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Depoy, Randy S.UHF-SAR and LIDAR Complementary Sensor Fusion for Unexploded Buried Munitions Detection
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2012, Electrical Engineering
Given the UHF bands properties of foliage and round penetration, a UHF-SAR image contains both above- and below-surface scatterers. The problem of detecting sub-surface objects is problematic due to the presence of above-surface scatterers in the detection images. In case of a single-pass anomaly image or a two-pass change image, the resulting anomalies or changes are due to scatterers above and below the surface, where the above surface anomalies/changes act as confusers. LIDAR digital elevation models (DEM) provide georegistered information about the above-surface objects present in the UHF-SAR scene. Detection of the above-surface objects in the LIDAR domain is used to rule out above-surface false-alarms in the UHF-SAR domain detection images. A complementary sensor fusion algorithm is implemented which exploits the limited ground penetrating capabilities of UHF-SAR and the false-alarm removal using LIDAR. For unitemporal and multitemporal UHF-SAR collections (both containing multiple-passes and multiple- polarizations) anomaly detection and change detection are implemented, respectively. In this thesis, various pixel-based and feature-based change detection algorithms are implemented to study the effectiveness of multitemporal change detection algorithms. In addition, incorporation of UHF-SAR multiple-passes and multiple-polarizations further improves detection results. The algorithms are tested using data collected under JIEDDOs Halite-1 program, which provides both UHF-SAR and LIDAR DEM.

Committee:

Arnab Shaw, PhD (Advisor); Lang Hong, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Rigling, PhD (Committee Member); Kefu Xue, PhD (Other); Andrew Hsu, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

IED; VOIED; detection; change detection; UHF-SAR; UHF; SAR; LIDAR; DEM;digital elevation maps; anomaly detection; AD;CD;false-alarm reduction;false-alarm;fusion;complementary;multiple-sensor;complementary fusion;far-field detection;far-field sensor

Akimana, ChristineStructural and Functional Analysis of Moraxella catarrhalis Adhesins MCAP and OMPCD
Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Sciences (Ph.D.), University of Toledo, 2007, College of Graduate Studies
Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is an important cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates and the prevalence of M. catarrhalis infections, it is desirable to develop a vaccine for this organism. Most efforts towards designing a vaccine against M. catarrhalis infections are directed at studying surface antigens, especially outer membrane proteins. Adhesins are good vaccine candidates because they are often conserved within the bacterial species, and may contain conserved surface exposed epitope(s). In addition, targeting adhesins may interfere with adherence to mucosal surfaces, thus preventing bacteria from establishing an infection. The purpose of this dissertation research was to study the adherence mechanism of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin protein (McaP) and the outer membrane protein CD (OMPCD), and to define their vaccine potential. Our first set of studies demonstrated that McaP is an autotransporter protein containing a passenger domain, aa 51-336, that mediates adherence to human lung cells. In addition, we demonstrated that antibodies against McaP significantly reduce adherence to A549 human lung cells; thus, McaP is an important M. catarrhalis adhesin. This study also demonstrated that McaP protein is well conserved among the 16 clinical isolates tested, and contains surface exposed epitopes, which are all characteristics of a vaccine antigen. Our second set of studies demonstrated that OMPCD contains two domains specifying adherence to A549 human lung cells using three complementary approaches: E. coli cells expressing truncated OMPCD proteins, direct binding of recombinant His-tagged OMPCD proteins, and OMPCD polypeptides expressed on the surface of E. coli through the McaP display system. These cell-binding domains were delineated to aa 16-150 and aa 261-300 of O35E-OMPCD protein. These domains may be used as vaccine antigens in future studies.

