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Li, JishengDevelopment of a Neural PD Controller for Quad-rotors for Rejection of Wind Disturbances
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2016, Mechanical Engineering
UAVs have become increasingly popular around the world both in civilian and military application within the past few years. UAV applications are essentially fueled by advances in a combination of technologies, such as communication, embedded systems, processing, sensing and algorithms. This thesis focuses on the control aspect of UAVs, particularly lots of work has been carried out in this area recently. This thesis mainly focuses on the performance of control algorithms under wind disturbances. Recent works that include an adaptive controller and a PD controller are discussed. Then the thesis proposes a neural PD controller, in which the neural network is added to the outer PD control loop. A comparison between neural PD controller and PD controller under various scenarios of wind disturbances is carried out. The results show neural PD controller performs better than the PD controller in position tracking under wind disturbances.

Committee:

Manish Kumar (Committee Chair); Mohammad Elahninia (Committee Member); Abdollah Afjeh (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

adaptive controller;PD controller;neural PD controller;wind disturbance

Gumussoy, SuatOptimal H-infinity controller design and strong stabilization for time-delay and mimo systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Electrical Engineering
In this dissertation, the problems of optimal H-infinity controller design and strong stabilization for time-delay systems are studied. First, the optimal H-infinity controller design problem is considered for time-delay plants with finitely many unstable zeros and infinitely many unstable poles. It is shown that this problem is the dual version of the same problem for the plants with finitely many unstable poles and infinitely many unstable zeros, that is solved by the so-called Skew-Toeplitz approach. The optimal H-infinity controller is obtained by a simple data transformation. Next, the solution of the optimal H-infinity controller design problem is given for plants with finitely many unstable poles or unstable zeros by using duality and the Skew-Toeplitz approach. Necessary and sufficient conditions on time-delay systems are determined for applicability of the Skew-Toeplitz method to find optimal H-infinity controllers. Internal unstable pole-zero cancellations are eliminated and finite impulse response structure of the optimal H-infinity controller is obtained. The problem of strong stabilization is studied for time delay and MIMO finite dimensional systems. An indirect approach to design a stable controller achieving a desired H-infinity performance level for time delay systems is given. This approach is based on stabilization of H-infinity controller by another H-infinity controller in the feedback loop. In another approach, when the optimal controller is unstable (with infinitely or finitely many unstable poles), two methods are given based on a search algorithm to find a stable suboptimal controller. In this approach, the main idea is to search for a free parameter which comes from the parameterization of suboptimal H-infinity controller, such that it results in a stable H-infinity controller. Finally, the strong stabilization problem and stable H-infinity controller design for finite dimensional multi-input multi-output linear time invariant systems are studied. It is shown that if a certain linear matrix inequality condition has a solution then a stable controller, whose order is the same as the order of the generalized plant, can be constructed. This result is applied to design stable H-infinity controller with the order twice of the order of the generalized plant.

Committee:

Hitay Ozbay (Advisor)

Keywords:

H-infinity controller; time delay systems; neutral retarded delay systems; strong stabilization; stable H-infinity controller design; infinite dimensional systems

Lujan, Jose LuisAUTOMATED OPTIMAL COORDINATION OF MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MUSCULOSKELETAL ACTIONS IN FEED-FORWARD NEUROPROSTHESES
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2007, Biomedical Engineering
Musculoskeletal joint actions are planned and coordinated by the nervous system and carried out by typically redundant muscles generating moments at multiple joints. Injuries to the spinal cord (SCI) damage some of the nerves that convey motor commands from the brain to the muscles, resulting in muscle paralysis. Motor neuroprosthesis can restore some lost function by delivering electrical impulses to the muscles via electrodes connected to a stimulator. A command signal maps these impulses to desired movement kinetics/kinematics using feedforward control laws, which rely on expert human observation and intervention. These maps are typically implemented for limited operational modes, which causes current neuroprostheses to not provide independent control of coupled degrees of freedom, limiting the amount of function restored. We examined the automated creation of these input/output maps from clinically-measured input-output data, and evaluated the use of artificial neural network-based inverse controllers to decouple multiple degrees of freedom. We tested this approach in computer simulations with a biomechanical model of a thumb and in experiments by stimulating the extensor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis of ten ablebodied individuals and one SCI patient. Muscle stimulation generated time-varying and 13 coupled thumb-tip forces along two degrees of freedom (i.e., extension/flexion, abduction/adduction). We trained a neural network-based forward model (system model) to create a mathematical representation of the experimentally measured input-output data properties, capable of reducing time variability in the responses. The system model did not eliminate mechanical redundancy, but allowed us to choose new, non-redundant input-output data to optimize muscle cocontraction with a criterion that minimized the summed squared muscle activations. We trained an inverse model feedforward controller with the optimized data set. RMS errors smaller than 2N and significant correlations (R2>0.7, p=0) in seven isometric force generation tests showed the ability of the controller to independently control both degrees of freedom. The experimental results show that we can construct feedforward controllers, which accurately invert the input/output properties of nonlinear, multi-degree of freedom, redundant neuromuscular systems. Accurate isometric force control directly confirms accurate muscle input control, which implies that this technique can be extended to kinematic control if kinematic variables are used as the measured output variables in the system model training. The demonstrated technique has the advantage of generality since it does not rely on a-priori knowledge of the underlying structure of the system being controlled.

