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Roy, EnakshiSocial Media, Censorship and Securitization in the United States and India
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Journalism (Communication)
Using the theoretical perspectives of Spiral of Silence and Securitization, this dissertation examines (1) how censorship practices such as content removal were employed by the United States and the Indian governments to securitize the internet and social media, and (2) whether such practices contribute to an online spiral of silence. To explore these aspects, this study used a mixed-method approach with in-depth interviews and surveys. Seven interviews with authors of Transparency Reports and legal experts provided information about the U.S. and Indian government-initiated content removal process from Google Web Search, Blogger, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter between 2010 and 2015. Surveys with 587 respondents from the United States and India explored self-censorship on Facebook and Twitter, on issues related to national security and government criticism. The findings indicate that in the United States, “defamation” is the frequently cited yet an often-misused reason for content removal, while in India “religious offense” and “defamation” are prominent reasons for content takedowns. On several occasions, protected speech was removed from the internet and social media in both countries. Such acts of state-level censorship, in turn impacts self-censoring on controversial issues by individuals on social media. The implications here are that using the law to criminalize dissent increases self-censorship and this is counter-productive to democratic discourse.

Committee:

Yusuf Kalyango, Jr., Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Aimee Edmondson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Eve Ng, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nukhet Sandal, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Information Technology; International Law; Journalism; Legal Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Technology

Keywords:

Transparency Report; Internet censorship; Internet censorship USA, India; Internet Securitization; Spiral of Silence public opinion; public opinion social media; social media censorship; content removal; Google, Facebook, Twitter transparency reporting

Spilger, Erica LExpression and Repression: Contemporary Art Censorship in America
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2018, Art History
This thesis catalogue is the written component of the exhibition of the same name, which was presented at Ohio University's Kennedy Museum of Art between October 27 and December 17, 2017. The exhibition featured artists Sue Coe, David Wojnarowicz, Kara Walker, and John Sims, all of whom have been censored in the United States within the last thirty years. Their work utilizes charged subject matter and symbols to provoke emotional response and reflection about complex issues, including race, sexuality, gender, and religion. In turn, their works have received push-back from institutions, organizations, and individuals attempting to maintain certain controls. The culture wars of the 1980s and 1990s were heated debates between artists and these censors that had manifested from increasingly disparate ideas about American identity.This catalogue situates their individual censorship experiences within the contexts of the culture wars and widespread societal changes that had been ongoing since the 1960s.

Committee:

Courtney Kessel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

art history; art; censorship; art censorship; culture wars

Wagstaff Cunningham, Audrey E.Beyond The Perceptual Bias: The Third-Person Effect And Censorship Behavior In Scholastic Journalism
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
In this study, I utilized the third-person effect hypothesis to examine high school administrators’ perceptions and self-reported propensity to censor a potential story in their school newspaper about teenagers engaging in sexual activity. The sample consistent of (N = 187) public high school administrators from across the United States. Participants completed measures of third-person perceptual bias, locus of control, self-efficacy, perceived First Amendment knowledge, actual First Amendment knowledge, First Amendment support, past experience with censorship, message desirability, social distance, and propensity to censor to protect students enrolled in the administrator’s school and the school’s reputation. Results indicated the administrators exhibited third-person perceptions when comparing perceived effects of exposure to the story on themselves to other groups including students in their school, parents of students in their school, and members of the school community. Message desirability significantly negatively predicted third-person perceptual bias. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predictors of propensity to censor to protect students and propensity to censor to protect the school. Variables were entered in three steps (background variables, external factors, and perceptual bias). Self-reported propensity to censor to protect students was predicted by self-efficacy, message (un)desirability, and third-person perceptual bias. When considering the role of social distance and perceptual bias from oneself to parents of students, external locus of control was also a predictor. Self-reported propensity to censor to protect the school was predicted by self-efficacy, First Amendment support, message (un)desirability, and third-person perceptual bias. When considering the role of social distance and perceptual bias from oneself to school community members, external locus of control was also a predictor. Practical and theoretical implications for these findings are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

Committee:

Paul Haridakis, PhD (Advisor); Stanley Wearden, PhD (Committee Member); Alexa Sandmann, EdD (Committee Member); Mark Goodman, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Education; Journalism; Law; Mass Media; Social Psychology

Keywords:

third-person effect; third-person perception; third-person perceptual bias; censorship; administrative censorship; scholastic journalism

Fukui, GeneCELEBRATING EXTINCTION? The Disconnect Between Reality and Media Representation of Bluefin Tuna in Japan
BA, Oberlin College, 2014, Environmental Studies

The Japanese media has perpetually glorified Bluefin tuna as the symbol of Japanese culture, cuisine, and national identity. Meanwhile, Bluefin tuna stocks are plummeting due to overfishing, and some species are international recognized as endangered. Blame is primarily placed on Japan, as the nation consumes 80% of Bluefin in the world and the government has admitted to overfishing several times. This has led to international environmental organizations and Western governments continually criticizing Japan for its unsustainable fishing practices.