Committee:

Eric Lafontaine (Advisor)

Keywords:

outer membrane protein CD; MCAP; surface display system; vaccine antigens; Adhesin of Moraxella catarrhalis; cell-binding domain

Ghosh, ArijitDevelopment of pH-triggered, Self-assembling Peptide Amphiphiles as Tumor Targeting Imaging Vehicles.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Chemistry
The early detection of cancer is recognized by the American Cancer Society as the most effective way to improve survival outcomes, but can only be accomplished by developing diagnostic agents that can target smaller, earlier stage tumors. For example, a state-of-the-art cancer-specific imaging technique is 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET), which can locate tumors in vivo with a spatial resolution of ~1 cm. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has far greater tissue contrast resolution than PET and spatial resolution of <1 mm, but lacks an imaging agent that can target a cancer hallmark, glycolytic metabolism. Developing stimuli-responsive imaging pharmaceuticals that localize passively in vivo via one of cancer’s generic hallmarks rather than specific biomarkers can prove effective in developing an MRI agent that can specifically image cancer. One attractive hallmark target is the acidic extracellular microenvironment of tumor tissue (pHe 6.6-7.4) that arises due to the enhanced rate of glycolysis in cancer cells. Creating a material that is nano-sized in blood, but upon reaching the acidic extracellular tumor environment, transforms into a larger, more slowly diffusing object could serve as a novel mechanism for achieving high accumulation of imaging agents at the tumor site compared to the bloodstream. Work in this dissertation includes the design, synthesis and characterization of self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) MRI contrast agents that reversibly transform from spherical micelles into nanofibers (microns in length) when entering the acidic tumor vasculature. The PA molecules consist of four segments: a hydrophobic alkyl tail, a ß-sheet-forming peptide sequence, a charged amino acid sequence and a DO3A-Gd MRI moiety, where DO3A=1,4,7-tris (carboxymethylaza) cyclododecane-10-azaacetyl amide. The PAs were synthesized via the solid phase technique, purified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and characterized by mass spectrometry, analytical HPLC and peptide content analyses. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, critical aggregation concentration measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the transitions and create concentration-pH phase diagrams for selected PAs. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) was used to probe self assembly in blood serum. After extensive assessment of structure-property relationships in a series (>40) of rationally designed PAs, we developed the chemical insight for how this transitional pH can be systematically tuned with alkyl chain length, ß-sheet sequence, and number of charged residues. A ratio of one hydrophobic to three charged amino acids was necessary to enable this transition in the desired pH range. Finally, we successfully created a vehicle that transitions in blood serum at pH 7.0 using FA with 1.5% of the PA labeled with a Ru(bipy)3 2+ fluorophore. Surprisingly, albumin does not bind to these anionic PAs as it does to cationic and hydrophobic surfactants, but instead promotes nanofiber formation due to a molecular crowding effect. We also established that 150 mM NaCl, 2.2 mM CaCl2, and 1.8 mM of 20 kDa PEG replicates the ionic strength and crowding of pure serum. MRI relaxivity values of water protons in presence of the PA were found to be higher than that for a commercially available Magnevist control, providing a secondary mechanism for enhanced tumor detection.

Committee:

Joshua Goldberger (Advisor); Heather Allen (Committee Member); Dennis Bong (Committee Member); John Davidson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry

Keywords:

Peptide amphiphile; self-assembly; phase diagram; CD, fluorescence anisotropy; cancer imaging; MRI

Arunima, GhoshRole of CD36 in Platelet Function
Doctor of Philosophy in Regulatory Biology, Cleveland State University, 2007, College of Science
CD36 is a scavenger receptor expressed on a wide variety of cells including platelets. It recognizes multiple ligands, yet its function on platelets is incompletely characterized. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles (EMP) have been identified in diseases where platelet activation plays a pivotal role. Because EMP express phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surfaces, a CD36 ligand, we hypothesized that MP may bind to platelets via a PS-CD36 interaction. Human platelets were shown to bind EMP by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Binding was significantly inhibited by anti-CD36 antibody or using platelets from CD36 null donors. We observed a significant increase in the rate and extent of platelet activation and aggregation to low concentrations of ADP when preincubated with EMP. We thus propose a model where ligands such as EMPs, generated during an acute thrombotic event, could increase the thrombotic response in a CD36 dependent manner. We also showed that CD36 expression levels on platelets were highly variable and correlated well with platelet activation by oxidized LDL. Genotyping with 10 tagged SNPs revealed that the minor alleles of 3 SNPs were significantly associated with expression levels. These data suggest that the variability of CD36 expression on platelets is at least in part genetically determined and together this phenotype-genotype can affect platelet function.

