity present in the group. It is easy to identify occurrences when diversity is absent, but we know little about how much diversity is needed for a group to be perceived as diverse (Harrison and Klein, 2007). Drawing largely from research on judgment and decision making (Bazerman, 1993; Levin, Schneider, and Gaeth, 1998; Tversky and Kahneman, 1981) this paper examined how the amount of diversity present and the way the diversity information is framed can influence people's perceptions of group diversity. These questions were examined in the context of two types of demographic diversity: gender and race. Results indicated that people perceived racial/ethnic diversity, described as the 'proportion of Blacks and Hispanics' in the workplace, as being more consistent with their idea of diversity and viewed the organization as making more effort toward managing diversity than when diversity was framed in any other population (i.e., women, men, Whites). Participants also demonstrated a preference for equality and judged the organization to be most successful at managing diversity when the minority and non-minority groups held an equal proportion in the population (i.e., 50%).

Committee:

Scott Highhouse, PhD (Advisor); Jennifer Gillespie, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Hare, PhD (Committee Member); Margaret Brooks, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

Workforce Diversity; Judgment and Decision Making; Diversity Theory; Organization Attraction

Nelson, LIsa V.International Service Learning: Program Elements Linked to Learning Outcomes, and Six Participant Motivation Factors Revealed
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Higher Education (Education)
Qualitative research that involved the study of participants on a two-week international service learning (ISL) program in Honduras identified six foundational elements (guided critical processing, international border crossing, reciprocal connections and personalizing, group dynamic, non-service activities, and related service project), and found significant connections between those elements and particular learning outcomes and impacts on participants. These findings provided the theoretical basis for a new International Service Learning Group Model for practitioners. Also, findings revealed six factors (leader qualities, service oriented, faculty mentoring, financial assistance, peer recommendation, and connection to area of study) that contributed to students choosing to participate on the ISL program.

Committee:

Pete Mather, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

African American Studies; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Ethnic Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Latin American Studies; Recreation; School Administration; Social Research; Teacher Education

Keywords:

international service learning; service learning; foundational elements; group dynamic; diversity; personalizing; diversity outcomes; ISL; model international service learning; program model; recruitment; recruiting; motivation; qualitative; connections

Cole, MiaA Critical Assessment of Professional Skills and Knowledge in Supplier Diversity: A Delphi Study
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2008, Leadership and Change
Today, many US corporations have made great strides to embrace supplier diversity as a social consideration, and most importantly, as a strategic business enabler. From the earlier years of mandating minority inclusion to the realization that diversifying the supply chain creates value by capitalizing on the diverse background and experiences of minority businesses, supplier diversity has emerged as a major business initiative. It is one of the initiatives that contribute to the welfare of the country by building minority communities and strengthening our society. By developing business coalitions and partnerships with minority suppliers there is tremendous opportunity to impact the economic development of minorities and make significant contributions to the growth and development of our nation. The goal of this research is to apply the Delphi methodology to a research study that identifies the skills and knowledge that marks a professional in supplier diversity in the private sector. Additionally, this study is intended to help shape the future of supplier diversity as a professional entity in the business environment. This research is honoring and advancing the cause and status of supplier diversity professionals who possess the drive and commitment to elevate supplier diversity to a profession. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Melvin Gravely, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Business Community; Business Education; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Native Americans

Keywords:

Supplier Diversity; Minority Business Development; Minorities; Small Businesses; Suppliers; Vendors; Corporate Supply Chain; Diversity; Professional Skills and Competencies; Delphi Method

Dean, Suzanne L.How Openness to Experience and Prejudicial Attitudes Shape Diversity Training Outcomes
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2008, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
This study investigated the effectiveness of diversity training on a diversity training outcome measure when considering participant levels of Openness to Experience, sexism, and racism. Because past literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between Openness to Experience and training outcomes and a negative relationship between prejudicial attitudes and diversity training outcomes, these variables were treated as main effects in Multiple Regression equations. This study demonstrated that diversity awareness training increases participant understanding of legal issues related to workplace diversity. However, diversity training outcomes were not greatly affected by implicit or explicit prejudicial attitudes or Openness to Experience.