This paper provides an explanation as to why there is no domestic movement within Japan to put an end to overfishing: the Japanese media. The Japanese media glorifies Bluefin tuna fishing and consumption, while neglecting both domestic and international criticisms of the fishing industry. By erasing the environmental discourse and presenting Bluefin only as a celebratory and culturally symbolic fish, the Japanese public remains widely unaware of depleted stocks. Furthermore, there is no academic consensus within Japan concerning the stock status of Bluefin tuna, regardless of international scientific consensus that they are endangered. With little awareness of the issue and difficulty in accessing unbiased information, a domestic anti-overfishing movement is unlikely to occur.

Committee:

Janet Fiskio, PhD (Advisor); Ann Sherif, PhD (Advisor); Swapna Pathak, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Animals; Asian Studies; Environmental Studies; Sustainability

Keywords:

bluefin tuna; japan; national identity; cuisine; japanese cuisine; fishing; oma; ipponzuri; media censorship; public perception; endangered; culinary nationalism

Bernsmeier, JordanFrom Haunting the Code to Queer Ambiguity: Historical Shifts in Adapting Lesbian Narratives from Paper to Film
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Film (Fine Arts)
This thesis provides a historical approach to the question of how lesbianism is made visible in Hollywood film adaptations of lesbian narratives from the 1930s to 2011. Chapter one examines Code censorship and haunting absences in Rebecca (1940), These Three (1936) and The Children's Hour (1961). Chapter two analyzes ambiguous lesbian representation as a type of dual marketing approach designed to appeal to both heterosexual mainstream audiences and queer audiences in The Color Purple (1985), Fried Green Tomatoes (1991), and Orlando (1992). Chapter three culminates in an examination of the location of queerness in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009, 2011) focusing on the character of Lisbeth Salander as a queer force aimed at destabilizing heterosexist assumption. It is through my examination of the historical shifts in the process translating lesbianism from a verbal description to a visible depiction on screen in Hollywood adaptations that the social and cultural significance and impact of these historical shifts becomes apparent.

Committee:

Ofer Eliaz (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Gender; History; Literature; Mass Media; Modern Literature; Scandinavian Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Lesbian; adaptation; queer; classical Hollywood; censorship; The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; Rebecca; The Childrens Hour; Fried Green Tomatoes; Orlando; The Color Purple; Hitchcock; Spectatorship; Film Theory

Morris, Anthony J.The Censored Paintings of Paul Cadmus, 1934-1940: the body as the boundary between the decent and obscene
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Art History

American painter Paul Cadmus was censored five times between 1934 and 1940. His most famous censored painting is The Fleet’s In! which the Assistant Secretary of the Navy removed from an exhibition in Washington, DC, but four other paintings were censored in some fashion as well: Coney Island, Aspects of Suburban Life, Sailors and Floozies, and The Herrin Massacre. While there is much scholarship written about The Fleet’s In!, the remaining censored paintings have received only cursory attention. This dissertation examines not only The Fleet’s In! but also these under-researched paintings to more completely define what angered people at the time.

Because Cadmus was a homosexual and he often represented gay characters, in recent decades his work has appealed to queer historians and theorists, who have focused on the homosexual aspect of his work. These historians have argued a causal relationship between Cadmus’s censorship and his representation of homosexual figures. But this dissertation questions the completeness of such a history. Because homosexuality could not be openly discussed in this period, contemporary viewers may well have missed many of the homosexual references in Cadmus’s work. Studying The Fleet’s In! in conjunction with the other paintings in their broader cultural contexts demonstrates that homosexuality was largely invisible at the time. Viewers clearly recognized that something was amiss, but focused on the artist’s representation of alcohol, promiscuous women, and what seemed to be unsympathetic depictions of the working class.

Overall, what seemed to disturb viewers was the unconventional social critique found in Cadmus’s paintings. As opposed to traditional satire in which unpalatable figures face terrible consequences, Cadmus employed what Mikhail Bakhtin called the “carnivalesque.” This controversial form of satire was based on Medieval festivals in which the conventions of society were temporarily halted. Cadmus’s compositions stand in opposition to traditional morality, without consequence and were therefore scandalous in the 1930s.

