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Paris, MelanieRepatriated Africans from Cuba and Brazil in nineteenth century Lagos
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1998, African-American and African Studies

During the late nineteenth century, primarily between the 1840s and 1860s, a significant repatriation movement to Africa took place among ex-slaves from the Latin American countries of Cuba and Brazil. Since most of these repatriates were of Yoruba descent, they chose to resettle in Yoruba-populated areas along the West African coast. Some of these Cuban and Brazilian repatriates resettled in Ouidah and Porto Novo in the present-day country of Republic of Benin. However, many of the returnees established themselves in West Africa’s largest port city of Lagos in what is now known as Nigeria.

It was also during the nineteenth century that British colonialists began to aggressively launch their quest for total domination and annexation of Yorubaland and the hinterland areas of “Nigeria”. In order to facilitate this agenda, the British used the Cuban and Brazilian repatriates as mediators between themselves and the local Yoruba population. Consequently, in order to secure the repatriates’ cooperation, the British elevated the Cuban and Brazilian returnees to an elite status in colonial Lagos.

This thesis examines the economic and social status of repatriated Africans from Cuba and Brazil in Lagos, and the social and economic conditions that served as an impetus for their drastic transition from slavery. More specifically, this study focuses on the relationship between the repatriates and British colonialists during the nineteenth century, and the elite position that the returnees assumed in the Lagos community as a result of this association.

Committee:

Abiola Irele (Advisor)

Keywords:

Agudas; Lagos; Yoruba; slaves; returnees; CUBA; CUBA AND BRAZIL

Schulz, Donald EdwardThe Cuban revolution and the Soviet Union /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1977, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Cuba;Cuba;Soviet Union

Bell, Gregory J"An Island in the South": The Tampa Bay Area as a Cultural Borderland, 1513-1904
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: History
Although physically part of North America, peninsular Florida extends southward into the Caribbean. This geographic proximity resulted in a reciprocal relationship with Cuba that long transcended geopolitical borders. Much of the peninsula was also socioeconomically tied to the continent, but the Tampa Bay area was not. Rather, a number of variables delayed its Americanization and southernization until the beginning of the twentieth century. Initially, the Tampa Bay area was a Caribbean periphery. Its original inhabitants came from the Caribbean and maintained a maritime lifestyle. After the Columbian Exchange and subsequent warfare led to their extinction, southeastern Amerindians moved in and made adaptive shifts, including establishing strong relationships with Hispanics in Cuba and at fishing ranchos along the Gulf coast. Although both the Spanish and the British intruded in local affairs, they were unable to break these ties. With the formation of the United States, the Tampa Bay area soon became a borderland caught between competing cultural hearths— American and Caribbean. White Americans grew increasingly frustrated over Florida’s status as a refuge for fugitive slaves, who established a community in the Tampa Bay area and began trading with Cuba. Florida’s Amerindians, then known collectively as Seminoles, began harboring these fugitives and incorporating them into their society. In response, the United States took possession of Florida in 1821 and removed the Seminoles from all but the southernmost peninsula. Hispanics, allowed to remain in the Tampa Bay area, maintained and even strengthened its Caribbean connection. White rural Crackers largely filled the void left by the Seminoles, selling cattle to the Cuban market. Southern planters also moved to the area but achieved little economic success. As a result, slavery failed to establish an adequate foothold, and the Bay area remained a diverse cultural frontier for the remainder of the antebellum period. The Civil War and the subsequent Union naval blockade of Florida temporarily disrupted the Cuban cattle trade, but Bay area residents turned to blockade running to the Caribbean as a means of survival. During Reconstruction, Cuba served as an economic lifeline for the Tampa Bay area, providing an eager market for local lumber, seafood, and cattle. The Bay area remained largely isolated from the United States until the 1880s, when the “Plant System” connected Tampa to the South via the railroad and the Caribbean via steamships. This transportation network opened the area to development and created economic opportunities that led to a multicultural population boom. Cubans and black Americans moved to the area, finding employment. Whites became a minority, which delayed the implementation of Jim Crow segregation until after the Spanish-American War, when the Tampa Bay area embraced the New South trinity of industrialization, racial segregation, and Lost Cause mythology. The southernized white civic elite then rewrote the area’s history, nearly erasing its multicultural past. Despite their efforts, Tampa’s sizeable and economically influential Hispanic population infused the city with an undeniable Latin character, making it unique within the American South.