Committee:

Corey E. Miller, PhD (Committee Chair); Debra Steele-Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Martin P. Gooden, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

diversity training; diversity; IAT; Openness to Experience; Prejudicial Attitudes; Modern Sexism; Modern Racism; implicit attitudes; implicit racism; implicit sexism

Margetts, Adam R.Joint scale-lag diversity in mobile wideband communications
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Electrical Engineering
We consider the effect of mobility on a wideband direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) communication system, and study a scale-lag Rake receiver capable of leveraging the diversity that results from mobility. A wideband signal has a large bandwidth-to-center frequency ratio, such that the typical narrowband Doppler spread assumptions do not apply to mobile channels. Instead, we assume a more general temporal scaling phenomenon, i.e., a dilation of the transmitted signal's time support. Based on a uniform ring of scatterers model, we determine that the wideband scattering function, which quantifies the average scale spreading, has a “bathtub-shaped” scale profile. We investigate, through frame-theoretic tools, the translation- and dilation-spacing parameters of a scale-lag Rake basis, and compare the performances of a scale-lag Rake and a Doppler-lag Rake, each capable of leveraging the diversity that results from mobility. When the translation spacing of the Rake functions is equal to the minimum resolvable lag, there is no significant performance difference between the receivers. For wider spacings, the receiver is more reliant on dilation diversity; hence, the scale-lag Rake receiver performs relatively better. Such analysis applies, for example, to ultra-wideband (UWB) radio frequency channels and underwater wideband acoustic channels. We study the correlation structure of the scale-lag Rake fingers and show that the normalized scale spread parameter relates directly to the time-variability of the channel. We discover that much of the channel energy is concentrated in few eigen-modes and hence propose principal components combining for a reduced-complexity solution. Finally, we perform physical experiments in the air-acoustic channel to demonstrate the applicability of the wideband channel model.

Committee:

Phil Schniter (Advisor)

Keywords:

scale-lag diversity; ultra-wideband; diversity; scale-lag Rake

Ormiston, Anna KathleenENVIRONMENTAL, SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL EFFECTS ON MICROBIAL COMPOSITION IN LAKE ERIE
MS, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Through close interactions with biotic and abiotic environments, microbial communities in lakes mediate numerous biogeochemical processes that are essential in regional and global cycles of C, N and P. However, the relationship between bacterial community compositions and environmental conditions is still unclear. Lake Erie's natural gradient of nutrient supply and many other environmental parameters from the Sandusky Bay to the Central Basin provides an ideal experiment to examine how well bacterial community composition tracks environmental changes spatially and temporally. Surface water samples were collected along a transect that ran from the Sandusky Bay (hypereutrophic) via Sandusky Sub-basin (mesoeutrophic) to the Central Basin (oligotrophic) in June, July and August 2012. Zooplankton sample were also collected at each basin in June, July and August to see whether they respond to environmental conditions and to the changing bacterioplankton communities. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. Bacterioplankton was collected on filters and filtrates were used for nutrient analyses, including ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and soluble reactive phosphorus. Chlorophyll a concentration measurements confirmed the expected gradient of primary productivity among sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was conducted to compare of the microbial community structure and diversity along this natural gradient from the Sandusky Bay to the Central Basin. Additionally, zooplankton community structure and diversity was compared along the transect. Results showed that the free-living bacterioplankton structure differed significantly among sampling time, which was likely contributed by temporal variations in nutrient concentrations. As for the zooplankton community, Cyclopidae, Branchionidae and Synchaetidae were identified as major families (>78.4% of total zooplankton) in all samples. Zooplankton family structure had no clear separation based on site location on site location or sampling time. In addition, no significant correlation was identified between zooplankton community structure and environmental parameters or with zooplankton community structure and bacterioplankton community structure. Zooplankton diversity tests revealed significant differences in zooplankton diversity among sites and months. This research contributes a better understanding of the zooplankton and bacteria community structure found in Lake Erie. Along with this natural nutrient gradient found in Lake Erie, harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABS) is also a serious issue that affects wildlife, human health, recreation and local economics. CyanoHABs produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins that lead to skin irritation, illness and liver tumors. Natural bacterial degradation of these microcystins play a key role in lakes by transforming these harmful toxins to less harmful metabolites that can be consumed by other organisms without a detrimental affect on their health and ecosystem health. Microcystin-LR is a toxin produced in harmful cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Erie and in Grand Lake St. Marys. This experiment specifically compared bacterial community structure and diversity from lakes with previous CyanoHAB exposure and their response to amended Microcystin-LR levels. Water samples were collected in June 2012 in the western basin, Sandusky sub-basin and central basin of Lake Erie and three recreational sites in Grand Lake St. Mary’s. Particulate-associated bacterioplankton was filtered out of the water samples, and the remaining filtrate was starved of all carbon and incubated in the dark for 1 week. After incubation, water samples were divided into triplicate microcosms. Microcystin-LR additions were added to the water samples as the sole carbon source for the naturally existing bacterioplankton community. After the microcystin-LR addition cell counts and microcystin concentrations were measure every 24 hours for two days. T-RFLP analysis was conducted to compare original bacterial community structure and diversity for each site to the Microcystin-LR amended bacterial community structure and diversity. Significant differences between start and end MC-LR concentrations (p < 0.05) measured in the incubation experiment indicated MC-LR degradation. Shannon diversity indices for bacterioplankton T-RF percent abundances were not significantly different between treatments for both lakes (ANOVA, p > 0.05). T-RFLP results showed that bacterioplankton community structures were significantly different between microcystin amended and original free-living bacterioplankton communities for Grand Lake St. Mary samples, but there was no significant difference between community structure for MC-amended treatments and non amended controls. In contrast, Lake Erie’s MC-amended communities experienced no shift in community structure. Non-amended controls had natural occurring MC-concentration, which suggests that there is a large subset of bacterioplankton that could degrade MC-LR before the treatments were administered. The extensive CyanoHAB history found in both lakes can explain these results. There are two dominating cyanobacterial species in Grand Lake St. Mary’s and four in Lake Erie, which suggests that these differences may affect the differences in MC degraders found in both lakes and the overall bacterioplankton community structure. Evidence of MC-degradation could be explained by bacterioplankton using MC-LR as an energy source.