Committee:

Roy Silverstein (Advisor)

Keywords:

CD 36; CD36-SNP's; platelets; microparticles; platelet activation; CSD36 on platelets

Liu, QuanMulti-band OFDM and p-Persistent CSMA/CD-based Indoor Power Line Communication (PLC) Systems
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Engineering : Electrical Engineering
In this thesis, we propose a novel multi-band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) indoor power line communication (PLC) system. The physical layer of the proposed system consists of multi-band OFDM, convolutional encoding, Viterbi decoding, and interleaver. A p-persistent Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) is adopted as the MAC layer protocol. A PLC channel model proposed by OPERA (Open PLC European Research Alliance) is considered. Taking account of the characteristics of the power line noises, an efficient Noise Detection and Multi-band Switch Scheme (DNDMS) is applied to dynamically choose among multiple OFDM bands. A multiple-point sliding DFT (SDFT) is employed in DNDMS. System performance is evaluated by extensive simulations and the results show that the proposed system can reach a low Bit Error Rate (BER) and high system throughput.

Committee:

Wen Ben Jone, PhD (Committee Chair); Qing An Zeng, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, C, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

PLC;Multi-band OFDM;dynamic noise detection;CSMA/CD

Handy, Andrea ReneeAcute Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Testing of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2007, Biological Sciences
The acute toxicity and immunotoxicity of JP-8 jet fuel on Chironomus tentans, Hyallela azteca, Lactuca sativa, Eisenia foetida, and Lumbricus terrestris was assessed using standard USEPA acute toxicity and static renewal toxicity tests. Three methods of spiking test soil with jet fuel were evaluated. In one method acetone was utilized as a carrier and the soil was dried in the fume hood; in another the soil was spiked directly with jet fuel and also was dried; and in the last the soil was spiked directly without drying. There was low survival in C. tentans in all treatments, including controls. There was significant mortality at 1500 ppm (AD soil) for H. azteca. Lettuce seed germination did not show any dose response. In contrast, there was a decreasing trend for lettuce root length in response to increasing JP-8 concentrations. We predicted lower mortality in worms exposed to soil treatments that were dried in the fume hood due to the loss of volatile toxic components. Nominal doses of jet fuel ranged from 0 ppm to 2000 ppm JP- 8. Mortality was assessed on day 14. Although mortality varied among three experiments, soil that was spiked directly and not dried showed the highest levels of mortality when compared to soil treatments that were dried. Doses from 0 ppm to 750 ppm had low to moderate mortality (0-25%), while doses from 1000 ppm to 2000 ppm had high mortality (30-100%) for the no carrier/no drying soil treatment. Both soil treatments that were dried generally showed low mortality (0-15%), with the exception of the acetone carrier soil treatment in experiment 1 (which showed moderate to high mortality) 30% at 1500 ppm and 85% at 2000 ppm. To test immunotoxicity, coelomocyte counts were performed for controls and survivors of the acute toxicity test. There was a decreasing trend in immune endpoints (total cells, % viability, and total viable cells) as the jet fuel doses increased for the no carrier/no drying soil treatment when survivors of the 1000 ppm - 2000 ppm dose ranges were available for testing in experiments 1 and 2. Overall, high doses (1000-2000 ppm) of JP-8 produced mortality and immunotoxicity in redworms.