Committee:

Patrick Crago (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Biomedical

Keywords:

pulsewidths; Controller; Muscle; target forces; Inverse Controller; actual forces; Musculoskeletal System

Imaev, AlekseyDesign and implementation of a programmable logic controller lab: An internet based monitoring and control of a process
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
Design and implementation of a programmable logic controller lab: An internet based monitoring and control of a process.

Committee:

Dennis Irwin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Programmable Logic Controller; Internet Based Monitoring; Internet Based Controller

Karnati, NareenBioinspired Sinusoidal Finger Joint Synergies for a Dexterous Robotic Hand to Screw and Unscrew Objects
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2012, Mechanical Engineering
This work deals with the complex task of unscrewing and screwing a threaded bottle cap with a dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand in two cases: i.e, with the thumb-first finger and also with the thumb-little finger. To that end, human motion profiles of nine test subjects were recorded while unscrewing and screwing a bottle cap with five different orientations of their hand with respect to the bottle. Results showed that the periodic motions exhibited by the finger joints shared a common frequency for each subject, but differed in amplitude and phase. From the gathered data, a set of sinusoidal trajectories were developed to approximate this motion for a robotic hand. Because the joint trajectories share the same frequency, a family of sinusoidal inputs can be used in the path planning of the robot to unscrew and screw threaded objects. This significantly reduces the computational cost and complexity of the task. Additionally, the unscrewing data appears highly similar to the mirror image of the screwing data. This implies that the transition to or from screwing or unscrewing motions can be achieved simply by increasing or decreasing the time vector within the family of sinusoids. Simulation results show that the developed sinusoidal trajectories show a close correlation with the motion profiles seen from human experiments. Furthermore, this solution is broadened to two cases. Case1: objects with wide variations in diameters by relating joint angle offsets of the hand to diameter size through the forward kinematics equations. Additional experiments are performed with different object diameters to show the versatility of the concept. The sinusoidal trajectories are all implemented within a PID sliding mode controller to ensure overall system stability. Using the developed sinusoidal joint angle trajectories, the robotic hand successfully unscrewed and screwed four different objects in all trials conducted with each object diameter size. Case2: An adaptive synergy controller is presented which autonomously modulates the finger synergies of a dexterous robotic hand according to the relative orientation of a grasped object. The adaptive synergy controller is derived from approximating the human motion of unscrewing a bottle cap with sinusoids to replicate the task with a robotic hand. Data from human experiments were used to develop an adaptive synergy controller that autonomously modulates the artificial robotic finger motions in accordance with the orientation angle of the manipulator with respect to the grasped object. By choosing appropriate phase and amplitude parameters for the sinusoids used to drive the adaptive synergy controller, the complex motions involved in performing this task can be controlled by a single input. Experimental results of the adaptive synergy controller show that the control strategy successfully allows a dexterous robotic hand to unscrew and screw objects in multiple orientations using only a single input.

Committee:

Erik Engeberg, Dr. (Advisor); Abhilash Chandy, Dr. (Committee Member); Jiang Zhe, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

