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Holbert, AshleyExamining Associations between Coping with Stress and Personality and Psychopathology Assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Examining Associations between Coping with Stress and Personality and Psychopathology Assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form Ashley M. Holbert Kent State University Empirical research has demonstrated associations to be present between personality characteristics and dispositional and situational coping responses. For example, numerous researchers have linked Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1985) constructs to various dispositional coping strategies (McWilliams, Cox, & Enns, 2003) and situational coping responses (Bouchard, Guillemette, & Landry-Leger, 2004). Similarly, previous research has also demonstrated associations to be present between dispositional and situational coping and psychopathology. In particular, research findings have indicated that both dispositional and situational coping responses are linked to general psychological distress and specific psychological disorders (Punamaki, et al., 2008; Segal, Hook, & Coolidge, 2001; Vollrath, Alnaes, & Torgersen, 1996). However, much of the previous research has focused narrowly on particular personality traits (i.e., FFM) or certain psychological disorders (i.e., PTSD; depression). Thus, the current study aims to expand on previous empirical research by examining the univariate and multivariate associations between dispositional and situational coping responses and a wider array personality and psychopathology constructs, such as those assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011). Participants included 116 men and 227 women, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years (M = 19.4; SD = 2.3), and these individuals were enrolled in undergraduate courses at a large Midwestern university. Participants completed the MMPI-2, a demographic questionnaire, and a set of extra-test measures. Results of the univariate analyses demonstrated significant associations to be present between many MMPI-2-RF scales and the scales of the RSI-D and RSI-S. However, fewer statistically significant associations were demonstrated between the various MMPI-2-RF and RSI-S scales overall and the associations demonstrated were somewhat smaller in magnitude than those demonstrated with the RSI-D scales. Regarding multivariate analyses, the results conveyed that personality and psychopathology constructs, assessed by the MMPI-2-RF scales, significantly predicted various dispositional and situational coping responses, as measured by the RSI scales. However, the personality and psychopathology constructs typically more strongly predicted scores on the RSI-D scales as compared to the RSI-S scales. Furthermore, the multivariate analyses also illustrated that situational characteristics, such as the confrontability, timing, duration, or type/category of the stressful situation, significantly predicted and added incrementally in the prediction of the situational coping responses of the RSI-S, beyond the variance accounted for by the personality and psychopathology constructs. Overall, emotional/internalizing personality and psychopathology constructs were most often associated with dispositional and situational coping strategies at the univariate and multivariate levels.

Committee:

Yossef Ben-Porath, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Coping; coping with stress; dispositional coping; situational coping; coping and personality; coping and psychopathology; MMPI-2-RF

Falb, Melissa D.Buddhist Coping as a Predictor of Psychological Outcomes Among End-of-Life Caregivers
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Psychology/Clinical

Despite an increasing interest in Buddhism in the West, the topic of Buddhist coping has been mostly neglected. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the frequency of Buddhist coping strategies, as well as the relationship between Buddhist coping practices and psychological functioning and well-being among end-of-life caregivers. Ninety-two caregivers were recruited primarily through contemplative end-of-life caregiver training programs to assess the relationships between Buddhist methods of coping and psychological outcomes. Subjects completed measures of spiritual well-being, burnout, depression and post-traumatic growth, as well as demographic questions.

As hypothesized, end-of-life caregivers who made more use of positive Buddhist coping methods reported lower levels of negative outcomes such as depression and burnout and higher levels of positive outcomes such as spiritual well-being and stress-related growth. On the other hand, caregivers who made more use of negative Buddhist coping methods reported higher levels of negative outcomes and lower levels of positive outcomes. In addition, Buddhist coping methods were able to be categorized into positive and negative Buddhist coping subscales, which were also related to psychological outcomes in the hypothesized direction.

The findings of this study add support to the initial validity of the BCOPE as a measure of Buddhist coping. The current study also provides support for the distinction between positive and negative styles of Buddhist coping, which differentially predict psychological outcomes. In addition, this study provides initial evidence for the benefits of specific Buddhist practices and ideas, specifically those that influence the ways in which Buddhists cope with stress. These findings suggest that coping theory, heavily researched in other religious traditions, is also a valuable concept which applies to Buddhism as well.

Future research should further assess the differences between the outcomes of positive and negative styles of Buddhist coping, particularly among various sub-groups of Buddhist practitioners, as well as among other Buddhist populations besides end-of-life caregivers.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament, PhD (Committee Chair); Annette Mahoney, PhD (Committee Member); Yiwei Chen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Buddhism; Buddhist coping; coping; religious coping; end-of-life caregiving

Clemens, Jacob EdwardStudying Abroad: An Opportunity for Growth in Spirituality
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of this collective case study was to explore how six college students described the influence of their study abroad experience on their spirituality. I situated this study in a constructivist research paradigm because the inquiry focused on how the participants constructed meaning about and understood the influence of study abroad on their spirituality. I utilized a staged, semi-structured interview protocol consisting of up to three separate interviews. Interviews took place before participants departed for their study abroad experience, while they were abroad, and after returning home from studying abroad. Students studied abroad for at least eight weeks during the summer of 2012. Through a better understanding of their described experience, I gained insight into the impact of study abroad, how study abroad affected specific spiritual practices, and which specific elements of study abroad ignited spiritual development. From the data, six major themes emerged to indicate how students described the influence of studying abroad on their spirituality. Students became more aware of their own and others' spirituality. Spiritual coping was utilized by many participants in reaction to feeling isolated, uncomfortable, and homesick. Participants enacted spiritual and religious practices while abroad to help cope with being abroad or to enact their spirituality. Participants engaged in dialogue about spirituality and spiritual questions. Finally, participants expressed that, after studying abroad, their spiritual identity was strengthened.