Committee:

James Runkle (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, General

Keywords:

BAF = Bioaccumulation Factor; BaP = Benzo[a]Pyrene; BSAF = Biota-to-Soil Accumulation; CD = Cell Differentiation Markers; CMI = Cell-Mediated Immunity; DCC = Differential Cell Count; DCF = 2&8217;,7&8217; &8211; Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate

Nam, MinjungFranz Liszts Fantasy and Fugue on the chorale Ad nos, ad salutarem undam:
DMA, University of Cincinnati, 2013, College-Conservatory of Music: Organ
This study will provide a performance guide to Liszts large-scale organ work, Fantasy and Fugue on the chorale Ad nos, ad salutarem undam (1850). This piece is considered by many to be a work that initiates a new genre, creates a new form, and leads in a new direction for the organ, as it ventures out of the church and into the concert hall1. This nineteenth-century work exists within a context which saw a general secularization of organ music, changes in the instrument that could provide a more orchestral sound, and the emergence of a genre, the organ symphony, to exploit these developments. This guide will discuss these contexts and describe some of the unique characteristics of this work related to symphonic writing, such as instrumental recitative, form, influence from opera, use of the main theme, virtuosic elements, and pianistic devices. A major portion of the document will consist of suggestions for performance (registration, rubato, phrasing, articulation, breathing, dynamics, tempo), based on a detailed comparison of recordings of the work by four distinguished European organists.

Committee:

Roberta Gary, D.M.A. (Committee Chair); Michael Chertock, M.M. (Committee Member); John Deaver, D.M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Franz Liszt Fantasy and Fugue on the chorale Ad nos, ad saluta;A Performers Guide;Organ;CD comparison;Organist;

Li, SiquanPulsed electric field processing of functional foods
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Food Science and Nutrition
Pulsed electric field processing (PEF) is effective in inactivating the natural flora and significantly extending microbial stability of the bovine milk concentrate enriched soymilk. PEF treatment at higher electric field strength shows higher natural flora inactivation and results in higher microbial stability during a 30-day storage test at 4C. PEF treatment at 41.1kV/cm for 54microseconds inactivates 5.3 logs of natural flora population (p<0.01). PEF significantly inactivates E. coli 8739 cells (p<0.05). The inactivation effect increases with the increase of electric field strength and the number of pulses delivered to samples. The microbial inactivation effect of PEF is due to the high intensity of electric field strength. Thermal effect contributes minimal to the total inactivation of natural flora and E. coli 8739. PEF shows no significant influences on physical, chemical and biochemical properties of treated food samples. No significant changes in bovine IgG immunoactivity, secondary structures and soy isoflavone profiles were observed after PEF treatments at up to 41.1kV/cm for 91microseconds. The stability of the specific antigen-binding regions (against Salmonella enteritidis) shows parallel relationship with that of the whole intact IgG molecule upon PEF treatments. However, at same microbial inactivation dosage, thermal treatment results in significant loss in bovine IgG immunoactivity due to heat induced secondary structure changes. When treated at 82C for 120s, IgG secondary structures transit to random coils from beta-sheets. The changes in bovine IgG secondary structures accompany with loss of immunoactivity. The changes in secondary structures contribute significantly to the thermal loss of bovine IgG immunoactivity. The heat caused immunoactivity loss of bovine IgG is irreversible. 72C is defined as the critical temperature point for bovine IgG to change its secondary structures at neutral pH. Thermal treatment at 78C for 120s destroys malonyl glycosides of isoflavones due to the enhanced hydrolysis at high temperature. All the samples treated with PEF or heat were stable in bovine IgG immunoactivity. PEF treatments do not change the stability of bovine IgG against in vitro enzymatic digestion with pepsin and trypsin, compared to the thermally treated samples and the controls. Pulsed electric field processing (PEF) is effective in inactivating the natural flora and significantly extending microbial stability of the bovine milk concentrate enriched soymilk. PEF treatment at higher electric field strength shows higher natural flora inactivation and results in higher microbial stability during a 30-day storage test at 4C. PEF treatment at 41.1kV/cm for 54microseconds inactivates 5.3 logs of natural flora population (p<0.01). PEF significantly inactivates E. coli 8739 cells (p<0.05). The inactivation effect increases with the increase of electric field strength and the number of pulses delivered to samples. The microbial inactivation effect of PEF is due to the high intensity of electric field strength. Thermal effect contributes minimal to the total inactivation of natural flora and E. coli 8739. PEF shows no significant influences on physical, chemical and biochemical properties of treated food samples. No significant changes in bovine IgG immunoactivity, secondary structures and soy isoflavone profiles were observed after PEF treatments at up to 41.1kV/cm for 91microseconds. The stability of the specific antigen-binding regions (against Salmonella enteritidis) shows parallel relationship with that of the whole intact IgG molecule upon PEF treatments. However, at same microbial inactivation dosage, thermal treatment results in significant loss in bovine IgG immunoactivity due to heat induced secondary structure changes. When treated at 82C for 120s, IgG secondary structures transit to random coils from beta-sheets. The changes in bovine IgG secondary structures accompany with loss of immunoactivity. The changes in secondary structures contribute significantly to the thermal loss of bovine IgG immunoactivity. The heat caused immunoactivity loss of bovine IgG is irreversible. 72C is defined as the critical temperature point for bovine IgG to change its secondary structures at neutral pH. Thermal treatment at 78C for 120s destroys malonyl glycosides of isoflavones due to the enhanced hydrolysis at high temperature. All the samples treated with PEF or heat were stable in bovine IgG immunoactivity. PEF treatments do not change the stability of bovine IgG against in vitro enzymatic digestion with pepsin and trypsin, compared to the thermally treated samples and the controls.