Synergies; Shadow Hand; Adaptive Controller; PID Sliding Mode Controller

ALHAJ ALI, SOUMA MAHMOUDTECHNOLOGIES FOR AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION IN UNSTRUCTURED OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Engineering : Industrial Engineering
Robots have been used in manufacturing and service industries to improve productivity, quality, and flexibility. Robots are usually mounted on a fixed plate, or on rails, and can move in a limited manner. The success of robots in these environments encourages the use of mobile robots in other applications where the environments are not structured, such as in outdoor environments. This dissertation presents the development of an autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance system for a Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR) operating in unstructured outdoor environments. The algorithm produces the robots path positioned within the road boundaries and avoids any fixed obstacles along the path. The navigation algorithm was developed from a feedforward multilayer neural network. The network used a quasi-Newton backpropagation algorithm for training. Proportional-plus-derivative computed-torque, proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative computed-torque, digital, and adaptive controllers were developed to select suitable control torques for the motors, which cause the robot to follow the desired path from the navigation algorithm. Simulation software permitting easy investigation of alternative architectures was developed by using Matlab and C++. The simulation software for the controllers was developed for two case studies. The first case study is the two-link robot manipulator, and the second is a navigation controller for the WMR. The simulation software for the WMR navigation controller used the Bearcat III dynamic model, developed in this dissertation. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the navigation algorithm and the controllers. The navigation algorithm was able to produce a path with a small mean square error, compared to the targeted path, which was developed by using an experienced driver. The algorithm also produced acceptable results when tested with different kinds of roads and obstacles. The controllers found suitable control torques, permitting the robot to follow these paths. The digital controller produced the best results. The significance of this work is the development of a dynamic system model and controllers for WMR navigation, rather than robot manipulators, which is a new research area. In addition, the navigation system can be utilized in numerous applications, including various defense, industrial and medical robots.

Committee:

Dr. Ernest L. Hall (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Industrial

Keywords:

wheeled mobile robots; autonomous navigation in unstructured environments; PD-computed-torque controller; PID computed-torque controller

SARAF, ADITYAROBUST FLIGHT CONTROL FOR COORDINATED TURNS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Engineering : Aerospace Engineering
In this thesis, the coupled, six-degree-of-freedom, motion equations for a fighter-type aircraft are derived and linearized for a typical subsonic cruise condition involving a coordinated turn at a steady turn rate. Because of the nonzero turn rate and the nonzero roll angle required for it, the equations of motion are coupled and therefore cannot be treated as decoupled longitudinal and lateral motions, particularly for relatively large turn rates. The linearized, coupled motion equations are then used to design a robust linear feedback controller for a particular turn rate using the LQG/LTR design technique. The robust controller is applied to the dynamics at other, considerably different turn rates, demonstrating its robustness. Although a sufficient condition for robust stability is violated over part of the frequency range, less conservative analysis of the closed loop system using structured singular value shows that the controller-plant system is robust to operating point changes.

Committee:

Dr. Bruce Walker (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Aerospace

Keywords:

linear feedback controller; LQG/LTR design; motion equations for fighter-type aircraft; aircraft controller

Wu, XiaofeiA nonlinear flight controller design for an advanced flight control test bed by trajectory linearization method
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
A nonlinear flight controller design for an advanced flight control test bed by trajectory linearization method

Committee:

J. Zhu (Advisor)

Keywords:

Nonlinear Flight Controller; Controller Design; Advanced Flight Control; Trajectory Linearization Method

Deshpande, Anup S.Computer Joystick Control and Vehicle Tracking System in Electric Vehicles
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Engineering and Applied Science: Mechanical Engineering

The desirability of developing an autonomous vehicle and the rising demand for efficient use of energy in automobiles motivate the research on optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. This thesis work describes three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an electric vehicle into a ‘drive by wire’ vehicle using computer control. It also describes a vehicle tracking system used to track the route taken by the vehicle. Computer interfacing and control of basic automobile operations like steering, braking and speed have been implemented and will be described in detail in various chapters. A computer system with a joystick and a Galil three axis motion controller are used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a computer software program on the input side and with actual hardware (speed motors, steering system, and braking system) on the output side. WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) serves as an intermediate tuning layer between the motion controller and the computer program for tuning and parameter settings. The software program for this is developed in C#.NET. Voltage signals sent to the motion controller can be varied through the software program to control the steering motor, activate the hydraulic brakes and vary the vehicle’s speed.

This vehicle is now available as a test bed for research work on various autonomous operations and has been configured for its basic functionality including street legal operations. A 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode has also been conducted successfully. The vehicle was also tested in computer control mode with a keyboard and joystick as input devices. Currently the vehicle is being tested in various safety studies and is being also used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research work lies in providing a test resource for autonomous operations, for disabled mobility studies and for greater understanding of conventional driving controls.

Committee:

Ernest Hall, PhD (Committee Chair); Manish Kumar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Joystick; brakes; motion controller; controller; Joystick axis; computer control; braking