Committee:

Henry Adams (Advisor); Ellen Landau (Committee Member); T. Kenny Fountain (Committee Member); Renee Sentilles (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Paul Cadmus; censorship; american art; the fleet's in; coney island; aspects of suburban life; sailors and floozies; herrin massacre

Wang, SijieCriticism, Censorship, Influence on Newswork: A Content Analysis of How Film Reviews Published in Photoplay Magazine Changed after Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America's 1934 Censorship
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Journalism (Communication)
This thesis investigates the changes in film reviews published by Photoplay magazine, considered by many as one of the most significant and high-quality fan magazines, after the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA, the predecessor of today's Motion Picture Association of America, MPAA) started to censor fan magazine content on August 10, 1934. Two constructed years were made from issues published from 1930 to 1939 and the overlapping 10 years of the golden age of Hollywood (1930 to 1949) and the golden age of fan magazines (1920 to 1939). A total of 723 film reviews (every single review in the issues selected) were studied. Although it was not clear based on MPPDA's censorship pronouncement whether film reviews were included in the censorship, content analysis results, supported also by historical analysis, suggested that film reviews published from 1935 to 1939 covered a significantly larger portion of movies made by big studios, including MGM, Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO), Paramount, 20th Century-Fox and Warner Bros, Universal, Columbia and United Artists, than those published between 1930 and 1934. The results also showed that film reviews published after MPPDA's censorship pronouncement were significantly more positive both in general tone and when it came to big studio films. Considering that today studios still try to influence film criticism in multiple ways, this study, within the framework of newswork theory, may provide insights into how reviews may change under influences on the extramedia and media routines level.

Committee:

Hans Meyer (Advisor); Aimee Edmondson (Committee Member); Cary Frith (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Media

Keywords:

film review; fan magazine; Photoplay; censorship; MPPDA; Hollywood; newswork; historical study; content analysis

Watkins, Daniel JEnlightenment, Catholicism, Conservatism: The Isaac-Joseph Berruyer Affair and the Culture of Orthodoxy in France, ca. 1700-1830
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History
When the second-century Church Father Tertullian asked the provocative questions, “What is there in common between Athens and Jerusalem? What between the Academy and the Church?” he opened up a line of inquiry to which the Church has been responding for nearly two millennia. How has the Church negotiated its relationship with the constantly changing world of non-ecclesiastical cultures, and what are the ramifications of the Church’s decisions either to embrace or eschew cultural norms? The answers to these questions explain how the Church’s role in European society has transformed over time. This dissertation examines the complex relationship between the Catholic Church and the cultural and intellectual movement of the Enlightenment over the course of the long eighteenth century (ca. 1700-1830). More specifically, it focuses on the Enlightenment in France—where many historians have located the birthplace of modern secularism—to track the unlikely ways that members of the French Society of Jesus interacted with the sensibilities of the Enlightenment and employed them for the purposes of the Church. Providing the case study for this examination is the French Jesuit Isaac-Joseph Berruyer (1681-1758) whose magnum opus, the Histoire du peuple de Dieu, promoted a unique blend of traditionally Catholic and enlightened values. Berruyer’s Jesuit style of “Catholic Enlightenment” differed from the ways by which other groups in the Catholic Church sought to accommodate the new perspectives and cultural assumptions of the Age of Enlightenment. When his Histoire underwent fierce opposition and eventual censorship at both state and ecclesiastical levels, Berruyer’s negotiation of ecclesiastical and non-ecclesiastical cultures became intertwined in the political disputes of mid-century France, including most especially the long standing quarrel between Jansenists and the Society of Jesus that ended in the expulsion of the Jesuits from France and all of Catholic Europe. Berruyer’s legacy, however, persisted past the suppression of the Jesuits and the French Revolution into the nineteenth century where it laid the foundation for a new set of conservative political sensibilities. In this way, the unlikely figure of a French Jesuit helped connect the ideals of the Enlightenment to the mentalities of post-revolutionary conservatism and nineteenth-century Catholic culture.

Committee:

Dale Van Kley (Advisor); Alice Conklin (Advisor); Matthew Goldish (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; Philosophy; Religious History

Keywords:

Berruyer, Isaac-Joseph; Enlightenment; Catholicism; France; Hardouin, Jean; Catholic Enlightenment; orthodoxy; censorship; Society of Jesus; Jesuits

Souder, Eric MatthewThe Circassian Thistle: Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy's 'Khadzhi Murat' and the Evolving Russian Empire"
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, History
The following thesis examines the creation, publication, and reception of Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy’s posthumous novel, Khadzhi Murat in both the Imperial and Soviet Russian Empire. The anti-imperial content of the novel made Khadzhi Murat an incredibly vulnerable novel, subjecting it to substantial early censorship. Tolstoy’s status as a literary and cultural figure in Russia – both preceding and following his death – allowed for the novel to become virtually forgotten despite its controversial content. This thesis investigates the absorption of Khadzhi Murat into the broader canon of Tolstoy’s writings within the Russian Empire as well as its prevailing significance as a piece of anti-imperial literature in a Russian context.

