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Abounia Omran, BehzadApplication of Data Mining and Big Data Analytics in the Construction Industry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering
In recent years, the digital world has experienced an explosion in the magnitude of data being captured and recorded in various industry fields. Accordingly, big data management has emerged to analyze and extract value out of the collected data. The traditional construction industry is also experiencing an increase in data generation and storage. However, its potential and ability for adopting big data techniques have not been adequately studied. This research investigates the trends of utilizing big data techniques in the construction research community, which eventually will impact construction practice. For this purpose, the application of 26 popular big data analysis techniques in six different construction research areas (represented by 30 prestigious construction journals) was reviewed. Trends, applications, and their associations in each of the six research areas were analyzed. Then, a more in-depth analysis was performed for two of the research areas including construction project management and computation and analytics in construction to map the associations and trends between different construction research subjects and selected analytical techniques. In the next step, the results from trend and subject analysis were used to identify a promising technique, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), for studying two construction-related subjects, including prediction of concrete properties and prediction of soil erosion quantity in highway slopes. This research also compared the performance and applicability of ANN against eight predictive modeling techniques commonly used by other industries in predicting the compressive strength of environmentally friendly concrete. The results of this research provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status of applying big data analytics techniques in construction research, including trends, frequencies, and usage distribution in six different construction-related research areas, and demonstrate the applicability and performance level of selected data analytics techniques with an emphasis on ANN in construction-related studies. The main purpose of this dissertation was to help practitioners and researchers identify a suitable and applicable data analytics technique for their specific construction/research issue(s) or to provide insights into potential research directions.

Committee:

Qian Chen, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Comparative Literature; Computer Science

Keywords:

Construction Industry; Big Data; Data Analytics; Data mining; Artificial Neural Network; ANN; Compressive Strength; Environmentally Friendly Concrete; Soil Erosion; Highway Slope; Predictive Modeling; Comparative Analysis

Newsom, Mi Kyong KimContinuous Improvement and Dynamic Capabilities
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Business Administration

The main objective of this dissertation is to study the role of continuous improvement as a mechanism to build dynamic capabilities. Through three related essays we address how continuous improvement projects are related to performance. The first essay illustrates a configuration research method, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Based on its descriptions in the literature, QCA appears to be an appropriate method for examining multiple paths to performance using set theory. The main benefit of QCA in contrast to traditional statistical methods is the assumption of complex causality and nonlinear relationships.

In the second essay we employ the lens of the problem solving to derive a list of learning activities related to continuous improvement. Further, we analyze how organizations that have deployed continuous improvement conduct projects leading to success. We use content analysis to code 111 projects from five organizations that have deployed continuous improvement programs. We investigate universal causes and complementary causes that lead to project success to examine the equifinality. The QCA analysis identified multiple configurations that achieved project success inferring that multiple paths lead to project success. The commonality of dynamic capability functionsin the configurations establishes that continuous improvement is a mechanism for building dynamic capabilities.

The third essay empirically addresses the question of how continuous improvement contributes to growth performance. Adapting existing scales for growth performance constructs, data on 78 improvement projects is collected and analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis. Dynamic capability functions and project success enables growth performance. These causes are always present when growth performance occurs but does not guarantee growth performance. In addition, we examine how improvement projects combine implementation and identification or formulation to achieve growth performance. Thus, the three essays provide insights of how continuous improvement builds dynamic capabilities and how improvement projects contribute to project success and growth performance.

Committee:

Peter Ward, D.B.A. (Committee Chair); Jay Anand, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ken Boyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Randy Hodson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Gopesh Anand, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Operations Research

Keywords:

continuous improvement; content analysis; qualitative comparative analysis; configuration research; dynamic capabilities

Bluffstone, ZoeSeeking Redemption in a World of Waste: A Comparative Analysis of Bottle Deposit Systems and Campaigns and a Consideration of Their Comprehensive Sustainability
BA, Oberlin College, 2016, Environmental Studies
This research is a case-based comparative analysis between bottle bill campaigns and policies in four different U.S. states in order to analyze the determining and preventative variables in the passage of bottle bills. Additionally, this study compares what ways these types of legislation are ultimately effective or ineffective in meeting economic, environmental, and social goals under the framework of Triple Bottom Line Sustainability. These four case study states (OR, ME, MA, and WA) have been selected to exemplify several public, private, and mixed systems that display varying outcomes in participation in the program and impacts on litter and local economies. Bottle bill systems are well-suited to be analyzed with this comprehensive framework because they can provide economic, social, and environmental benefits to the places where this kind of deposit system is implemented. Economically, bottle bills create jobs in redemption, transportation, and create high quality recycled products in high demand by recycling facilities. Further, the unredeemed deposits from containers not returned results in a large pool of money that can be strategically used for state spending, environmental projects, or to fund the container program itself. Environmentally, bottle bills have proven themselves to be powerful mechanism to decrease litter and to conserve resources through a monetary incentive to reuse and recycle. While it is to be expected that much of the literature on the subject focuses on the cost and economic efficiency of the market-based regulation, I believe that there remains a hole in the literature that fails to directly recognize the ways that deposit systems are entangled in local, state, and even international social systems. It is within this arena that this research is one of the first to explore the social services and environmental justice aspects of bottle bills.