Syed, Altaf AhmadApplied Fuzzy Logic Controls for Improving Dynamic Response of Induction Machines
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2008, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
This thesis presents a novel approach in control systems for improving the dynamic response of the induction machine. This approach leads to a better and improved control of the torque and current response of the induction machine when compared to the classical proportional-integral (PI) type controller with de-coupling terms. Mismatches in the actual parameters and the estimated parameters of the induction machine occur for several reasons such as: incorrect parameter estimation, changes in stator and rotor inductance due to saturation, stator and rotor resistance varying with temperature, etc. Under the classical approach, the de-coupling errors resulting from the parameter mismatches can become very large at higher machine rotational speeds. Under such conditions, the classical approach results in poor dynamic control of the torque and current response of the induction machine. Therefore, an advanced fuzzy logic controller is presented as a better alternative to the classical controller. The fuzzy logic-based d-q controller, based on its non-linear approach, provides robust control of the torque and current response of the induction machine even in the presence of mismatched parameters. Furthermore, the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is not dependent on the machine rotational speed. Using MATLABSIMULINK tools, the performance of the fuzzy controller is evaluated with mismatched machine parameters at various machine rotational speeds. The results show that the use of the fuzzy logic controller offers a superior control of the torque and current response of the induction machine, independent of the motor rotational speed when compared with the use of the classical controller.

Committee:

Jalal Jalali, PhD (Advisor); Philip Munro, PhD (Committee Member); Faramarz Mossayebi, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

fuzzy logic controller; induction machine; torque and current response

Kramer, Gregory RobertAn analysis of neutral drift's effect on the evolution of a CTRNN locomotion controller with noisy fitness evaluation
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2007, Computer Science and Engineering PhD
This dissertation focuses on the evolution of Continuous Time Recurrent Neural Networks (CTRNNs) as controllers for control systems. Existing research suggests that the process of neutral drift can greatly benefit evolution for problems whose fitness landscapes contain large-scale neutral networks. CTRNNs are known to be highly degenerate, providing a possible source of large-scale landscape neutrality, and existing research suggests that neutral drift benefits the evolution of simple CTRNNs. However, there has been no in-depth examination of the effects of neutral drift on complex CTRNN controllers, especially in the presence of noisy fitness evaluation. To address this problem, this dissertation presents an analysis of the effect of neutral drift on the evolution of a complex CTRNN locomotion controller for a simulated hexapod robot in the presence of noisy fitness evaluations. In particular, two stochastic hill-climber-based EAs are examined and compared, one that does not engage in neutral drift, and one that does. The experimental results show that while neutral drift provides a significant advantage early in the evolutionary process, the later effects of noisy fitness evaluations seriously degrades the utility of neutral drift, and overall, there is no significant difference between the non-drifting and drifting EAs. These results provide evidence that large-scale neutral networks do exist in complex CTRNN fitness landscapes and highlight the important role that noisy fitness evaluations play in influencing evolutionary performance.

Committee:

John Gallagher (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Continuous Time Recurrent Neural Network; Neutrality; Neutral Drift; Artificial Evolution; Evolutionary Computation; Neural Network; Controller; Evolutionary Algorithm; Noisy Fitness Evaluation

Hung, Donald Lu-ChengRobust controller design for lightly damped systems with feedback delay
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1991, Electrical Engineering
Stability analysis based on an idealized robot-stiff environment model shows that for a lightly damped system, a time delay in the feedback may become a critical issue to the system's stability if the delay is nonnegligible with respect to the system's natural frequency. The attention of this thesis focuses on the design of controllers for lightly damped systems with nonnegligible feedback delay. A generalized control system framework is adopted and two major assumptions are made: the plant and the controller are linear, time-invariant (LTI), and the plant is open-loop stable. The time delay in the feedback loop is modeled in the plant. By discretizing, the perturbed plant remains as LTI and the sample-hold effects have been taken into consideration. A closed-loop transfer matrix obtained from the control system framework contains all closed-loop transfer functions of interest. Therefore the closed-loop performance specifications for controller design can be expressed as constraints or objectives for each entry of this transfer matrix. Via a bilinear transformation, all stable closed-loop transfer matrices form a convex set and many performance specifications become convex functions defined on the set. This property allows a convex programming approach for the controller design procedure. Since this has to be done through a numerical approach, the solution space is truncated to form a finite dimensional Euclidean subspace. The designed controllers are robust with respect to time delays in the feedback action. Other robustness considerations, such as unmodeled plant dynamics, can also be taken into the design specifications. Since the convex program is a global optimal technique, once a controller is found, it is optimal in the sense that it meets the design specifications. On the other hand, if no solution is found then there exists no LTI controller which can satisfy the design specifications. Simulation results show that the designed controllers can effectively stabilize the lightly damped system and significantly improve its performance.