Committee:

Stephen Norris, Ph.D. (Advisor); Daniel Prior, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Ziolkowski, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Literature; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Leo Tolstoy; Tolstoy; Khadzhi Murat; Hadji Murat; North Caucasus; Chechnya; Daghestan; Russian Empire; Russian Literature; Censorship; Literary Criticism; Empire; Nicholas I

Behrouzian, GolnooshFrom Reactance to Political Belief Accuracy: Evaluating Citizens’ Response to Media Censorship and Bias
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2018, Communication
Much of recent media censorship research focuses on the institutional characteristics of media systems that define what we consider open versus closed media environments. The primary focus of these studies is to assess the negative consequences of media censorship on political learning (i.e., political belief accuracy). Despite these scholarly endeavors, the psychological factors that mediate the relationship between the information environment and citizen knowledge are generally overlooked. In order to better understand these factors, we must look beyond the structural nature of media systems, and evaluate the role of affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses of citizens who perceive they are living in a censored information environment. The objective of this project is to address these psychological processes by applying the concept of reactance to a novel theoretical framework that explores the relationship between perceived threat to media freedom, online information seeking, and accuracy of political beliefs. The framework is applied in three studies using samples from three countries with vastly different media systems (Turkey, Iran, and the U.S.). The objective is to assess the hypotheses, which suggest higher levels of reactance towards threats to mainstream media freedom will motivate individuals to turn to alternative online information seeking, which will then influence political belief accuracy with respect to broad social and political issues. The underlying premise of these studies is that those who exhibit negative affective and cognitive responses to threats towards their media freedom are more likely to engage in activities or behaviors that supplement their perceived loss of information. Such active pursuit of information through the diverse alternative online sources is then expected to augment political belief accuracy in largely restrictive media environments. It is further suggested that in circumstances where the mainstream media regularly offers diverse perspective (i.e., the U.S.), this alternative online information seeking will diminish political belief accuracy, due to the ideologically polarized nature of online sources. The moderating influence of internal political efficacy, response efficacy, technological efficacy, perceived affordance of visibility, and learned helplessness are also tested in the model. The results of the three studies broadly demonstrate support for the idea that reactance promotes online information seeking, especially among individuals who experience higher levels of internal political efficacy and perceived visibility of online information (only in Iran). The outcomes also suggest that this online engagement enhances political belief accuracy, with an inverse effect in more politically partisan online information environments (i.e., the U.S.). The implications of the results, as well as limitations and future directions are subsequently discussed.

Committee:

Erik Nisbet (Advisor); David Ewoldsen (Committee Member); Kelly Garrett (Committee Member); Gerald Kosicki (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Censorship; mass media; reactance; disinformation; political communication; Iran; Turkey

Eidahl, Brad T.Writing the Opposition: Power, Coercion, Legitimacy and the Press in Pinochet's Chile
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, History (Arts and Sciences)
This dissertation examines the struggle between Chile’s opposition press and the dictatorial regime of Augusto Pinochet Ugarte (1973-1990). It argues that due to Chile’s tradition of a pluralistic press and other factors, and in bids to strengthen the regime’s legitimacy, Pinochet and his top officials periodically demonstrated considerable flexibility in terms of the opposition media’s ability to publish and distribute its products. However, the regime, when sensing that its grip on power was slipping, reverted to repressive measures in its dealings with opposition-media outlets. Meanwhile, opposition journalists challenged the very legitimacy Pinochet sought and further widened the scope of acceptable opposition under difficult circumstances. Ultimately, such resistance contributed to Pinochet’s defeat in the 1988 plebiscite, initiating the return of democracy. Historians have paid relatively little attention to the relationship between the dictatorship and the opposition press, the critical role opposition journalism played during the Pinochet years, and the importance of opposition journalists in the successful “No” campaign in the 1988 plebiscite. This dissertation makes clear that the opposition media—and opposition newsmagazines in particular—together played a vital role during the period.

Committee:

Patrick Barr-Melej (Advisor)

Subjects:

History; Journalism; Latin American History

Keywords:

Pinochet; Journalism; Opposition; No Campaign; APSI; Chile; Dictatorship; Dissident; Hoy; Cauce; Analisis; Concertacion; Censorship

Lee, Shih-changImproved nonparametric estimators of survival probabilities from censored data /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1986, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Censorship;Probabilities