Committee:

Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ellen Broido, D.Ed. (Committee Member); Stefan Fritsch, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, Ph.D., J.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

study abroad; student; spirituality; faith; higher education; college; international; religion; spiritual; global; spiritual coping; coping; meaning; purpose; spiritual conversations; spiritual dialogue; studying abroad; character; character development

Newhard, Jennifer RenaeCoping Responses and Mental Health Symptoms in Incarcerated Juvenile Males
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
Coping responses develop throughout the lifespan of an individual. Unfortunately for some, difficult life circumstances may lead to the use of maladaptive forms of coping. This study investigated coping responses amongst male incarcerated juvenile offenders and examined which specific mental health symptoms may occur with specific coping responses. The goal of this study was to determine whether male incarcerated juvenile offenders utilize avoidant coping responses over approach coping responses. Also, this study investigated whether specific mental health symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, anger, and disruptive behaviors, were more prevalent amongst those who utilize avoidant coping responses. De-identified, archival data for the Coping Responses Inventory-Youth and the Beck Youth Inventory-II, previously obtained during routine intake assessments collected from sixty-two (62) male incarcerated juvenile offenders placed in a probation camp, ages 12-18, were used in order to investigate coping and self-reported mental health symptoms. Results confirmed that incarcerated male juvenile offenders tend to utilize avoidant coping responses as opposed to approach coping responses. Furthermore, participants that utilized avoidant coping responses were more likely to endorse mental health symptoms of depression, anger, and disruptive behaviors, and were less likely to utilize approaching coping responses. The significance of these findings indicate that male incarcerated juvenile offenders are less likely to approach distress behaviorally and cognitively, and are less likely process distress in a manner that will produce emotional growth. The electronic version of this dissertation is available free at Ohiolink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

O'Brien Sharleen , Psy.D. (Committee Chair); Valter Marlene, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Olson Kristin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ortiz Francisco , Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Criminology; Mental Health; Psychology; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

Coping; Coping Responses; Juvenile Justice; Juvenile Assessment; Juvenile Offenders; Juvenile Corrections; Mental Health Symptoms; Depression

Ferrari, LisaAttachment, Personal Resources and Coping in Trait-Anxious Adolescent Girls
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2008, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology

Adolescence is an important transitional time with biological and social changes. During adolescence there is a heightened risk of internalized and externalized problems such as, anxiety, depression, suicide, substance misuse, and conduct disorders. Some will navigate this challenging time with great mastery, while others may experience confusion, self-doubt, and distress. Protective factors or personal resources such as, parent and peer support, social and academic competence, and self-esteem can help navigate the transition with success.

The survey data was gathered from 246 adolescent girls between the ages 14 to16 years old. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of how trait- anxious adolescent girls cope with their problems, and how protective factors mediate the relationship between anxiety and coping. The protective factors in this study that are considered to foster healthy social and emotional outcomes for adolescents are secure parent and peer-attachment, social and academic competence, and extracurricular activities.

Findings from this study demonstrate the complexity of relationships among attachment, coping, and personal resources for trait-anxious girls during adolescence. For instance, trait-anxious girls were significantly more likely to utilize emotion-focused coping strategies: more specifically, they used self-controlling (regulation of feeling and actions) coping, accepting responsibility coping (trying to make things right), and escape-avoidance coping (wishful thinking significantly more than their non-trait-anxious counterparts. They were also more likely to use one of the problem-focused strategies specifically, confrontive coping (aggressive efforts to alter the situation). Furthermore, trait-anxious girls also had significantly less perceived mother and peer-attachment, and lower academic competence, relative to non-trait-anxious girls.

This study tested three hypotheses using a mediation model to indicate that, hypothesis 1 was not supported because trait-anxiety was negatively associated with seeking-support coping. However, as predicted, hypothesis 2 revealed full mediation of perceived insecure mother-attachment on the relationship between trait-anxiety and self controlling coping, one of the emotion-focused coping strategies. Consistent with that hypothesis, perceived insecure mother-attachment also partially mediated the relationship between trait-anxiety and another emotion-focused strategy, escape- avoidance coping. Further, a component of hypothesis 3 was also established where, academic competence partially mediated the relationship between trait-anxiety and accepting responsibility coping which is an emotion-focused strategy. Notably, there was no mediating role of social competence or peer-attachment on the relationship between trait-anxiety and accepting responsibility coping. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Centre, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Molly Reid, Ph.D. ABPP (Committee Chair); Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wendy Rowe, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

anxiety; stress; coping; attachment; adolescents; adolescent girls; trait-anxiety; protective factors; emotion-focused; parent support; peer support; coping strategies