Committee:

Xiaozhen Mou (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biogeochemistry; Biology; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Science; Experiments; Freshwater Ecology; Limnology; Microbiology; Molecular Biology; Toxicology

Keywords:

Great Lakes; Lake Erie; CyanoHABs, microcystin-LR; microbial community structure and diversity; zooplankton community structure and diversity; harmful algal blooms; Grand Lake St Marys; T-RFLP; limnology; microbial ecology

Azarian Yazdi, KambizOutage limited cooperative channels: protocols and analysis
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Electrical Engineering
We propose novel cooperative protocols for various coherent flat-fading channels composed of half-duplex nodes. We consider relay, cooperative broadcast (CB), multiple-access relay (MAR) and cooperative multiple-access (CMA) channels and devise efficient protocols for them. We evaluate the proposed protocols using the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT). We also consider ARQ cooperative channels where users are provided with ACK/ NACK signals indicating success or failure of destination in decoding their messages. We show that utilization of ARQ techniques not only improves the tradeoff achieved by non-ARQ protocols, but also provides novel opportunities for cooperation that are otherwise unavailable. A distinguishing feature of the protocols proposed in this dissertation is that they do not rely on orthogonal subspaces, allowing for a more efficient use of resources. In fact, based on our results one can argue that the sub-optimality of previously proposed protocols stems from their use of orthogonal subspaces rather than the half-duplex constraint. We also provide a better understanding of the asymptotic relationship between the probability of error, transmission rate, and signal-to-noise ratio, as compared to what DMT offers. In particular, we identify the limitation imposed by the multiplexing gain notion and provide a new formulation, called the throughput-reliability tradeoff (TRT), that avoids this limitation. The new characterization is then used to elucidate the asymptotic trends exhibited by the outage probability curves of MIMO channels.

Committee:

Hesham El Gamal (Advisor)

Keywords:

Cooperative Diversity; Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff; Throughput-Reliability Tradeoff; Dynamic Decode and Forward; Nonorthogonal Amplify and Forward; Half-Duplex Radio; Relay Channel; Multiple-Access Channel; Broadcast Channel; Automatic Repeat Request

Jones, Aaron M.Frequency Diverse Array Receiver Architectures
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2011, Electrical Engineering

Typical radar systems are limited to energy distribution characteristics that are range independent. However, operators are generally interested in obtaining information at particular ranges and discarding elsewhere. It seems appropriate then to attempt to put energy solely at the range(s) of interest, thus minimizing exposure to clutter, jammers and other range-dependent interferences sources. The frequency diverse array (FDA) can provide a mechanism to achieve range-dependent beamforming and the spatial energy distribution properties are investigated on transmit and receive for different architectures herein.