Committee:

Christopher Phillips, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); James L Roark, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wayne Durrill, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Willard Sunderland, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Cuba;Florida;Tampa;Hispanic;South;Caribbean

Garcia, Ivonne MarieAnticipating 1898: Writings of U.S. Empire on Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hawai'i, and the Philippines
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, English

This dissertation argues for a re-periodization of 1898 as the moment of U.S. empire by utilizing a transhemispheric methodology that discursively connects the Pacific and the Americas. Arguing that the federal campaign of Indian Removal should be considered the actual marker of intra-continental U.S. imperialism, this dissertation takes 1830 as its starting point. Within that historical context, the study examines literary texts by U.S. writers who in the 1830s anticipated the extra-continental colonial visions that would become cultural commonplaces after 1898, when the United States became an extra-continental imperial nation by acquiring possessions in the Pacific and the Spanish Caribbean. The dissertation also examines writers from those regions who proposed their own transcolonial revisions to dominant colonial discourses in the late nineteenth century.

Specifically, this dissertation examines the colonial visions articulated by two sets of New England writers who traveled to Puerto Rico and Cuba. Edward Bliss Emerson and Charles Chauncy Emerson (brothers of Ralph Waldo Emerson) visited Puerto Rico between 1831 and 1834 while Sophia Amelia Peabody (who would later marry Nathaniel Hawthorne), and her sister, Mary Tyler Peabody, lived in Cuba from 1833 to 1835. Their letters and journals reveal that a decade before Manifest Destiny was articulated publicly, the notion that the United States was destined to become an extra-continental empire was expressed more privately in literary and cultural terms.

This dissertation further shows how writers in Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines and Hawai'i deployed transcolonial strategies to challenge colonialism in their regions. This study examines texts by the Puerto Rican Ramón Emeterio Betances, the Cuban José Martí, and the Filipino José Rizal to argue that these writers were transcolonial anti-colonialists. This dissertation also juxtaposes the colonial translations of Hawai'i, written and disseminated by Mark Twain, with the anti-colonial, or indigenized translations, deployed by deposed Hawaiian Queen Lili'uokalani in her autobiography. By deploying distinct transcolonial revisions of dominant representations of their islands and their people, and by representing the United States in their own terms, these writers anticipated later anti-imperialist discourses aimed at U.S. imperialism.

Committee:

Chadwick Allen, PhD (Advisor); Susan Williams, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Frederick Aldama, PhD (Committee Member); Edna Menke (Committee Member)

Subjects:

English literature

Keywords:

Puerto Rico; Cuba; Hawai'i; the Philippines; U.S. imperialism; colonialism

Dowman, SarahMapeando la cultura Kruda: Hip-Hop, Punk Rock y performances queer latino contemporáneo
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Spanish

In a globalized world, sociopolitical and cultural movements enter new spaces as borders are obscured and alternate routes are explored. Weaving in and out of local, regional, and global cultures through sound, lyrics, and performance, musical subcultures such as hip-hop and punk rock can serve as alternative spaces where the marginalized can challenge dominant societal norms through lifestyles, belief structures, and artistic expression that cross or exist without borders. This thesis explored how these subcultures are re-appropriated in distinct contemporary U.S. Latino/a and Latin American contexts through analyses of the revolutionary feminist Cuban hip-hop group, Las Krudas, the work of the Uruguayan-American activist Martin Sorrondeguy in his hardcore punk and queercore groups, Los Crudos and Limp Wrist, and a graphic novel entitled, Spit and Passion, by the Cuban-American artist, Cristy C. Road. From a performance studies perspective, this thesis utilized the theories of Judith Butler as well as Mikhail Bahktins concept of the carnival to study how these artists actively participate and create what was denominated the "cultura Kruda" within the transnational Latin American context. The cultura Kruda was argued to be an "imagined" activist "community" which promotes a sense of shared solidarity that transcends local and national borders. Through their abrasive messages and boundary pushing performances, these queer Latino artists challenge and reject not only the dominant discourses of race, gender, and sexuality of their respective societies, but also those of the traditionally male-dominated heteronormative subcultures themselves, ignoring borders and building bridges.