Lucero, Steven MJob Insecurity and Religious/Spiritual Coping: Sacred Resources for Employment Uncertainty
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Psychology/Clinical
One area of workplace spirituality ripe for investigation is use of religion and spirituality (R/S) to cope with job insecurity. Pertinent literature on transactional coping, R/S coping, sanctification of work, workplace spirituality, and job insecurity is reviewed. Using Mechanical Turk, 467 individuals from the United States who were experiencing some type of job insecurity in their full-time jobs participated in this study. Participants had worked at their respective companies for approximately 4.31 years. The sample was 52.9% male, 77.5% Caucasian, with a mean age of 30.22 years. Approximately 38.5% of the participants stated they never attended R/S services and 35.5% denied having any R/S affiliation. Positive R/S coping moderated the relationship between an individual's organizational commitment and job satisfaction. There was a stronger positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction for people who use less positive R/S coping relative to greater use of positive R/S coping. Negative R/S coping separately moderated the relationships between total job insecurity and cognitive/affective job insecurity with psychological distress and health respectively. For those individuals who reported greater use of negative R/S coping, the relationship between either form of job insecurity with psychological distress was more strongly positive than for people who used lower levels of negative R/S coping. For those who reported greater use of negative R/S coping, the connection between either form of job insecurity and poorer health was stronger. Sanctification of work moderated the relationships between organizational commitment and health, organizational support and psychological distress, as well as organizational support and health. In each of these cases, greater use of sanctification was tied to stronger relationships between the organizational and adjustment related variable: positive relationships between organizational variables and better health and negative relationships between organizational variables and increased psychological distress. Implications of these findings include the stress mobilization of positive R/S coping, the deleterious relationships involving use of negative R/S coping, and the importance of fit of sanctification of work with an individual's commitment and support from his or her organization. R/S appear to be double-edged swords that contribute to a worker's well-being and are also connected to occupational struggles.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament (Advisor); Annette Mahoney (Committee Member); Alfred DeMaris (Committee Member); Steve Jex (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Business Administration; Clinical Psychology; Management; Occupational Health; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

job insecurity; religious coping; spiritual coping; sanctification; sacred qualities; manifestation of God; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; organizational support; psychological distress; health; workplace spirituality

Sorensen, Elizabeth APreference for information, perceived control, coping and outcomes following first time open heart surgery in older adults
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Nursing
Significance Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of adults aged 65 years and older. Over 55% of all coronary artery bypass surgeries (CABS) are on older adults. Older adults have more complications after CABS. Educational nursing interventions are important to facilitate coping, but nurses do not assess for patient preference for information. Given that older adults are known to have poorer outcomes after CABS, current nursing practices of providing detailed, intense information may be deterring coping and contributing to poorer outcomes. Method In this prospective descriptive study, older adult CABS patients were interviewed preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively. Instruments: Krantz Health Opinion Survey, Control Attitudes Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.74. Results N = 70; age 71.97 years, White (94.3%) and male (65.7%); averaged 4.67 co-morbidities, 3.14 coronary artery bypasses, and 7.63 days of hospital stay (PLOS). Age was significantly related to postoperative physical function. Women had greater depression and poorer physical and mental function. Participants preferred moderate information, perceived moderate control, and used positive reappraisal to cope. Preference for information was related to better postoperative physical function. Seeking social support and positive reappraisal were related to shorter PLOS. Escape-avoidance was related to poorer postoperative mental function. Although depression was low overall, preoperative depression was significantly related to coping, functional status, and depression. Canonical relationships were not statistically significant. Conclusion The theoretical model did not effectively predict older adults’ experiences. Reliable research instruments need to be developed for older adults. Nurses caring for CABS patients need to be aware of gender differences and need to assess for depression.

Committee:

Bonnie Garvin (Advisor)

Keywords:

older adults; elderly; coronary artery bypass surgery; nursing; preference for information; perceived control; coping; depression; functional status; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; Control Attitudes Scale; Ways of Coping Questionnaire; Geriatric Depression

Volkenant, KristiLynn RChange in Coping Behaviors of Fourth-graders Following a 13-week Intervention
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Psychology/Clinical
Children’s coping behaviors were investigated in relation to stressful life events (e.g., parental separation/divorce, loss of a loved one) that are targeted in the I CAN DO program (a 13-week primary prevention coping program). At pre-intervention and at post-intervention, children reported on their coping strategies in response to a recently experience program-specific stressor and to a non-targeted stressor (i.e., a fight with a friend). Children’s responses were compared to a comparison group’s responses that did not receive the program. Four hypotheses were examined: 1) Children will use more active coping for stressors perceived as controllable; 2) Children in the intervention group will use more active coping for both stressors following the intervention as compared to the comparison group; 3) Children in the intervention group will improve on perceived control to solve and help themselves feel better about stressors, but will see stressors as less preventable; and 4) Changes in perceived control over time will be associated with changes in coping behaviors; that is, as children perceive problems as more controllable, they will engage in more active coping methods. Pre-intervention analyses indicated that children used more problem solving, social support seeking, and cognitive distraction strategies when they perceived problems as controllable. No significant changes in frequency of coping behaviors were found for the either stressor following the program. No significant improvements in perceptions of control were found for either stressor. However, the trend of the results was in the hypothesized direction; a larger proportion of children in the intervention group improved on their ratings of the I CAN DO stressor as preventable and a greater proportion of the intervention group children improved in their ability to help themselves feel better about a stressor. Finally, changes in Active coping were found in relation to changes in perceived ability to solve the I CAN DO stressor. Specifically when children’s perceptions changed from solvable to unsolvable, they used less problem solving and social support seeking. When children’s perceptions of the peer fight stressor changed from unsolvable to solvable, they used more problem solving and more social support seeking. Implications for primary prevention programs focusing on coping skills are discussed.