Ryan, Christopher JohnA Qualitative Approach to Spiral of Silence Research: Self-Censorship Narratives Regarding Environmental and Social Conflict
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
The purpose of this research is to seek narratives of self-censorship from in-depth interviews of 19 participants acquired through a purposive (criterion) sampling protocol. The primary research question driving this study is “What types of sanctions contribute to people choosing to self-censor their strongly held beliefs, values, and opinions.” Previous research conducted on the topic of self-censorship (generally under the rubric of the spiral of silence theory) has been predominantly quantitative and consideration of sanctions influencing self-censorship have been limited to fear of social isolation. I suggest that ostensibly important sanction variables have not been utilized within these existing frameworks. I anticipated that this research, by utilizing a qualitative framework, would reveal other sanctions that operate in the self-censorship decision calculus. I also expected that interviews would portray a broader, more complete picture of how self-censorship operates and the variables that contribute to the construct. Research expectations were partially met as new variables in regard to specific fears of sanctioning were identified. These variables should contribute to self-censorship theory and more specifically, the frequently researched “spiral of silence” theory of mass communication and could be tested in quantitative research to verify their validity. Future research in this vein might consider testing additional sanction variables as part of a quantitative study, continue to refine the definition of self-censorship, develop better strategies to locate and secure additional informants, and continue to utilize qualitative methods to probe further into self-censorship questions.

Committee:

Thomas Webler, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); K. Heidi Watts, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Krueger, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Environmental Studies; Land Use Planning; Mass Communications; Psychology; Social Psychology; Sociology; Urban Planning

Keywords:

self-censorship; spiral of silence; Noelle-Neumann; sanction; environmental; conformity; vested interest; Asch; Milgram; social psychology; sociology; mass communication; critical theory; communicative action; culture; qualitative; free speech; deviance

Stoycheff, Elizabeth LFree media consolidation in Eastern Europe: Citizen attitudes about political, legal, and economic media freedom
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Communication
Over the past half-century, scholars have identified an array of institutional factors that engender free media systems, but have failed to acknowledge the role of citizen attitudes in media reform. A new theoretical perspective called free media consolidation argues that free media systems instead emerge as a combined result of a country’s political, legal, and economic institutions to supply free media, and citizens’ free media attitudes. This dissertation is the first study to conceptualize citizens’ free media attitudes along parallel dimensions (political, legal, and economic), and explore how they are formed. Empirical evidence was gathered from online panel surveys conducted in three media systems in Eastern Europe that possess free (Poland), partly free (Ukraine), and not free (Russia) media environments. My findings suggest that in Poland’s free media system, citizens’ demand for free media arises as a result of the internalization of free media norms established through interactions with a free media. But in the less free media environments of Ukraine and Russia, citizens are less likely to have internalized free media norms, and instead are more likely to base their evaluations and attitudes about media freedom on their political orientations. Implications for the consolidation of free media systems and future trajectories for research are discussed.

Committee:

Erik Nisbet, Ph.D. (Advisor); Gerald Kosicki, Ph.D. (Committee Member); R. Kelly Garrett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael McCluskey, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lee Becker, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Political Science

Keywords:

press freedom; media freedom; communication; democracy; censorship; consolidation; conditional process modeling

Foo, Tee-TuanManaging the Content of Malaysian Television Drama: Producers, Gatekeepers and the Barisan Nasional Government
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2004, Telecommunications (Communication)

The purpose of this dissertation is to describe and analyze how drama television content is managed in Malaysia. By looking at the production process of local drama television programming, this study examines the interactions among the three major players - the Barisan Nasional regime, the major television networks and independent producers - who are responsible for shaping its content. Three research methods are used for this study: in-depth interviewing, the informal conversational interview and documentary research. Between June 2001 and November 2002, 32 interviewees participated in this research.

The research finds that the Malaysian drama television producer's ability to generate program content is constrained by the Barisan Nasional regime. Three observations are made to outline the power relationship between the government and the television industry. First, the government often encourages television producers to make drama programs with the theme of friendship and goodwill ( muhibah ) among different ethnic communities in order to nurture racial harmony. However, as the racial interactions portrayed on television fail to reflect the reality in Malaysian society, it makes the viewers even more racially conscious. The implied message of social polarization, however, is an advantage to the government, as it reminds viewers that without the regime's firm hand, Malaysia might slip into racial conflict.

Second, as government officials can ignore established rules when it is convenient, and reinterpret existing rules in distorted ways to force producers to create the kind of content they desire, it renders useless the censorship guidelines issued by the Malaysian government. The guidelines, however, serve a different purpose. They are used to inform the public that the government is safeguarding the content of national television.

Third, while some media producers might have been forced into compliance, many work for the government. The authority grants privileges to these producers; in return they ensure that the will of the regime is visualized on the small screen. In view of this, Malaysian television practitioners should not be seen merely as victims, they should also be understood as willing collaborators for the regime.