Committee:

Swapna Pathak (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Economics; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Law; Environmental Studies; History; International Law; Law; Natural Resource Management; Plastics; Political Science

Keywords:

bottle bill;corporate interference;comparative analysis;container deposit legislation;Oregon;Washington;Maine;Massachusetts;Question 2;Initiative 256;Richard Chambers;international recycling industry;Wenan County;aluminum;PET;scrounging;

Wang, SongquanCOMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NTPEP PAVEMENT MARKING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION RESULTS
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2010, Civil Engineering

Pavement markings are used on roadways to provide guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. They include longitudinal markings (centerlines, lane lines, and edge lines), transverse markings (stop lines, yield lines, and crosswalk markings), and special markings (arrows, words, symbol markings, red or blue raised pavement markers, cross-hatching, dotted lines, reversible lane markings, two-way left turn lane markings, speed hump markings, and parking space markings). They come in different configurations and designs, making it possible for drivers and pedestrians to instantly recognize the meaning of the markings and quickly react to them so that they can travel safely and efficiently along the roadway.

A wide range of marking materials are available, including traffic paints (solvent-base and water-base), polyester, thermoplastic, epoxy, modified urethane, polyurea, methyl methacrylate, preformed thermoplastic, and preformed tape. These materials vary in cost, effectiveness in providing a contrast in color from that of the underlying surface, visibility under adverse weather condition such as rain and fog, adherence to different pavement surfaces, and durability under different traffic and environmental conditions.

This research presents a comparative and statistical analysis study of pavement marking materials from the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP).The performance of seven types of pavement markings (thermoplastic, preformed thermoplastic, epoxy, polyurea, modified urethane, durable tapes, and methyl methacrylate) was compared based on retroreflectivity, durability, and color. These materials were selected from four different NTPEP test decks (Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Utah). The performance evaluation results were compared to preselected milestone performance criteria. In addition, their service life was predicted using four mathematical models (exponential, linear, power and natural logarithmic model). Pavement marking service life is defined as the time required for retroreflectivity to drop to a threshold value of 150 mcd/m2/lux for white markings and 100 mcd/m2/lux for yellow markings. The outcome of this study can assist state highway agencies in selecting appropriate pavement marking materials for different needs.

Committee:

Ala Abbas (Advisor); Anil Patnaik (Committee Member); Kallol Sett (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Comparative Analysis; pavement marking materials; NTPEP

El Damanhoury, Kareem R.In-Film Product Placement an Emergent Advertising Technique: Comparative Analysis between Top Hollywood and Egyptian Films 2010-2013
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, Communication and Development Studies (International Studies)
Products have been placed in films since the appearance of Sunlight soap in a 1896 film. However, in-film placement has started to gain much traction in recent decades due to technological advances, such as the internet, Digital Video Recorders, and over-the-top providers that have been lessening the impact of traditional marketing. Product placement expenses in the American media have risen from $190 million in 1974 to around $3.5 billion in 2004 (Lehu, 2007). The practice is also existent in major regional film centers such as Bollywood, Korea, and Egypt. This study examined the in-film placement trends in Hollywood and Egypt through a quantitative content analysis of the top earning films between 2010 and 2013. Results show that the average number of placements was 35.30 and 27.65 per Hollywood and Egyptian films respectively. The practice was aligned in both in terms of modality, product category, scene setting, and character association.