While simplified FDA receive architectures have been explored, they exclude the return signals from transmitters that are not frequency matched. This practice neglects practical consideration in receiver implementation and has motivated research to formulate a design that includes all frequencies. We present several receiver architectures for a uniform linear FDA, and compare the processing chain and spatial patterns in order to formulate an argument for the most efficient design to maximize gain on target.

It may also be desirable to beamsteer in higher dimensionalities than a linear array affords, thus, the transmit and receive concept is extended to a generic planar array. This new architecture allows 3-D beamsteering in angle and range while maintaining practicality. The spatial patterns that arise are extremely unique and afford the radar designer an additional degree of freedom to develop operational strategy.

The ability to simultaneously acquire, track, image and protect assets is a requirement of future fielded systems. The FDA architecture intrinsically covers multiple diversity domains and, therefore, naturally lends it self to a multi-mission, multi-mode adar scheme. A multiple beam technique that uses coding is suggested to advance this notion.

Committee:

Brian Rigling, PhD (Advisor); Douglas Petkie, PhD (Committee Member); Fred Garber, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

radar; frequency diverse array radar; waveform diversity; antenna patterns; range-dependent beamforming; linear arrays; planar arrays; MIMO radar; frequency diversity; autonomous beam scanning; multiple beam radar

Horton, Dean JUsing molecular techniques to investigate soil invertebrate communities in temperate forests
MS, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Thesis Part One: The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) for community analysis (i.e., eDNA metabarcoding) is becoming more commonplace within molecular ecology. However, molecular methods for use in soil animal studies require further development before high throughput sequencing can be considered a reliable technique in community ecology. To aid in this effort, I compare two frequently used genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and ribosomal 18S genes) to determine which is most appropriate for use in soil animal eDNA studies. DNA was analyzed from individual invertebrate species to test the efficiency of the primer sets in successfully targeting animal DNA. Primers were also tested for amplification of faunal genes from forest soil and leaf litter eDNA. Targeting the 18S gene resulted in the most successful amplification and correct identification of a wide range of individual invertebrate taxa, and was the most reliable gene for use in eDNA analysis. In contrast, the COI primers were inefficient in identifying a wide range of invertebrates, and amplified mostly bacterial sequences from eDNA. Thesis Part Two: Invertebrate communities are important in regulating processes and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Spatial patterns, therefore, are important in understanding the extent of these communities across a landscape, as community composition shifts over space through environmental heterogeneity and species interactions. However, current research is grounded in examining specific groups of taxa (e.g. Collembola, mites, nematodes, etc.), and a comprehensive understanding of factors structuring total invertebrate communities on multiple spatial scales has yet to be accomplished. While this would be a daunting task using traditional microscopy, recent advances in DNA sequencing technology has allowed for efficient alternative methods to uncover the composition of local invertebrate biodiversity. In this study, I uncovered spatial patterns of the full invertebrate community within soil and leaf litter from local to landscape scales in a temperate forest system. I accomplished this through high-throughput DNA sequencing of environmental samples along a spatially-nested design within multiple forested ecosystem types. Habitat and ecosystem type were found to be important in structuring invertebrate communities on all levels of scale. Soil environments harbored higher a-diversity and ß-diversity with respect to leaf litter. Increased habitat heterogeneity likely explains elevated levels of diversity within forest soil. Vegetative community composition is likely driving faunal compositional differences between ecosystems through variances in plant species attributes and litter composition, as well as soil physical properties. Several taxonomic groups were preferentially associated to particular habitats and ecosystems, potentially as consequence of food web structure. Spatial structuring was weak from local to regional scales, however, significant autocorrelation of species turnover was found at fine distances of 1-5 m across the forested landscape. Small-scale habitat heterogeneity established by zones of plant influence could influence species distributions at these short scales. Exploring smaller spatial scales may uncover increased levels of spatial structuring, and the role of tree zones of influence should be taken into account for future research. This study has exemplified the usefulness of environmental DNA sequencing in uncovering terrestrial fauna community patterns in a nontransparent terrestrial environment.