Committee:

Drew McDaniel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

Television Drama; Censorship; Malaysia; Political Influence; Gate Keeper; Media Convention

Bardo, Nicholas WilliamHarmony or Hegemony? Chinese Citizen Perceptions of the Tiananmen Square Demonstrations of 1989, Taiwan Independence, and Tibetan Soveireignty
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Cross-Cultural, International Education
The Tiananmen Square Demonstrations of 1989, the Taiwanese independence movement and the claims for Tibetan Sovereignty, collectively referred to as the Three Ts, are issues suppressed and censored within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The two research questions which anchored this thesis were 1) How is knowledge related to Tiananmen Square, Taiwan, and Tibet communicated? 2) To what degree does the government censored discourse involving Tiananmen Square, Taiwanese independence, and Tibetan sovereignty affect citizen perceptions of government and their role as citizens? To understand this phenomenon, a thorough literature review outlined the socio-cultural foundations of the PRC, the Chinese educational system, the historical background related to each of the Three Ts, and an overview of the Chinese media. An initial process of inductive grounded theory data collection, coding, and analysis yielded a categories and subcategories explaining the phenomenon from participant voices. Next, the grounded theory deductively coded through the lens of discursive analysis, cultural reproduction, and symbolic violence. The findings discussed how 11 Chinese citizens perceived these events and through which means was their knowledge of these events constructed. The core category, censorship, anchored the findings for both research questions. Regarding how knowledge of the Three Ts was communicated, categories of educational pedagogical authority, media pedagogical authority, and family and community pedagogical authority organized the findings. Regarding the second research question, subcategories of perceptions of the education system, lack of critical thinking, academic and social pressure, Internet, Japan, special treatment of minority groups, perceptions of government, and the role of democracy created a holistic understanding of a complex socio-cultural context.

Committee:

Hyeyoung Bang, PhD (Advisor); Bruce Collet, PhD (Committee Member); Simon Marc, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Comparative; Education; Ethics; Mass Media; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Tiananman Square; Tibet; Taiwan; China; Censorship; Grounded Theory; Discourse; Education; Media; Confucianism; Symbolic Violence; Cultural Reproduction; Collectivism; Interdependence;

Zhang, YiwenOUT OF GOODWILL TO PROTECT OTHERS: WHY CHINESE JOURNALISTS EMBRACE SELF-CENSORSHIP?
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
The censorship system has been criticized as a distinct symbol of dictatorship for a very long time (Goldstein, 2009). The news media is getting more aggressive about challenging and fighting against censorship and striving for freedom of expression in China or all over the world (Tedford&Herbeck, 2009). Ironically, instead of challenging the “unspoken” rules of censorship, Chinese journalists may sometimes engage in self-censorship, which is actually assisting the system of official censorship. Why do Chinese journalists accept censorship? Censors have defended their actions as the protection to against negative information entering the public domain (Rojas, Shah, & Faber, 1996). Here, a contradiction in the censorship issue is presented in Chinese media environment.News media oppose censorship as a blockade to their informationcollection and distribution, but they may also install a self-censorship protocol to filter, order and maintain the “safety” of the information flow because they believe that negative information is a catalyst of social instability. To further understand this contradiction, my paper aims to clarify the motivations forChinese journalists to accept self-censorship. I adopt third person effect as the theoretical framework to study self-censorship in Chinese context. The purpose of this study is to provide a different way of looking at the relationship between the third person effect and censorship behavior to understand how the Chinese journalists’individual characteristics and environmental factors will directly affect their self-censoring behaviors or indirectly through the perceptual bias.

Committee:

Mei-Chen Lin, PhD (Committee Chair); Paul Haridakis, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer McCullough, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Chines journalists, third-person effect, self-censorship

Mantell, EmilyPolitical Art Censorship: A Productive Power
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2017, Art History
This thesis provides an analysis of New Censorship Theory applied to two different cases of political art censorship: Dread Scott’s “What Is The Proper Way to Display a U.S Flag?” exhibited in Chicago, Illinois in 1988 and the Stars’ “Stars Exhibition,” shown in Beijing, China in 1979. The “Stars Exhibition,” consisting of western modern art styles that were condemned by China’s communist government, was held outside the National Art Gallery after being denied space inside. The Public Security Bureau arrived with nearly one hundred policemen to confiscate the artwork. Despite their popularity with the Chinese public, many members of the Stars self-exiled to the west. Dread Scott’s “What Is The Proper Way to Display a U.S Flag?” was an installation and performance piece consisting of an American flag laid on the ground as a walkway towards a book in which audience members were invited to answer the question “What is the proper way to display a U.S flag?” Interest groups attempted to censor the work by requesting stronger flag desecration laws, both state and federal. Additionally, George H. W. Bush, president at the time, declared the work “disgraceful.” Although both of these pieces faced traditional forms of censorship as repressive government intervention, they also facilitated a way for the artists to gain considerable popularity. The censorship of these works generated discourse on the issues that were being addressed through these artworks, ultimately providing the artists with a greater platform on which they can promote their ideas.