Committee:

Stephen Phillips (Advisor)

Keywords:

Robust controller damped systems

Frazier, William GarthSearch-based methods for computer-aided controller design improvement
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 1993, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)

Search-based methods for computer-aided controller design improvement

Committee:

R. Irwin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Search-based methods; computer-aided controller design

Daltorio, Kathryn AObstacle Navigation Decision-Making: Modeling Insect Behavior for Robot Autonomy
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Robotic exploration is valuable in many practical applications. Even something as simple for a human as lawn-mowing is a nontrivial challenge for robotic controllers. It is possible to build a safe obstacle-edging reflex based on range sensor filtering. However, in some situations, a reflex is insufficient. Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration, and the complexity of their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. After many hours of cockroach trials with and without goals (darkened shelters) and further experiments in analysis, we extracted a state-based algorithm that makes these types of decisions stochastically and also captures the shelter seeking bias in the path length of cockroaches. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, Randomized Algorithm Mimicking Biased Lone Exploration in Roaches. Further we find that this algorithm can be extended to predict behavior of cockroaches in arenas with clear barriers between the entrance and the goal. For robotics, this algorithm could add some variability to robot paths in situations where heuristics fail. For biology, this algorithm is a model that may help us better understand the decision-making process in the cockroach brain.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor); Roy Ritzmann (Committee Member); Michael Branicky (Committee Member); Kiju Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Computer Science; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

biologically-inspired robotic exploration; RAMBLER; cockroach wall-following; autonomous lawnmower controller; obstacle avoidance;

Upadhyay, Abhishek KumarA GENERALIZED CONTROL METHOD FOR CONSTANT SWITCHING FREQUENCY THREE PHASE PWM BOOST RECTIFIER UNDER EXTREME UNBALANCED OPERATION CONDITION
Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2015, Washkewicz College of Engineering
This thesis presents a generalized control method for constant switching frequency PWM Boost Type Rectifier under extremely unbalanced operating conditions in the power system. The proposed analytical method is verified by using MATLAB/ Simulink model developed under severe unbalanced conditions of input source voltages and input impedances. The closed loop control method for controlling the output DC voltage is also presented and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink model. An experimental model is built to prove the feasibility of the proposed constant switching frequency operation of the PWM Boost Type Rectifier under extreme unbalanced operation conditions by using DSPACE RT1104 digital control system.

Committee:

Ana Stankovic, PhD (Committee Chair); Lili Dong, PhD (Committee Member); Siu-Tung Yau, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Three phase PWM boost rectifier; Extreme Unbalanced Operation; Constant Switching frequency; converter; variable hysteresis controller; Unity power factor operation; Output voltage control

Raza, KhalilExperimental Assessment of Photovoltaic Irrigation System
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2014, Mechanical Engineering
Agriculture is a significant measure of an economy for a number of countries in the world. Currently, the agriculture sector relies heavily on conventional sources of energy for irrigation and other purposes. When, considering factors such as increasing costs of fossil fuels and extending new power lines, especially to remote locations where grid electricity is either inaccessible or expensive, a solar PV (photovoltaic) irrigation system can be an effective choice for irrigating farmland. Solar power eliminates the need to run electrical power lines to remote agriculture locations, which quickly turns the monetary equation in favor of solar irrigation over grid-powered irrigation. In addition, the cost of delivering fossil fuels to remote locations can be expensive. Solar power is ideal for agricultural irrigation, as most irrigation is required when the sun is shining brightly. Consequently, a PV powered irrigation system is a promising technology that could help meet the irrigation needs of remote agricultural. The two major goals of this research are to get an existing solar PV irrigation system working and to acquire experimental data using this system under various operating conditions. This research work is built upon a series of three senior design projects. These three senior design projects were to design and construct a solar irrigation system, an instrumentation system for this solar irrigation system, and a single axis solar translator. Specifically this thesis work entailed getting the instrumentation system to work properly, writing a LabVIEW program to automatically acquire data from installed sensors, integrating all three of these senior design projects into one PV irrigation system, getting the PV irrigation system installed on the roof of the Russ Engineering Building, and collecting a large amount of data on the system. All have been accomplished successfully. The PV irrigation system work presented in this thesis use two 224 watt PV modules that are connected in parallel and mounted on a vertical axis solar tracker that follows the sun from east to west to enhance the amount of solar energy collected during the day. Energy developed by these panels is stored in two 100 amp-hour batteries wired in a series arrangement. Energy stored in the batteries is supplied to a direct current water pump that requires 50 watts of power at 24 volts. To harvest maximum energy from the PV modules and to protect the batteries, a MPPT-charge controller (maximum power point tracker with charge controller) is installed inline between the PV array and batteries. The instrumentation or DAQ (data acquisition) system employed on the PV irrigation system consists of four current sensors, four voltage transducers, four thermocouples, a pyranometer and a flowrate sensor to record associated parameters at various points throughout the PV irrigation system. The DAQ system is structured in such a way that each component’s output can be monitored and assessed throughout the system via a LabVIEW program developed as part of this thesis work. This PV irrigation system has been investigated under four operating configurations. Three of the operating configurations vary the orientation of the PV panels and one operating configuration varies the load on the system. The four configurations tested are: 1. azimuthal solar tracking at an inclination angle of 40o with both the water pump and power dissipating resistors being used to consume the power generated by the PV array, 2. azimuthal solar tracking at an inclination angle of 30o with both the water pump and power dissipating resistors being used to consume the power generated by the PV array, 3. a fixed solar array pointing due south at an inclination angle of 40o with both the water pump and power dissipating resistors being used to consume the power generated by the PV array, and 4. azimuthal solar tracking at an inclination angle of 40o with only the water pump being used to consume the power generated by the PV array, where the water pump is run 24 hours a day. A large number of measured quantities are presented for each of these configurations for the time period from July 28 to September 1st, 2014 in Dayton, Ohio.