Committee:

Christopher Blackwood, Ph.D. (Advisor); Mark Kershner, Ph.D. (Advisor); Xiaozhen Mou, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Molecular Biology

Keywords:

Soil fauna, environmental DNA, eDNA, metabarcoding, 18S, COI, invertebrate, animals, temperate forest, soil, leaf litter, landscape, deciduous, Manistee, MI, Michigan, alpha-diversity, beta-diversity, high-throughput sequencing, NGS, HTS

Tosaka, Rumi MorishimaIs "identity-based conflict" a valid or banal concept? Event history analysis of civil war onset, 1960-2000
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Sociology
One assumption that is often implicit yet widely held in the conflict literature is the existence of "identity-based (ethnic)" conflicts. While this type of conflict is presumed to be conceptually and empirically distinct from "non-identity" conflicts, few close examinations have been undertaken regarding the validity of this assumption. By using the conditional risk model, a Cox proportional hazard model that allows for multiple failures, this dissertation investigates whether or not the two war "types" evince different causal explanations in ways that can justify the oft-mentioned distinction. Results suggest that while the different "types" of war share many causes, economic exclusion seems more applicable to non-identity civil war (e.g., class-based warfare) while political exclusion better explains identity-based civil war overall, suggesting that there may be some truth to the argument that political recognition plays an important role in identity-based war. First, socioeconomic development and international economic integration seem generally important for war prevention, yet other aspects of modernization show different patterns across the "types" of civil war. Population growth increases the risk of identity-based war. Economic differentials encourage non-identity wars, whereas political differentials seem to pose a greater danger of identity-based warfare. Second, as for political environments, inclusive political systems exhibit generally beneficial effects, while exclusive ones are the most dangerous, particularly regarding identity-based conflicts. Also, systematic denial of political opportunities, whether through discriminatory policies or deprivation of autonomy, increases the risk of identity war. In contrast, economic discrimination increases the risk of non-identity warfare. Third, the group size/numbers and identity attributes in combination differently affect the risk of the two war "types." Religious diversity reduces the risk of non-identity wars, whereas linguistic fractionalization and ethnic polarization significantly increase the risk of identity-based civil war. Finally, the results also suggest that "conflict trap" exists regardless of the war "type," at least up to the second event. It seems that either type of first conflict experience should be recognized as a serious precursory to continued conflict. Despite some scholars' call for complete abandonment of identity-based conflict studies, it seems the classification merits further debate and continued empirical investigation.

Committee:

Edward M. Crenshaw (Committee Chair); J. Craig Jenkins (Committee Member); Pamela M. Paxton (Committee Member); Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

civil war; ethnic conflict; identity-based conflict; political system; ethnic diversity; religious diversity; socioeconomic development; political violence

Zarubin, AnnaEffect of Attitudes on Results of Diversity Training
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
Increased awareness of diversity in organizations has been evident in the extensive implementation of diversity training programs. This study examined the effectiveness of a one-hour diversity training session in influencing trainee behaviors, as well as the role of pre-training and post-training attitudes. Training outcomes were measured 6 months after the training session, and compared with pre-training measures. Two new and distinct attitudinal factors were found in this study: attitude toward diversity (ATD) and attitude toward diversity training (ATDT). These two factors were differentially related to behavior after training. Other predictors of diversity training success are discussed, and implications for training programs and training evaluation are considered.

Committee:

Milton D. Hakel, PhD (Advisor); Jennifer Z. Gillespie, PhD (Committee Member); Mary L. Hare, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

diversity training; diversity; attitudes

Holman, Krista ElaineThe effects of sewage effluent on macroalgal and seagrass abundance, dry weight and diversity within Grahams Harbor, San Salvador, Bahamas
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2007, Environmental Sciences
The algal and seagrass abundance, dry weight and diversity were surveyed at a site along the coast of Grahams Harbor in San Salvador, Bahamas in the Caribbean during June 2004. One hundred randomly distributed plots were surveyed via SCUBA to determine the influence of a sewage effluent pipe on algae and seagrass assemblages. The objectives of the study were to determine if there was a distinction among regions of marine algae and seagrasses due to the effluent, and if distance from the effluent source influenced diversity (measured through Shannon’s Diversity Index, H', Simpson’s Diversity Index, D' and Evenness, E'), species richness, percent cover and dry weight. Results showed that the dry weight and percent cover decreased significantly with a decrease in distance from the pipe. Additionally, regions outside the flow of the effluent pipe showed significant increases in species number.