Committee:

Eric Dubow (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

coping; children; active coping; prevention; primary prevention; perceived control

Krumrei, Elizabeth J.A longitudinal analysis of the role of religious appraisals and religious coping in adults' adjustment to divorce
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Psychology/Clinical
This study longitudinally examined the role of religious appraisals and religious coping for adults' psychological, interpersonal, and spiritual adjustment to divorce. Eighty-nine participants completed measures within six months of filing for divorce and one year later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that participants' religious appraisals of divorce and religious coping methods predicted change in some measures of participants' psychological, interpersonal, and spiritual adjustment. In addition, regression analyses indicated that positive and negative religious coping methods offered some unique benefit and risk, respectively, to individuals' post-divorce adjustment over time, above similar non-religious coping methods. Finally, mediational analyses indicated that positive and negative religious coping methods mediated links between religious appraisals of divorce and post-divorce adjustment. This study is the first of its kind to provide longitudinal support that religion and spirituality are relevant to adults' adjustment to divorce.

Committee:

Annette Mahoney, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kenneth Pargament, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jennifer Gillespie, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Judith Jackson May, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

divorce; religious coping; religious appraisals; post-divorce adjustment; coping

Sarwar, Mazen AGendered Differences in Job Satisfaction: How Men and Women Cope with Work and Family
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
This study examines factors that affect job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an important measure in the workplace. A Salary.com article suggests that individuals are miserable because unsatisfying work makes them sick, they only work for money, they are stressed and overeating as a result, they are not committed to their work, and many workers feel as if they are being overworked. This study seeks to bring all components of job satisfaction together—under the lens of work-family conflict. Using data from the 2010 GSS, OLS regression was used to run four models separately for men and women: demographic, family, educational/occupational characteristics, and job characteristics. I find several significant differences between men and women including differences in the importance of income and part-time work status. More importantly however, were the similarities between men and women and the significance of job tenure, autonomy, security and social support. Men and women are more similar than one might expect in regards to the factors that affect their job satisfaction.

Committee:

Tiffany Taylor, Dr. (Advisor); Juan Xi, Dr. (Committee Member); David Purcell, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

job satisfaction; gender differences; sociology; work overload; work coping; family coping; work and family

Ruiz, Martha GFatherhood and a Partner's Postpartum Depression: Coping, Relationship Satisfaction, Gender Roles, and Empathy
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2012, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
The present study focused on assessing differences in new father’s coping styles when living with a partner suffering from symptoms of postpartum depression. It further investigated whether a relationship existed between father’s coping style and their level of relationship satisfaction, empathy, and views on gender. Five fathers, between the ages of 27 and 46 volunteered their participation in this study. Fathers were recruited through their partners from medical and mental health clinics and agencies offering services to new mothers or mothers suffering from symptoms of postpartum depression. The Coping Responses Inventory (CRI) was utilized to determine if differences existed in father’s coping. The Relationship Assessment (RAS), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale, Form BB (SRES), assisted in measuring level of relationship satisfaction, empathy and gender roles, respectively. To assist with the completion of this study, a quantitative research design was selected and applied. The use of a case study approach was further implemented to articulate if there was uniformity or differences in father’s coping styles and to examine any associations between fathers coping and their level of relationship satisfaction, empathy, and views on gender. Hypotheses were then tested across the five case studies. The study found that fathers differ in coping styles when their partners are suffering from symptoms of postpartum depression. Significant associations were not found between coping, and father’s level of relationship satisfaction, empathy and views on gender. The electronic version of this dissertation can be found at the OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Salvador TreviƱo, PhD (Committee Chair); Sharleen O'Brien, PsyD (Committee Member); Garret Wyner, PhD (Committee Member); Deborah L. Moffett, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Families and Family Life; Gender; Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

Postpartum Depression; fatherhood; coping; relationship satisfaction; gender roles; empathy; coping styles; quantitative

Spiess, Amy MarzellaWomen with Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FM): Relationship of abuse and trauma, anxiety, and coping skills on FM impact on life
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Physical Activity and Educational Services
This study examined whether female FM patients with high scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exhibiting low levels of coping and high levels of anxiety, experienced more trauma and abuse than those who scored lower. Adult females (n=115) completed the FIQ, as well as the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Form), and a demographic questionnaire. The study showed a correlation between high FIQ scores and high anxiety expanding previous findings outlining the significant impact of specific components of abuse and trauma prior to the age of 16 associated with higher impact of FM. The study did not reveal a relationship between the CSQ and FIQ. Longitudinal research of children both with and without documented cases of victimization is recommended to assess the impact of trauma and abuse on FM, and provide healthcare professionals with the tools to empower patients in management of the syndrome.

Committee:

Paul Granello (Advisor)

Keywords:

Fibromyalgia Syndrome; Anxiety; Trauma; Abuse; Impact; Coping Skills; Emotional Abuse; Childhood Trauma and Abuse; Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ)