Committee:

James Menart, Ph.D. (Advisor); Rory Roberts, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Zifeng Yang, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Energy; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

solar irrigation; photovoltaic irrigation; photovoltaic systems; photovoltaics; PV systems; PV irrigation; solar PV applications in agriculture; solar energy; MPPT-charge controller; data acquisition system; LabVIEW; Khalil Raza; solar tracker; Dayton, OH

Blackann, Joshua A.Electronic Engine Controller Simulation and Emulation with Ethernet Connectivity
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2011, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Electronic engine controllers are key components to the overall function and success of many different applications, such as automotive or other power generation equipment. This research documents the design and development of an electronic engine controller based on a microcontroller development kit. The controller application maintains a constant RPM output out of a generator based on varying load conditions. A secondary circuit, an engine simulator, was developed which coupled with the engine controller provides a complete test bed to prove its functionality. Ethernet connectivity was integrated into this project to allow the development boards to access the internet to be viewed remotely or to modify and control the operation of the application through a webpage.

The implementation of the test bed associated with this work demonstrates the ability to build and simulate a low cost electronic engine controller circuit using standard microcontroller evaluation kits. The verification of experimental results for monitoring and control of the modeled engine through a webpage is demonstrated by inclusion of numerous screen captures from an oscilloscope.

The test bed developed in this research work can be expanded and enhanced to model more complex engines. Additionally, the controller aspect of this experimental setup can be further modified to test and verify more advanced real time control algorithms.

Committee:

Faramarz Mossayebi, PhD (Advisor); Jalal Jalali, PhD (Committee Member); Frank Li, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

microcontroller; engine controller; ethernet connectivity

JAVIDBAKHT, SAEIDDESIGN OF A CONTROLLER TO CONTROL LIGHT LEVEL IN A COMMERCIAL OFFICE
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2007, Electrical Engineering
Javidbakht, Saeid. M.S.Egr., Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, 2007. Design of a Controller to Control Light Level in a Commercial Office. Proper amount of light in a business office is important for health and productivity of the employees. On a sunny day, there may be more than enough light entering the office from outside to carry out the necessary tasks. Presently, the main source of light in most offices is the fluorescent lamp. Thus, It is possible to save energy by dimming the fluorescent lamp. Dimming of the fluorescent lamp is possible by changing the frequency of the sinusoidal voltage or current. Hence, there is a need of a control system to adjust the light from the fixtures based on the light entering the office from outside. The design of a light control system is possible if the simulation of fluorescent lamp, the electronic ballast and the light sensor is available. Presently, the number of light fixtures in a commercial office is based entirely on the activities performed in that office. No attention is paid to the outside light entering the office from windows. In this thesis, a fuzzy logic controller to dim the fluorescent lamp based on the availability of the outside light is presented. To carry out the design of a fuzzy controller, a Matlab-Simulink model based on the simulation of the complete light system is developed. The light system consists of an electronic ballast and a fluorescent lamp. The outside light is obtained from a light sensor installed on the frame of the window. The fuzzy controller has two inputs: one is the output of the light sensor and the other is a reference frequency equivalent to maximum light level of the fluorescent lamp. The controller output controls the frequency of the electronic ballast. The rule-base of the fuzzy logic controller is developed based on the operation of the electronic ballast, the fluorescent lamp and the light sensor. Simulation was carried out with equally spaced five and seven fuzzy sets for the input and output. The fuzzy sets were then tweaked to take advantage of the piecewise linear control surface provided by the fuzzy logic controller. The simulation results show that dimming the fluorescent lamp can result in a substantial amount of energy saving and thus reduced the cost of utilities.