Committee:

Hays Cummins (Advisor)

Keywords:

Macroalgae; Shannon's diversity; Simpson's diversity; Evenness; Species richness; San Salvador; Bahamas; Sewage effluent; Algae; Eutrophication

Mardonovich, SandraThe Natural Diversity of Carica papaya in Panama
Master of Science, Miami University, 2016, Botany
The biodiversity of wild crop species can be threatened by genetic introgression of cultivated traits from co-occurring cultivated varieties. The tropical fruit crop, papaya (Carica papaya L.), is a model organism to study questions related to crop-to-wild gene flow because it is cultivated in Central America alongside natural populations. Morphological and genetic diversity was assessed for a collection of naturally occurring papaya individuals from four regions in Panama', which is the southern-most extent of papaya’s range. Significant morphological variation was limited, and fruit characteristics align with typical wild-type traits; fruits are small and round with a thin mesocarp and yellow flesh. Genetic analyses indicated a deficiency in heterozygosity in all regions except the Northeast region. We found moderate levels of population differentiations and regional structuring. This study provides further insight into the natural biodiversity of a tropical crop cultivated in close proximity to its wild counterparts.

Committee:

Richard Moore (Advisor)

Subjects:

Botany

Keywords:

Gene flow; natural diversity; genetic structure; morphological diversity

Washburn, Stephen JacksonThe Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : Biological Sciences
The effect of four air pollutants (NOX, NH3, SO2, & O3 ) upon epiphytic macrolichens in the urban environment was explored. Lichens were examined at seven urban and four non-urban (rural or suburban) sites in the greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. A total of 31 species of lichens were found, including 19 new county records for four southwestern counties in Ohio, and four new county records for Boone County, Kentucky. The abundance of each lichen taxon, estimated as percent cover, was compared against air pollution data using multiple linear regression and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination. Both techniques revealed that O3, NOX and NH3 have a significant impact on lichens in the urban environment. Linear regression techniques did not reveal a significant impact from SO2 on urban lichens, however NMS ordination suggested that the effect of SO2 is simply overwhelmed by the effects of the other pollutants.

Committee:

Dr. Theresa Culley (Advisor)

Keywords:

species richness; Shannon-Weiner diversity; Simpson's diversity; evenness; Index of Atmospheric Purity

Cupp, Audrey R.PHOTOSYNTHETIC PICOPLANKTON AND BACTERIOPLANKTON IN THE CENTRAL BASIN OF LAKE ERIE DURING SEASONAL HYPOXIA
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Biological Sciences
In Lake Erie’s central basin, a hypoxic region commonly termed the dead zone forms during late summer. Previous work has demonstrated an abundance of photosynthetic picocyanobacteria despite this lack of oxygen. High-throughput sequencing of over 400 cyanobacterial and eubacterial 16S rDNA amplicons has characterized some of the major members of the microbial community both during and prior to the dead zone formation. In July, the bacterial communities mainly consisted of two unique clusters of Gram-positive Actinobacteria, with a smaller percentage of Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides , α, β, and γ Proteobacteria . Cyanobacteria in the form of photosynthetic picoplankton was found at 16.5 m in July, but was absent from the 20 m library. During hypoxia in August, a community shift was demonstrated with a decrease in the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides , an increase in number and diversity of cyanobacteria, and an increase in an α-Proteobacterial cluster. Diurnal oxygen production in the hypolimnion of Lake Erie was exhibited by in situ probes and showed actively photosynthetic picoplankton producing oxygen. Cyanobacterial 16S libraries showed an increase in diversity of photosynthetic picoplankton in August compared to July. The vast majority of clones similar to Synechococcus sp. MH301 were found in July with only a small percentage of clones from other groups. Conversely, during hypoxia, an increase of diversity was shown to exist. These differences in bacterial community members indicate the cycling of oxygen may influence the community structure in Lake Erie. Novel primers specific for the cpeB gene in phyoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) cyanobacteria were used to study diversity of potential marine-like forms, indicating a new way to phylogenetically study PE-rich cyanobacteria.

Committee:

George Bullerjahn (Advisor)

Keywords:

Lake Erie; microbial diversity; photosynthetic picoplankton; hypoxia; 16S rRNA

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