Committee:

Gregory Newton, Associate Professor (Committee Chair); Lawrence Wood, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Drew McDaniel, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Comparative; Film Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Product Placement; Advertising; Cinema; Film; Movie; Egypt; Hollywood; Content Analysis; Comparative Analysis; Quantitative

Hundelt, Marissa C. Comparative Analysis of Drug Court: Effectiveness of Sentencing an Offender to Treatment and Rehabilitation
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science
This thesis focuses on the efficacy of the Mahoning County Felony Drug Court [MCFDC] in Mahoning County, Ohio compared to offenders placed on Intervention in Lieu of Conviction supervision [ILC]. It is important to analyze the criminal justice system response to the increase in drug use and drug related crime throughout the United States. The MCFDC’s mission is to provide offenders a positive diversion from the ongoing substance abuse addiction and incarceration through treatment, supervision, accountability, and standard contact with their drug court judge, by providing the tools to live a drug free lifestyle and crime free future. Secondary data analyses were used from a total of 410 offenders who completed supervision from 2011 to 2014 in the Mahoning County Common Pleas Court. Specifically, 178 offenders were in the MCFDC program and 232 offenders were on ILC supervision. The MCFDC holds offenders liable for their actions by having weekly status review hearings, random urine screens, and providing incentives and sanctions based on their behavior. As expected, results reveal that 66% of offenders in the MCFDC graduated from the program, where as 45% successfully completed ILC supervision. These findings can enlighten judges on the effectiveness of drug courts and provide alternative sentencing options for drug-addicted offenders.

Committee:

John Hazy , Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Ervin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Monica Merrill, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Demographics; Gender; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

Drug Court; treatment; rehabilitation; alternative sentencing options; intervention in lieu of conviction; comparative analysis; offender demographics

Srivastava, TriptiMicrofinance: A Comparative Analysis of Varying Contexts, Current Needs, and Future Prospects between Developing and Developed Countries
Master of Public Administration (MPA), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Public Administration

The concept of microfinance has been widely applauded and implemented around the world, and is being seen as a panacea for many social ills rooted in poverty. This thesis examines microfinance as the most recent and extremely popular development tool in the international development sector that has believed in standardized solutions towards world poverty since a long time. In less than three and a half decades, microfinance has made its way across most continents with slight variation in models as per the local needs and milieu.

The argument of this thesis is that every country has a unique socio-economic-political-legal context, a unique culture, a dominant ideology, a set of values and governance structure; that poverty in the poor countries and poverty in the rich countries face completely different sets of challenges and threats. The need for financial services and the reasons to administer them may be starkly different in different contexts and therefore the same standard solution, in this case microfinance, may not work everywhere or may even backfire in some cases.

Using three case studies, secondary data, and meta-analysis approach this thesis explores, juxtaposes, compares and contrasts, the main differences in the practice of microfinance and microcredit in developed and developing countries such as India, Bangladesh and United States of America. Based on the arguments presented, this thesis concludes that microfinance is not a ‘one size fits all’ solution to worldwide underdevelopment and poverty; and measures that may work in certain developing countries, may not work the same way in developed countries owing to socio-economic-political-legal differences.

Committee:

Shannon K. Orr, PhD (Committee Chair); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member); Stefan Fritsch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science; Public Administration

Keywords:

microfinance; case study on microfinance institutions; comparative analysis; inclusive finance; grameen bank; microfinance in India; microfinance in the USA; microfinance criticism; sustainability of microfinance; commercialization of microfinance

Panozzo, Kimberly AA Validation of Nass Crop Data Layer in the Maumee River Watershed
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2016, Geography
It is suspected that corn and soybean production in the Maumee Watershed has contributed to nutrient loading into Lake Erie, therefore affecting the frequency and duration of toxic algae (Dolan 1993), (Michalak, et al. 2012). Accurate crop type estimation is important in order to determine the potential impact on the lake and assess methods to reduce excess nutrient loading. Increasingly, the National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) Crop Data Layer (CDL) is being used as a primary input for agricultural research and crop estimation modeling therefore assessing the accuracy of the CDL is imperative. This study aims to validate the CDL, assess accuracy differences on multiple spatial scales and to examine the efficiencies of using the CDL for future research in the region. Results of CDL validation using in situ field observations from 2011 and 2012 indicate an overall accuracy of at 94% and 92% respectively and khat accuracy of 90% (2011) and 86% (2012). Crop specific accuracy for corn, soy and wheat also resulted in considerably high user accuracy values, with slight differences between years. Accuracy measures vary by region and by year however in each circumstance analyzed, the differences were not significant. Of these measureable difference, it was shown that the 2012 comparison contained a higher degree of difference and this may be attributed to drought in the region for this year. It is concluded that NASS’s CDL is an effective and efficient product for agricultural research.