Committee:

Jennie Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

censorship; political art

Stankiewicz, Kathleen LynnUNCENSORED: GENDER ROLES AND THE DISMANTLING OF THE MOTION PICTURE PRODUCTION CODE
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2012, History
In 1934, the American film industry decided to undergo self-censorship in order to stifle the public and federal outcries for moral reform in films. The Production Code Administration, under the leadership of Joseph Breen, a Catholic layman, enforced the Motion Picture Production Code or Hays Code for over three decades. The Code was a set of rigid guidelines that covered a myriad of topics ranging from gangsters and violence to drug and alcohol abuse to relations between men and women on the silver screen. The metamorphous of the Code, that of gradual change towards disintegration, is most evident in subtle changes and eventual transformation of gender roles portrayed in film over the lifetime of the Code. Despite the attempts to enforce patriarchal and Christian views by establishing a rigid set of unchanging masculine and feminine behaviors, gender roles continued to evolve and visibly change, and American films recorded this process.

Committee:

Mary Frederickson, PhD (Advisor); Stephen Norris, PhD (Committee Member); Nishani Frazier, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

Motion picture production code; Hays Code: women, gender, and film; classic cinema; Production Code Administration; Legion of Decency; film/media censorship

Rowse, Julie L.Trouble Right Here in Digital City: Censorship of Online Student Speech
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Popular Culture

The Internet is the most recent cultural site of resistance and struggle, blurring boundaries between public and private space. A specific area of contestation is the ever-fluid boundary that separates students' personal lives from their school lives. Public school administrators are finding that the accessibility and archival nature of the Internet provide opportunities for students to be disciplined at school for expressive speech that occurred after school hours, off school grounds. Empowered by several Supreme Court decisions that limit student expression on school grounds, these administrators feel justified in applying those cases to online speech. However, questions remain regarding whether on-campus punishment for off-campus speech is appropriate. This thesis addresses questions relative to the power dynamic between students and administrators.

Drawing on the works of Michel Foucault, Henry Giroux, and Dick Hebdige, this thesis explores issues of power, repressive environments, the role of public education in culture, and surveillance. These issues are present in the online spaces of personal websites and social networking websites such as MySpace and Facebook, all of which are addressed in this thesis. Additionally, this thesis raises questions surrounding issues of public versus private space; how the boundary between on- and off-campus speech is becoming less visible; and what it means to represent a school via participation in activities.

Committee:

Montana Miller, Dr. (Committee Chair); Esther Clinton, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Journalism; Mass Media

Keywords:

Internet; Censorship; High School

Strainic, Jill MaranoHigh School Publications Demonstrate Higher Quality When Students Control Content
MA, Kent State University, 2007, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication
This study examines the relationship between American high school journalists’ First Amendment rights and the quality of work those student journalists produce. Based on a survey of National Scholastic Press Association members, this research shows that there is a positive relationship between student press freedom and publication quality for both newspapers and yearbooks. It also shows relationships between publication quality and other factors, including the a school’s attitude toward student press freedom, state student free expression laws, and adviser experience.

Committee:

Timothy Smith (Advisor)

Keywords:

High School Journalism; Publication Quality; High School Publications; School newspaper; Yearbook; freedom of expression laws; First Amendment; National Scholastic Press Association; NSPA; Censorship; High School Newspaper; High School Yearbook

Walck, Pamela E.Reporting America's "Colour Problem": How the U.S. and British Press Reported and Framed Racial Conflicts during World War II
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Journalism (Communication)
Race and ideologies of racial supremacy were at the very heart of World War II. U.S. troops did not have to look far to see how race influenced the American war machine as the country's military policies required African American and white troops to be processed, trained, and stationed at separate but supposedly equal installations across the country. Race determined whether one carried a rifle or drove a supply truck; operated the naval big guns or loaded munitions into Liberty-class ships; and even whether you would deploy or not. This study took an historical look at how the media reported race and race relations in a war fought over race. Specifically, it examined three events in the United States: the Detroit race riots, Harlem riots, and the Port Chicago explosion; and three incidents in the United Kingdom: the first racial incident in Antrim, Northern Ireland, the mutiny at Bamber Bridge, and the Bristol race riots, to reveal how mainstream newspapers and the American black press reported these events. Through an extensive examination of news coverage in twenty-four newspapers, U.S. and British government and military documents, and oral histories, this study examines how race was reported and framed in the media; and attempts to demonstrate how those frames and newspaper routines expand our understanding of race and race relations during this critical period of history. This study found that often the mainstream media in both nations downplayed race or at the very least attempted to minimize it during major news events, unless it was impossible to ignore. Sometimes this effort to curtail the role of race came from overt pressure from the government, as it was with the British press. Other times, news workers self-censored for fear that images of violence between Americans would fuel the Axis propaganda machine. Still other times, wartime censors severely delayed news reports. This study also found differences in how the U.S. and British press reported domestic incidents, particularly in terms of volume and tone of coverage.