Moore, Barbara ColinSTRESS, COPING, AND WELL-BEING AMONG FAMILY MEMBERS OF WOMEN WITH SUBSTANCE USE OR CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2007, Social Welfare
The effects of illness-related stressors on family members of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were examined, and the mediating or moderating role of family member adaptive or maladaptive coping strategies was assessed. 82 women in inpatient or outpatient treatment for substance use disorders in a Midwestern community were interviewed. Of these, 46 (56.1%) met diagnostic criteria for one or more additional psychiatric disorders: major depression, dysthymia, posttraumatic stress disorder, mania, hypomania, or generalized anxiety disorder. The women were predominantly African-American and of lower socioeconomic status. The women in treatment nominated the most supportive family member or a significant other for participation in the study. 82 family members, one for each woman in treatment, were also interviewed. Findings were that illness-related client behavioral problems and extent of client drug or alcohol use were significantly related to greater family member burden. At the bivariate level, greater client behavioral problems were also related to higher levels of family member depressive symptomatology. Family member maladaptive coping was found to completely mediate the relationship between client behavioral problems and the Stigma dimension of family member burden. Family member maladaptive coping was also found to partially mediate the relationships between client behavioral problems and family member burden (frequency of Impact subscale) and between extent of client drug or alcohol use and family member burden (frequency of Impact). Family member maladaptive coping functioned as both a moderator and a mediator in the relationship between extent of client drug or alcohol use and family member Impact. Adaptive coping was found to be a partial mediator between client behavioral problems and family member Worry, but increases in adaptive coping were associated with greater family member Worry, rather than less Worry as hypothesized. Possible links between specific family member behaviors and outcomes for both family members and individuals in treatment are examined. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.

Committee:

David Biegel (Advisor)

Keywords:

substance abuse; co-occurring disorders; women; family members; stress and coping; maladaptive coping

Horstman, Lori A.Humor as a Coping Mechanism in Caregiver Stress
Master of Science, Miami University, 2013, Family and Child Studies
The purpose of this study explored the use of humor as a coping mechanism in the adult-daughter caregiver of older parents who are coping with chronic illnesses. Specifically, the aims of this study were to understand how the adult daughter sandwiched between caring for her chronically ill parent and her young dependent children uses humor to cope with caregiver stress as well as the ways in which they view humor as an effective means of coping in general. A qualitative approach was used to identify inherent concepts and to allow for an in-depth understanding of each participant's personal experience as a caregiver to a chronically ill parent. This study was guided by phenomenology, which afforded the researcher the opportunity to understand the lived experiences of each of the caregivers from their own perspective and in their own words.

Committee:

Marie Radina, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Families and Family Life; Gerontology; Health Care; Social Research; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Coping mechanisms; caregiver stress; daughters as caregivers; humor as a coping mechanism

Bradbury, Stacey LynnThe Role of Coping Socialization by Peers and Parents in Adolescents' Coping with Cyber-victimization
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Clinical
We examined the role of parent and peer coping socialization in predicting coping with cyber-victimization among 329 (49% male; 70% white) 7th and 8th grade adolescents. Adolescents self-reported their own strategies for coping with cyber-victimization, the strategies they said their parents/peers suggested they use to cope with cyber-victimization (“coaching”), and the quality of their relationships with parents/peers. For 81 of these adolescents, their parents completed a survey on the strategies that they coach their adolescents to use in response to the issue of cyberv-ictimization. Consistent with previous research, adolescents reported using positive coping strategies (e.g., problem solving, distraction) more than other strategies such as distancing and retaliation. Intraclass correlations between parents’ reports of their own coaching and adolescents’ perceptions of the strategies their parents coached were modest in magnitude, suggesting that adolescents are only somewhat accurate in identifying the strategies suggested by their parents. However, the types of coping strategies that adolescents reported being coached by both their parents and peers predicted the coping strategies that adolescents reported using. Multiple regression analysis, and follow-up comparison of regression coefficients, indicated that peer socialization was more strongly related to one’s own coping than parent socialization for all coping strategies except for distancing and problem solving. Finally, when the child-parent relationship quality was highly positive, adolescents were more likely to use the coached family/adult social support strategies. However, relationship quality with peers and parents did not moderate the relation between coping socialization and adolescents’ use of any other coping strategy. These results are promising because the strategies that adolescents report using for coping are positive coping strategies and the least reported coping strategies are distancing and retaliation. We were able to infer that adolescents’ coping is, in fact, related to what they think their parents and peers are coaching them to do. However, research is still needed to clarify how adolescents learn that using positive strategies is a more effective decision than using negative coping strategies when coping with cyber-victimization.

Committee:

Eric Dubow, PhD (Committee Chair); Thomas Chibucos , PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dara Musher-Eizenman, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Carolyn Tompsett, PhD (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Coping; Cyber-victimization; Coping socialization

Acevedo Callejas, Michelle L."When He Forgets Them [Medicines]…I Can Hardly Stand to be Around Him": The Influence of Stress, Frequency of Challenges, and Coping on the Relational Quality of Partners whose Significant Other Has a Mental Health Condition.
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, International Development Studies (International Studies)
This study applied Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) stress and coping framework and the concept of dyadic coping (Bodenmann, 1995, 1997) to explain why individuals with mental health conditions have less successful romantic relationships. I constructed a direct path model to test the extent to which: stress is negatively associated with relational quality, frequency of challenges is negatively associated with relational quality, and frequency of challenges moderates the negative association between stress and relational quality. I also constructed simple and multiple mediation models to show which coping strategies, and at which level of dyadic and individual coping, mediate the aforementioned associations. The models partially supported the study’s hypotheses. Specifically, findings fully supported the hypotheses that stress and the frequency of challenges due to mental health conditions are negatively associated with relational quality, and partially supported the hypothesis that frequency of challenges moderates the negative association between stress and relational quality. Additionally, results showed that dyadic coping and several individual coping strategies (e.g., behavioral disengagement) mediate the association between stress and relational quality. Furthermore, findings from the simple mediation models suggest that frequency of challenges might exacerbate the negative association between stress and relational quality through strengthening the negative association between stress and dyadic coping.