Committee:

KULDIP RATTAN (Advisor)

Keywords:

Fluorescent lamp; electronic ballast; light sensor;simulation; fuzzy logic controller

Pasquesoone, GregoryControls for High Performance Three-Phase Switched Reluctance Motors
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2011, Electrical Engineering
The thesis presents the control algorithms for a three-phase switched reluctance machine (SRM). Rotor position estimation is accomplished by injecting a pulse current whose amplitude is compared with two different thresholds. The rotor position of the three-phase SRM is identified in terms of six sectors for one electrical revolution of the rotor. Each sector is unique and identifies which phase has to be used for sensing and which phase has to be used for powering the SRM. The sector information is used for both starting and continuous rotation of the SRM. The sensorless phase control method has been implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP) and experimentally tested using a 2.7kW scaled laboratory SRM, and two high power industrial SRMs, one rated for 900kW and another rated for 600kW. A new speed controller based on a feed-forward approach is also developed, simulated and experimentally tested. This new controller improves the dynamic performance of the machine in closed loop speed controlled mode of operation. A so-called bridged-T controller is developed for speed control. The bridged-T controller is easy to design, to implement, and to tune. The three-phase SRM drive with this bridged-T controller has been simulated using Matlab-Simulink and implemented in real time. The experimental validation has been carried out with the scaled laboratory 2.7kW SRM.

Committee:

Iqbal Husain, Dr. (Advisor); Robert Veillette, Dr. (Committee Member); Joan Carletta, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Switched Reluctance Motors; SRM; Position sensorless; Motor Control; Current injection; Bridged-T controller; DSP

Adkins, William ScottAutomatic PMG Controller for Small Applications
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2015, Electrical Engineering
Adkins, William “Scott” M.S. Egr. Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, 2015. This thesis is used to describe the proof of concept and design for a much needed answer to a major flight time limitation in smaller application drones. All small electric drones and small electric vehicles have the same major problem, short run-times. The average time a multi-rotor helicopter runs is for approximately 20 minutes. The concept idea of the combination of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) and a controller can extend this flight time. The basic idea is to add the similar function an automobile has, which is the alternator. This thesis will include, but not limited to the following for an Automatic PMG controller for a PMG primary source that would be theoretically added to the vehicles power systems: • Design needs for longer application usage • Design steps taken with conceptual reasoning • H-Bridge Buck-Boost description & operation • Simulation and testing of the proof of concept • Integration methods, and • Implementation. It also serves as design template of a voltage and current source controller for multiple small application platforms and will be compared to the state-of-the-art design concepts in trying to reach a similar goal.

Committee:

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Ph.D. (Advisor); Saiyu Ren, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lavern Starman, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Buck-Boost Micro-Controller; UAV; Current Contolled Source; Voltage Controlled Source; Battery Charger; Alternator

Al-Mafrachi, Basheer Husham AliDetection of DDoS Attacks against the SDN Controller using Statistical Approaches
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2017, Computer Engineering
In traditional networks, switches and routers are very expensive, complex, and inflexible because forwarding and handling of packets are in the same device. However, Software Defined Networking (SDN) makes networks design more flexible, cheaper, and programmable because it separates the control plane from the data plane. SDN gives administrators of networks more flexibility to handle the whole network by using one device which is the controller. Unfortunately, SDN faces a lot of security problems that may severely affect the network operations if not properly addressed. Threat vectors may target main components of SDN such as the control plane, the data plane, and/or the application. Threats may also target the communication among these components. Among the threats that can cause significant damages include attacks on the control plane and communication between the controller and other networks components by exploiting the vulnerabilities in the controller or communication protocols. Controllers of SDN and their communications may be subjected to different types of attacks. DDoS attacks on the SDN controller can bring the network down. In this thesis, we have studied various form of DDoS attacks against the controller of SDN. We conducted a comparative study of a set of methods for detecting DDoS attacks on the SDN controller and identifying compromised switch interfaces. These methods are sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), count-based detection (CD), percentage-based detection (PD), and entropy-based detection (ED). We implemented the detection methods and evaluated the performance of the methods using publicly available DARPA datasets. Finally, we found that SPRT is the only one that has the highest accuracy and F score and detect almost all DDoS attacks without producing false positive and false negative.

Committee:

Bin Wang, Ph.D. (Advisor); Yong Pei, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mateen Rizki, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

SDN; Controller; DDoS attacks; SPRT; CD; PD; CUSUM; ED

Kalolia, Maulik RajendrabhaiModeling, simulation and experimental verification of an electric bicycle with regenerative braking
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2012, Fenn College of Engineering
Electric bicycles are widely available in user markets. However their use as a daily commuting vehicle is limited due to the need for frequent recharging. This thesis focuses on the mathematical modeling of electrical bicycle with regenerative breaking. Basic bond graphs methods are discussed here to develop state space models for mechatronic systems. A bond graph based mathematical model of an electric bicycle with regeneration is developed in this thesis. Mathematical models are tested in simulation, generating different road scenarios. Parameters required for the simulation are calculated using an experimental setup. The thesis shows the capability of bond graphs to assist in calculations for regenerative charging. The main focus of this thesis is to evaluate simulation models against a prototype. Simulation results and road testing of the prototype indicate the regenerative braking is not only feasible, but an advantage to implement in an electric bicycle. It is shown that the distance between battery recharge is improved by as much as 10% depending on riding conditions.