Committee:

Kevin Czajkowski, PHD (Committee Chair); P.L. Lawrence, PHD (Committee Member); Dan Hammel, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Land Use Planning; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

Crop Data Layer; NASS; Remote Sensing; Agriculture; Agricultural Land Use; Thematic map validation; Validation; Accuracy Assessment; Statistical Analysis; Comparative Analysis; Maumee River; Maumee River Watershed

Lintner, Robert E.Comparative Functional Analysis and Identification of Regulatory Control in Gene Networks Using the Leucine-Responsive Regulatory protein and its Regulon as a Model System
Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Sciences (Ph.D.), University of Toledo, 2007, College of Graduate Studies
Predictions of gene regulation from DNA sequences are generally based on the poorly-tested hypothesis that a conserved regulator, conserved target gene, and putative binding sites for the regulator upstream of the target gene, imply a conserved pattern of regulation. Inherent to this framework is the assumption that well-conserved regulators are intrinsically and extrinsically equivalent, a presumption that has not been fully tested. The equivalency of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was assessed for three well-conserved orthologs from the gamma proteobacteria Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. Using the well-defined E. coli system as a model, it was determined that the Lrp orthologs maintained their ability to properly regulate heterologous target genes in the presence and absence of a coregulator. In addition, the orthologous regulators functioned well as part of the complex response associated with hyperflagellated swarmer cell differentiation in the pathogen P. mirabilis. However, there were some differences in the effects of Lrp orthologs on the activity of various target promoters, suggesting differences in affinity. The regulatory control of the lrp gene itself, in addition to intrinsic differences between orthologs, was found to be vital to its regulatory scope. This was indicated by the variation in Proteus swarming phenotypes, and by the reduced number of target genes complemented by lrp under the control of Plac compared to the native promoter. Experimental methods that identify the transcription factors associated with a particular promoter offer essential details about combinatorial regulatory control. An important limitation on whole-genome analysis of regulation is lack of a relatively high-throughput method for identifying regulatory proteins associated with a given promoter, without knowing in advance what any of those proteins are. In general, current methods either lack the ability to identify unknown regulators or lack the context of true in vivo conditions. A plasmid-based in vivo method for unknown regulator identification was proposed, and developed on a preliminary basis. The method allows enrichment of regulators associated with a given promoter, and may be useful in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

Committee:

Robert Blumenthal (Advisor)

Keywords:

Comparative Analysis; Lrp Regulon; Proteus mirabilis; Vibrio Cholerne; Gene Regulation; Regulatory Networks

Schnackenberg, Andrew KSymbolizing Institutional Change: Media Representations and Legality in the Payday Loan and Medical Marijuana Industries
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Organizational Behavior
In this dissertation, I examine the influence of arguments on political decisions related to the legality of two industries in transition: medical marijuana and payday loans. To date, no theoretical explanation exists in the organization theory literature to explain the role of arguments to influence political decisions related to industries that suffer negative or “illegitimate” social evaluations. I propose a model of the sociopolitical status of industries that highlights the often overlooked reality that public perceptions of industry legitimacy seldom perfectly support or endorse existing industry laws and regulations. Arguments made by public figures influence the sociopolitical status of industries by asserting a perspective of industry activities that provide social actors—including political decision makers—with “symbolic resources” to justify and broadcast support or opposition for the industry. Using this framework, I examine the influence of three factors—rhetoric, framing, and logics—that work through arguments to influence political decision making. While prior characterizations of rhetoric, framing, and logic suggest they exist as distinct elements influencing industry legality, I found evidence that all arguments include aspects of rhetoric, framing, and logic. Specifically, I found evidence of rhetoric signaling a perspective of support or opposition towards the industry. In addition, I found evidence of nine frames commonly used to categorize dialectical differences into conventional topics of conversation: enforcement, regulation, taxes, jobs, character, forthrightness, products, administration, and cost. I also found evidence of three overarching logics used to build a perspective of industry activity: the state, the community, and the market. Finally, I found evidence that arguments consisting of distinct configurations of rhetoric, framing, and logics influenced political decision making. These findings supported a number of proposition related to the role of rhetoric, framing, and logics in guiding sociopolitical change. Specifically, decreasing industry legality is possible across a greater diversity of framed topics of conversation than increasing industry legality. Arguments derived from the state logic are more useful to influence political decision making when the industry is considered more legitimate and arguments derived from the market logic are more useful to influence political decision making when the industry is considered less legitimate.

Committee:

Corinne Coen (Committee Chair); Ronald Fry (Committee Member); Diana Bilimoria (Committee Member); Kalle Lyytinen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Law; Logic; Management; Mass Media; Organization Theory; Rhetoric; Social Structure; Sociology

Keywords:

Rhetoric; framing; logics; symbolism; institutional theory; legitimacy; legality; arguments; industry change; media; political decision making; marijuana; payday loans; computer aided text analysis; CATA; qualitative comparative analysis; QCA