Committee:

Charee Thompson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Amy Chadwick , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bob Walter, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Families and Family Life; Health; Health Sciences; Psychology; Public Health; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure

Keywords:

Mental health conditions; relational quality; relational satisfaction; stress; dyadic coping; individual coping

Lucero, Steven M.Religious Coping with the Stressors of a First Time Pregnancy as a Predictor of Adjustment Among Husbands and Wives
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Psychology/Clinical
Pregnancy is a time of heightened stress for husbands and wives undergoing the transition to parenthood for the first time. Working with a sample of 178 married couples, the present research examined how husbands'and wives'use of positive and negative religious coping strategies predicted pregnancy, psychological, and marital related adjustment variables. After controlling for demographic variables and secular coping methods in separate analyses for husbands and wives, hierarchical linear regression revealed that positive religious coping predicted positive outcomes such as increased stress related growth and spiritual emotions, while negative religious coping predicted negative outcomes such as increased depression, anxiety, and ambivalence in marriage for both husbands and wives. Pregnancy stressors moderated the relationship between positive religious coping and love in marriage for wives but not for any other outcomes for either husbands or wives.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament, PhD (Advisor); Annette Mahoney, PhD (Committee Member); Alfred DeMaris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Gender; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Public Health; Religion

Keywords:

religious coping; pregnancy; coping; stress related growth; labor fears; spiritual emotions; depression; anxiety; well-being; divorce proneness; love; ambivalence; marital satisfaction; pregnancy stress

Hemphill, Rachel C.Disease-related collaboration and adjustment among couples coping with type 2 diabetes
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Coping with chronic illness often takes place within the context of the marital relationship. Among married couples, collaborative efforts to cope with one partner’s chronic health condition have been linked to a range of positive outcomes, including better disease management among patients and greater emotional and interpersonal adjustment among patients and their spouses. Theory suggests that dyadic forms of coping with disease, such as collaboration, may be more beneficial when they are consistent with, or match, partners’ appraisal of who is responsible (couple vs. patient) for managing the patient’s disease. Very few studies, however, have examined this possibility. The current study of couples coping with one partner’s diabetes addressed this research gap by investigating whether disease-related collaboration was more strongly related to better adjustment among partners who view diabetes management as their shared responsibility compared to those who view diabetes management as the patient’s responsibility alone. Three major areas of adjustment were examined: 1) patients’ disease management; 2) patients’ and spouses’ emotional well-being; and 3) patients’ and spouses’ relationship quality. Participants were 126 married couples in which one partner (the patient) was at least 55 years old and had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least one year and the other partner (the spouse) did not have diabetes. Patients and spouses separately completed a baseline interview and 24-day electronic daily diary. Predictor variables were derived from interviews; outcome variables were derived from daily diary records, and daily assessments of outcomes were aggregated across the entire diary period. Study hypotheses were tested using regression analysis and dyadic multilevel modeling. Results indicated that disease-related collaboration was linked to more positive psychosocial outcomes among patients in “shared responsibility” couples compared to patients in “patient responsibility” couples. In contrast, collaboration had mixed associations with spouses’ psychosocial outcomes, and none of these associations depended on partners’ appraisal of responsibility for diabetes management. Overall, findings suggest that match between partners’ collaborative efforts to cope with diabetes and their appraisal of disease management is important for the daily psychosocial adjustment of patients, but not for that of spouses. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed.

Committee:

Mary Ann Parris Stephens, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Health; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

dyadic coping; collaborative coping; type 2 diabetes; married couples; chronic disease management; psychosocial adjustment; older adults

Baack, Cathryn J.Maternal stress and coping when a child is fed enterally
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Nursing
While there is extensive literature on parental stress associated with parenting a child with special health needs, few researchers have looked specifically at the stress associated with parenting a child fed enterally. The purpose of this study was to explore the stressors experienced by mothers of children who were being fed enterally and the coping strategies and resources available to them by employing an exploratory/descriptive design. Data were obtained during face-to-face interviews, or interviews conducted via mail, employing a list of open-ended questions about caring for an infant/child who is fed enterally and a demographic questionnaire filled out by the mothers. A convenient sample of 40 mothers of children who were being fed enterally was recruited for the study. Through content analysis of the data from this sample of mothers, the negative and positive aspects of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and the stressors and coping strategies were delineated. Mothers identified several important stressors. These included the social stigma associated with HEN, managing the equipment, negative emotions associated with the process, and physical problems. Mothers did perceive that their children were now able to receive appropriate nutrition and thus, sustain physical growth and development. Coping strategies identified by the mothers included: seeking social support, seeking assistance from health professionals, being flexible with the child’s HEN schedule, and taking the time to care for themselves. The stressors and coping strategies faced by mothers of children on HEN are multidimensional and encompass social and psychological components. By identifying the specific areas of stress that mothers of children on HEN deal with on a daily basis, nurses and other professionals can develop interventions that help to decrease the effect of the negative stressors. A better understanding of the ways mothers cope with these stressors allows for more accurate evaluations of these interventions. Appropriate interventions that lessen stress and allow for better coping will create the best possible environment for the feeding process to occur. This ultimately benefits the child by making the feeding process more pleasurable for both mother and child.