Committee:

Hanz Richter (Committee Chair); Daniel Simon (Committee Member); Ana Stankovic (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

mechatronics modeling; electric bicycle; regenerative braking; bond graph modeling; pid controller

Ottersbach, John JosephControls development for the pallet handling device
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1999, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

This thesis reports the automated controls development, hardware design, and construction of a working scale model Pallet Handling Device (PHD) prototype. The PHD concept was patented by Stewart in 1995. The scale PHD is a 5-axis robot that can autonomously load pallets into a scale Over-the-Road (OTR) trailer. The PHD is controlled using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To load a trailer the PHD first makes a scan of its workspace using ultrasonic sensors. The results of this scan are mathematically manipulated into trajectory commands to place pallets two wide per row, for the length of the trailer. The major challenge to overcome in this thesis was that the trailer to be loaded may be oriented such that it is offset or skewed with respect to the PHD. Another challenge was the hardware development. This included actuator design, electrical controls, and sensor interfaces. The scale model PHD successfully demonstrated that it can load an empty trailer with pallets even if the trailer is offset, skewed (or even pitched). One interesting result was that when loading a skewed trailer, the PHD successfully manipulated the pallets (in a stepped fashion) to follow the angle of the skewed trailer wall. Through the work of this thesis, the developed scale-sized PHD prototype has been proven to be successful, reliable and accurate.

Committee:

Robert Williams II (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Pallet Handling Device; Over-the-Road; Programmable Logic Controller

Nyzen, Ronald A.Spherically-actuated platform manipulator with passive prismatic joints
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

This thesis focuses on the 2-SPU platform manipulator robot. A six degree of freedom platform manipulator, the 2-SPU design employs two parallel serial chains. Each serial chain consists of an actuated spherical joint with passive prismatic and universal joints. The hardware used to develop the platform manipulator is presented. Pose kinematics analysis including singularity analysis is given. Forward and inverse pose kinematic solutions utilize the iterative Newton-Raphson method for evaluation due to complexities resulting from the hardware using actuators that are not truly spherical. Controller design is covered and a full Cartesian controller is defined using independent joint control. The implementation of that controller and the results collected from operation of the hardware with it are presented.

The appendices list additional information that could be useful for operating or recreating the hardware. CAD drawings are given which could be used to recreate the hardware used in this work. All of the code used for analysis of the robot is presented as well as a full listing of all kinematic terms. The beginnings of a closed-form kinematic solution are presented. Also some information on the wiring of the electronics and operating procedures is documented.

Committee:

Robert Williams, II (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

2-SPU Platform Robot; Manipulator Robot; Pose Kinematics; Iterative Newton-Raphson Method; Cartesian Controller; Closed-Form solution; Kinematic Solution

Medisetti, PraveenREAL TIME SIMULATION AND HARDWARE-IN-LOOP TESTING OF A HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2007, Electrical Engineering
This thesis explains various stages of the vehicle controller development, especially for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), and documents the development of a platform for vehicle controller testing. Two stages of testing a vehicle controller, namely Software-in-Loop (SIL) simulation and Hardware-in-Loop (HIL) simulation, are explained in a stepwise manner for the series-parallel 2x2 HEV. The idea of using a common tool from the design stage to the prototyping stage is demonstrated. The series-parallel 2x2 HEV is modeled using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) in Matlab/Simulink. A rule based vehicle control strategy is added to the existing control libraries in PSAT. The SIL testing of the HEV model is done by exercising it over various drive cycles. A HIL platform is built from the ground up using commercially available off-the-shelf computers and Input/Output cards. The offline model of the HEV is simulated on the HIL platform to start the vehicle controller testing process. The preliminary HEV model was used to demonstrate the capabilities of the HIL setup. The HIL simulation setup is scalable and allows the incorporation of additional computational nodes for distributed simulation of complex systems without a major change to the original setup. The HEV model is run in real time on two computation nodes and the differences between offline and online simulations are discussed. The HIL simulation platform is successfully built and can be used for testing and tuning the vehicle controller.

Committee:

Iqbal Husain (Advisor)

Keywords:

Hardware in loop HIL HEV ChallengeX Controller Testing SIL Matlab Simulink xPC targetbox RTLAB

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