Committee:

Michael Sweeney (Committee Chair); Patrick Washburn (Committee Member); Kathryn Jellison (Committee Member); Benjamin Bates (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American History; Black History; History; Journalism; Military History

Keywords:

World War II press; race relations; black press; British press; wartime censorship; Detroit race riot 1943; Harlem riot 1943; Port Chicago; Bamber Bridge mutiny; Antrim stabbing; Bristol riots

Eckhart, Tami MarieGood Strategies for “Bad” Books
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Reading
Debates often arise about the most suitable way teachers should present information to their students. Sensitive issues like violence, sex, race, and religion sometimes appear in adolescent literature, which can stir conflicts among teachers, parents, and administrators. This study argues that teachers should not simply refrain from teaching significant pieces of literature due to their controversy. Theories in motivation and reader response maintain that students greatly benefit from reading and discussing some commonly censored literature. This research topic addressed the approaches that educators can use while teaching controversial books in the middle school classroom. Ten frequently challenged books were analyzed to further understand the grievances made against popular adolescent literature. Interviews with reading teachers then followed, which uncovered strategies that are put into effect to enhance reading instruction using books with sensitive content. These data were collected and analyzed to provide teachers with insight about censorship in schools and ways in which controversial literature can be effectively taught to middle school students.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Advisor); John Sorg, PhD (Committee Member); Timothy Murnen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Reading Instruction

Keywords:

Motivation; Adolescent Literature; Middle School; Censorship

Garry, Candi PierceSelection or Censorship? School Librarians and LGBTQ Resources
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
All students, including those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ), need quality library books which reflect their experiences. This mixed-method research project examines whether public high school library professionals are self-censoring their library collections when it comes to materials with LGBTQ themes. Quantitative data were collected from 120 Ohio public high school libraries, while 12 school librarians were interviewed. The study found that school libraries tended to have significantly fewer LGBTQ-themed books than titles with other kinds of controversial content, but that certain factors, including schools with large number of students; schools with a racially diverse student body; schools located in liberal-leaning communities; and schools that employ certified librarians, are present in schools with more inclusive LGBTQ collections. Qualitative findings supported the quantitative analyses and stressed the importance of a supportive community and administration when developing a quality, inclusive library collection.

Committee:

Thomas Poetter, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Ethics; Gender; Glbt Studies; Language Arts; Library Science; Literature; Multicultural Education; Reading Instruction; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

library, librarian, collection development, selection, censorship, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer, LGBTQ

Hu, SiminNEW METHODS FOR VARIABLE SELECTION WITH APPLICATIONS TO SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL REDUNDANCY ANALYSIS USING GENE EXPRESSION DATA
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2007, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
An important application of microarray research is to develop cancer diagnostic and prognostic tools based on tumor genetic profiles. For easy interpretation, such studies aim to identify a small fraction of genes to build molecular predictors of clinical outcomes from at least thousands of genes thus require methodologies that can model high dimensional covariates and accomplish variable selection simultaneously. One interesting area is modeling cancer patients’ survival time or time to cancer reoccurrence with gene expression data. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a new penalized weighted least squares method for model estimation and variable selection in accelerated failure time models. In this method, right censored observations are used as censoring constraints in optimizing the weighted least squares objective function. We also include ridge penalty to deal with singularity caused by collinearity and high dimensionality and use the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to achieve model parsimony. Simulation studies demonstrate that adding censoring constraints improves model estimation and variable selection especially for data with high dimensional covariates. Real data examples show our method is able to identify genes that are relevant to patient survival times. Another interesting area is cancer subtype classification using gene expression profiles. One important issue is to reduce redundancy caused by correlation among genes. Since genes with correlated expression levels may be co-expressed or belong to the same biological pathway related to the disease, including such genes into classifiers provides very little additional information. In the second part of the dissertation, we define an eigenvalue-ratio statistic to measure a gene’s contribution to the joint discriminability of a set of genes. Based on this eigenvalue-ratio statistic, we define a novel hypothesis testing for gene statistical redundancy and propose two gene selection methods. Simulation studies illustrate the agreement between statistical redundancy testing and gene selection methods. Real data examples show the effectiveness of our eigenvalue-ratio statistic based gene selection methods. We also demonstrate that the selected compact gene subsets can not only be used to build high quality cancer classifiers but also have biological relevance.

Committee:

J. Rao (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Biostatistics

Keywords:

GENE; censorship; QPCC; QPCCLASSO

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