Committee:

Deborah Steward (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Nursing

Keywords:

home enteral nutrition; stress and coping

Hernandez, Krystal M.Using Spiritual Resources to Prevent Declines in Sexuality among First-Time Parents
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Psychology/Clinical
Using a rigorous longitudinal design, this dissertation examined whether spiritual beliefs and practices centered on marriage are resources that predict 164 married, first time parents’ sexual satisfaction and intimacy from pregnancy to their child’s first birthday. Spiritual resources were defined using the conceptual frameworks of sanctification of marriage, and individual and joint positive spiritual coping to handle marital difficulties. Contrary to expectations, greater sanctification of marriage, and the use of positive individual and joint spiritual coping did not predict sexual functioning from the third trimester of pregnancy to one year later after accounting for demographics, initial levels of sexual outcomes, and global religiousness. Some direct effects were found when only the given spiritual resource was entered in regression analyses. Analyses also supported the unique roles of initial levels of sexual functioning, biblical conservatism, and conflict about sex as predictors of spouses’ future sexual quality. Both wives and husbands reported very high marital and sexual functioning across time, and thus indicated little to no stress that may have otherwise necessitated coping processes and impacted negatively their sexual bond during this transition. Therefore, while sanctification and coping have been found to be helpful in predicting individual and relational functioning, they did not emerge as particularly advantageous for these reportedly very happy, married couples. Several directions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Annette Mahoney (Advisor); Kenneth Pargament (Committee Member); Alfred DeMaris (Committee Member); Anne Gordon (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Sanctification; spiritual coping; marriage; transition to parenthood; sexuality

Volkenant, KristiLynn R.Children's Coping with Chronic Kidney Disease and Concurrent Adjustment
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Psychology/Clinical

Children’s coping with, and adjustment to, chronic kidney disease was investigated. Twenty-eight children (14 pre-kidney transplant and 14 post-kidney transplant patients) and their parents participated in the study. Children identified a specific disease-related stressor that was distressing to them and reported on the coping strategies they used to deal with that stressor. Children also completed a measure of perceived parental support for coping, which assessed the types of coping strategies that children perceive their parents to be encouraging them to use, and their parents completed a parallel measure of coping strategies they encourage their child to use. are supporting the use of in their child). Finally, children completed measures of their adjustment (i.e., health-related quality of life, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) and their parents completed a brief index of their child’s global adjustment. Three hypotheses were examined: 1) Children will use more secondary control engagement coping strategies (e.g., distraction, positive thinking, cognitive restructuring, humor, acceptance) than either primary control engagement strategies (e.g., problem solving, emotion regulation, emotional expression) or disengagement strategies (e.g., avoidance, denial, wishful thinking) and they will use more primary control engagement strategies than disengagement strategies; parental support for coping strategies will follow similar patterns; 2) Children who use higher levels of secondary control engagement coping and primary control engagement coping will exhibit better adjustment, whereas children who use disengagement coping will exhibit poorer adjustment; and 3) Parental support for primary and secondary control strategies will moderate the relation between children’s disengagement coping and negative adjustment.

Preliminary analyses showed that children in the pre-transplant versus post-transplant phase of treatment did not use different coping strategies and no differences were found between the two groups in terms of their adjustment. In terms of hypothesis 1, children with chronic kidney disease most often used secondary control engagement coping, followed by positive religious coping and primary control engagement coping, to deal with their disease-related stressors. Children perceived higher levels of parental support for secondary control engagement coping, followed by primary control engagement coping, and positive religious coping. Parents reported that they provide the most support for primary control engagement coping. Disengagement and negative religious coping were least frequently used by children and were least likely to be encouraged by parents. This pattern of results generally supports hypothesis 1.

Regarding hypothesis 2, children’s use of disengagement coping was found to be related to negative outcomes, particularly depression and general health-related quality of life. However, parent-reported coping support did not relate to children’s adjustment. These results provided partial support for hypothesis 2. Finally, in terms of hypothesis 3, perceived parental support for secondary control engagement coping strategies moderated the relation between children’s use of disengagement coping and some measure of negative adjustment. Specifically, when children were using high level of disengagement coping and perceiving high level of parental support for secondary control engagement coping, they had fewer depressive symptoms than children who were using high levels of disengagement and perceived low levels of parental support for secondary control engagement coping. A similar effect was found for ESRD health-related quality of life, children who used higher levels of disengagement and perceived high levels of parental support for secondary control engagement coping has better ESRD health-related quality of life. These results provide partial support for hypothesis 3.

Overall, the implication is that medical professionals need to identify children who are using high levels of disengagement coping strategies and refer these children to pediatric psychologists to learn alternative coping strategies. Furthermore, parents should be provided information during medical visits about how to help their child cope by supporting secondary control engagement strategies, because these strategies may buffer children who are using disengagement coping from negative adjustment.