Committee:

Pedro Porben, PhD (Advisor); Cynthia Ducar, PhD (Committee Member); Francisco Cabanillas, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Caribbean Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; Latin American Studies; Music; Performing Arts

Keywords:

popular culture; gender; sexuality; race; identity; music; punk rock; hip-hop; performance; transnational; US Latino; Cuba; cultura Kruda; graphic novel

Limbach, Holli E.Hugo F. Huber, 1869-1934 Interior Decorator Stan Hywet Manor, Akron, Ohio
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2010, Clothing, Textiles and Interiors
In the late-nineteenth century notable interior decorators gradually emerged to help make interior decoration a serious, individualized, and worthwhile discipline. This study traces H. F. Huber & Co., one of New York’s first American interior decorating firms to successfully design, execute, and install complete high-end commercial, hospitality, and residential interiors in close conjunction with the project architect. Despite significant commercial contracts Hugo F. Huber’s career was built on a range of residential work for wealthy clients, often German-American like Huber. Two residences, each with fine archival resources and well-preserved interiors, provided the author with great insight into Huber’s design philosophy, expertise, and work ethic. The Christian Heurich Mansion interiors (1892-1894), Washington, DC, provided an example of Huber’s immense talent during his early-career, and Stan Hywet Manor (1911-1917), Akron, Ohio, provided an example of Huber’s artistic genius during the peak of his career.

Committee:

Virginia Gunn, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Architecture; Art Education; Art History; Biographies; Design; Fine Arts; History; Interior Design; Museums

Keywords:

Hugo F. Huber; interior decorator; interiors, Stan Hywet; Akron, Ohio; history of interior decoration; history of interior design; F. A. Seiberling; Tudor Revival; Cuba; Washington, DC; German-American; H. F. Huber Co.

Faryar, Kiran AnnLiving in a Healthy World: A Comparison of the United States, Indian, and Cuban Health Care Systems
Bachelor of Science, Miami University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences - Zoology
Throughout the world, health care distribution, access, and quality are astonishingly uneven and poor. Both developing and developed countries struggle to meet the health care needs of their populations. In order better understand the global challenge of health care, this thesis seeks to describe and compare the health care systems of three very different countries, Cuba, India, and the United States. What lessons might each country draw from the other two in order to improve their own heath care systems, and what lessons, if any, might be applicable to other countries? The three case studies were chosen in large part due to their distinct approaches to health care management. The Cuban government, following the Revolution, took over all aspects of health care. They made health care a national priority. Their system has achieved successes domestically with emphasis on community-based, preventative medicine and personal health, as well as internationally through their medical diplomacy initiative. In India a division exists between the substandard government-funded facilities and the expensive privately-funded facilities. Demands from the emerging middle class for higher quality, lower cost health care services have spurred the development of a middle ground in health care facilities throughout India. The United States is recognized internationally for its complex, interconnected network of health services. Although criticisms often focus on this system's costliness and inefficiency, it excels in the field of medical education and continued physician training and collaboration. After each country's system is described, their individual successes will be highlighted as well as their failings. The conclusion subsequently presents the overall findings from the comparison and points to lessons that the three countries can draw from each other. The health care successes of Cuba, India, and the United States are instructive for the international community as it shifts its attention and resources to tackling health care issues.

Committee:

Melanie Ziegler (Advisor); Sheila Croucher (Committee Member); Barnali Gupta (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Political Science; Public Health

Keywords:

health care; international; Cuba; India; United States

Escondo, Kristina AAnti-Colonial Archipelagos: Expressions of Agency and Modernity in the Caribbean and the Philippines, 1880-1910
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Spanish and Portuguese
In the past decade, an impetus towards a more globalized field of Hispanic studies has emerged, critiquing the Peninsular/Latin America binary in academic departments and highlighting the need for significant studies of Hispanic Asian and African literatures. Various scholars have been contributing to this call, both in the study of Africa and in Asia, in order to move away from the centrality of the Spanish presence. My research is located in this emerging trend. This project highlights Filipino texts in order to continue building a transoceanic bridge to the Pacific by comparatively placing it alongside Cuban and Puerto Rican texts. This project carries out a transoceanic comparative study of Cuban, Puerto Rican and Filipino nationalist and revolution literatures written during the late nineteenth century, leading up to Spain’s loss of its final colonies in the Spanish-American War in 1898 and the first few years of U.S. neo-colonization. Using South Asian and Latin American Subaltern Studies as a point of departure, it addresses the gap in Iberian and Latin American studies that ignores the former Spanish colonies in the Pacific Ocean with a decolonial objective in mind. The works studied show the development of a new, regional and national consciousness and reveal the authors’ responses to modernization, highlighting the political, cultural, and social tensions of that time period aesthetically and socio-culturally. By employing a transoceanic approach of the Filipino propagandista movement and the Latin American modernista movement, I aim to disrupt coloniality’s focus on the Atlantic and allow for the emergence of decolonial thought that considers the inclusion of the formerly marginalized Pacific. Through an analysis of these parallel movements, my overall claim is that, by reading these texts through a transoceanic lens, we see not a mimicry of a European style, but rather an educated, elaborate response to the collapsing empire and to the international community. In the struggle for the active participation in the production of knowledge and power, justice, and the creation of a national identity, both Latin American and Filipino cultural and ideological production were carried out by autonomous agents that confronted, negotiated, and initiated their own responses to the colonizing and modernizing projects.

Committee:

Ileana Rodríguez (Advisor)

Subjects:

Asian Literature; Asian Studies; Caribbean Literature; Caribbean Studies; Language; Latin American History; Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Literature; Modern Language

Keywords:

Cuba; Puerto Rico; Philippines; Latin America; Caribbean; Transoceanic; Nationalism; Anti-Colonialism; Subaltern; Latin America and Asia

Martinez, ManuelA Place of Our Own: The Representation of Space in Te di la vida entera, La novela de mi vida, Animal Tropical & Dreaming in Cuban
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Arts and Sciences : Romance Languages and Literatures
The present study analyzes the representation of space in four contemporary Cuban novels (Te di la vida entera, La novela de mi vida, Animal Tropical, Dreaming in Cuban). For the purposes of this study, space is defined as a zone of political and cultural negotiation. This definition is based on the concepts set forth by Edward Soja in his book Thirdspace and Homi Bhabha in his book The Location of Culture. The study bases its textual analysis on the theoretical work of Fernando Ortíz, Antonio Benítez Rojo, and Gustavo Pérez Firmat. These theoreticians suggest that there is a particularly Cuban way of negotiating with Cuban and non-Cuban space. This study seeks to identify patterns of representation in the four novels and analyzes them. Patterns are analyzed in the representation of Havana, exile, and the use of nostalgia. This study also suggests a mechanism whereby one can identify degrees of representation as being either relatively closer or farther away from the model suggested by the three theorists.

Committee:

Luciano Picanço (Advisor); María Moreno (Other); Carlos Gutiérrez (Other)

Keywords:

Thirdspace; Ajiaco; Cuba; Havana; Habana; Espacio; Space; Cuban culture; Exile; Nostalgia

Lantzy, LeahLa influencia del sueño americano en la inmigración latina
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Spanish
The American dream can influence Latin Americans to immigrate to the United States. However serious complications arise in this pursuit of success. The development of the American dream is analyzed, as are the components that form the ideology surrounding it, including American exceptionalism and the direct exchange of hard work for success. The ideology also includes the notion that American society is highly fluid in terms of economic mobility, the equal opportunity to compete and the belief that success is a fundamental virtue. Three novels by Latin American authors, including ¡Macho! by Victor Villaseñor, Dreaming in Cuban by Cristina Garcia and Let it rain coffee by Angie Cruz illustrate the Mexican, Cuban and Dominican experiences in the pursuit of the American dream. The arrival of the dream and the goals for success are explored in the investigation’s analysis of the novels. The costs incurred in the search for success are considered for both the individuals and the involved societies; each protagonist’s success is also measured. The novels portray this pursuit as dangerous, degrading, unrealistic and unhealthy, and also conclude that it can lead to the development of a false, superficial identity in the U.S. The research and literature reveal that there is a low probability of scaling the economic ladder of the Unites States for both Latinos and other citizens, and convey and shows that an equal opportunity to compete does not exist for most Latin immigrants.

Committee:

Francisco Cabanillas, PhD (Advisor); Cynthia Ducar, PhD (Committee Member); Pedro Porben, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies

Keywords:

Latin immigration; American Dream; Mexico; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Bracero; migration; Victor Villase&241;or; Cristina Garcia; Angie Cruz; hispanic immigration; equal opportunity; mobility; minorities