Committee:

Eric Dubow, Ph.D (Advisor); Kenneth Pargament, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dara Musher-Eizenman, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jacquelyn Cuneen, Ed.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

coping; chronic kidney disease; chronic illness; adjustment; ESRD; children

Faigin, Carol AnnFilling the Spiritual Void: Spiritual Struggles as a Risk Factor for Addiction
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Clinical
Research has provided robust evidence that religious/spiritual variables can serve as protective factors against developing addictive behaviors, such as substance-related abuse (see review by Booth and Martin, 1998). However, there is a dearth of empirical data investigating religious/spiritual variables as risk factors in the development of addictive behaviors. One such variable, spiritual struggles, is receiving increased attention and has been linked empirically to various negative psychological and physical outcomes (see review by Ano and Vasconcelles, 2005). Additionally, the majority of addiction research has focused on substance-related abuse and has largely overlooked other behavioral expressions of addiction (e.g., addictions to shopping, sex, gambling, etc.). The current study longitudinally examined spiritual struggles as a predictor in the development of addictive behaviors among a sample of freshmen college students. Findings indicate that spiritual struggles predicted a statistically significant increase in 11 of 15 measures of addictive behavior. Additionally, specific domains of spiritual struggle (e.g., divine, interpersonal, and intrapersonal) were shown to predict change in addictive behavior over time. These results suggest that spiritual struggles may be a risk factor in the development of a wide range of addictive behaviors for first-year college students. Limitations and practical implications are discussed.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament, PhD (Committee Chair); Michael Zickar, PhD (Committee Member); William O'Brien, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Religious coping; spiritual struggles; spirituality; addiction; substance use; risk factors

Young, Sharon D.Psychotherapists Working with Homeless Clients: The Experience of Stress, Burnout Symptoms, and Coping
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2007, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
Stress, secondary trauma, and burnout symptoms are significant problems within the field of human services. Homeless clients present many challenges, frequently are highly traumatized, and often require many services. Psychotherapist working with homeless clients experience negative effects of exposure to the stress and trauma of homeless clients, and as a result must develop strategies for coping in order to continue in the work. This study used a mixed method design to investigate psychotherapists' experience working with homeless clients through Healthcare for the Homeless grantee projects, and their strategies for coping with the stress of their work. A survey, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996), was used to determine the level of burnout. Nine grounded theory interviews were conducted and used to develop a theory of psychotherapist coping. Organizational responses to burnout in their providers, and attempts to help, were also investigated. In order to evaluate when in their career phases providers experienced higher levels of burnout symptoms, survey participants were sorted by job category, number of years working in a chosen field, and number of years working with homeless clients. A 3x2x2 Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted using the three scales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. No statistically significant differences were found. The qualitative data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. A theory of psychotherapist experience of working with homeless clients was developed. Key theory components included the complex work environment, individual coping, and organizational coping. The systemic nature of burnout was discussed. Suggestions for organizational changes were made including increasing their understanding of the complexities of the work with homeless clients, providing opportunities to reduce isolation, training supervisors, and providing high quality supervision services.

Committee:

Patricia Linn, Ph. D. (Committee Chair); Michelle Naden, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

homeless clients; burnout; coping; stress

Orozco, VeronicaEthnic identity, perceived social support, coping strategies, university environment, cultural congruity, and resilience of Lanina/o college students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Psychology
The literature on resilience suggests that despite personal, cultural, and environmental challenges, many students do succeed academically. However, few studies have investigated resilience or factors that foster it among Latino college students. Accordingly, this study examined the variables of ethnic identity, perceived social support from family, friends, and a significant other, coping strategies, university environment, and cultural congruity to determine their relation to the resilience of 150 Latina/o college students. The participants were 72 males and 78 females from a large Midwestern, predominantly white institution (PWI). Participants completed a survey packet that included a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Student Coping Scale, University Environment Scale, Cultural Congruity Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The results showed that ethnic identity, familial, friend, and significant other support, coping strategies, university environment, and cultural congruity accounted for 51% of the variance in measured resilience. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing resilience literature and implications for future research are noted.

Committee:

Don Dell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, General

Keywords:

Latinos; College Students; Resilience; Ethnic Identity; Social Support; Coping; University Environment; Cultural Congruity

FOWLER, CHRISTOPHER LILLNESS REPRESENTATIONS, COPING, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH HEPATITIS C UNDERGOING ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Nursing : Nursing, Doctoral Program
Background: An individual’s personal view of illness is determined by a variety of factors including the cause of the illness, its consequences, the chronicity of the illness, the symptoms experienced, and the potential for recovery. Hepatitis C, a chronic illness caused by a viral infection, is increasing in prevalence and those infected often do not realize it until irreparable liver injury has occurred. Some individuals may be treated with medications that can eradicate the virus and prevent further liver injury; however, side effects of this therapy can be severe. The overall aim of this study was to explore the relationships among illness perceptions, coping, and quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C who were undergoing treatment with antiviral therapy. To date, no one had explored these concepts in persons with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: A single-sample, cross-sectional research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at an outpatient treatment center in Dallas, Texas, for individuals infected with hepatitis C. A convenience sample of 99 individuals was recruited. Data were collected using self-report information obtained from a Demographic Data Form, the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 version 2 (SF36v2). Correlational statistical analysis was used to determine the relationships among illness representations, coping strategies, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive ability of the dimensions of illness representations on the dependent variables of emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, mental health, and physical health. Results: Significant correlations existed between many of the dimensions of illness representations, coping strategies, and quality of life. The regression analysis demonstrated that illness representations are predictive of coping strategies and quality of life. Illness representations were better at predicting emotion-focused coping strategies and mental health (R2 = .50 & .58, respectively) than they were at predicting problem-focused coping strategies and physical health (R2 = .38 & .46, respectively). All regression equations had substantial residuals, indicating that more accurate prediction of the dependent variables was possible. Further exploration of these variables is warranted using path analysis.

Committee:

Dr. Linda Baas (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Nursing

Keywords:

Illness Representation; Coping; Quality of Life; Hepatitis C; Chronic Illness

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