Committee:

Siquan Zhang (Advisor)

Keywords:

PEF; functional foods; bovine immunoglobulin G; immunoactivity; specific antigen-binding activity; secondary structures; CD; ELISA; soy isoflavone; physical properties; microbial inactivation; in vitro enzymatic digestion

January, Mary CatherineHYDROPONIC PHYTOREMEDIATION OF Cd (III), Cr(III), Ni (II), As (V), AND Fe(II) BY HELIANTHUS ANNUUS
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2006, Civil Engineering
Heavy metal pollution is widespread and hazardous. Phytoremediation is a low cost and effective soil treatment option for metal reclamation. However, the effect of multiple metals and chemical amendments on the plants has not been studied critically. This research examined efficiency of Helianthus annuus, dwarf sunflowers, for the removal of multiple heavy metal contaminants. Sundance sunflowers were exposed to Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Fe in various combinations, as well as in the presence of EDTA. Another strain of H. annuus, Teddy Bear, were exposed to Cd, Cr, Ni and As to ascertain the difference in efficiency between cultivars. Other in-house data were used to determine if hydroponic studies could estimate phytoremediation efficiency in soils. A key finding was the ability of Sundance to achieve hyperaccumulator status for As in all studies and for Cd in all but two studies. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of 5 metals without EDTA. Although Cr was not hyperaccumulated, it did not prevent the hyperaccumulation of Cd and As. Few studies have been able to achieve hyperaccumulator status in the presence of multiple metals. Sundance showed a metal uptake preference of Cr > Cd > Ni, Cr > Cd > Ni > As and Fe >> As > Cd > Ni > Cr without EDTA and Cr > Cd > Ni, Fe >> As > Cd > Cr > Ni with EDTA. As uptake and translocation was not effected by other metals, but decreased Cd and Ni stem concentration. As and Cd compete for glutathoines which reduced their availability to both Cd and Ni. When Fe was present translocation improved. The effect of EDTA in the hydroponic environment hindered metal uptake. With Fe and As present, ETDA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.32 mg/g biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni decreased in the stems from 1.98 to 0.94 mg/g, total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased 84%. EDTA also decreased Cd translocation factors from 0.55 to 0.33 and Ni from 1.06 to 0.76. These results showed an overall negative effect with EDTA addition. It is unknown whether EDTA toxicity or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds occured.

Committee:

Teresa Cutright (Advisor)

Keywords:

phytoremediation; Helianthus annuus; As; arsenic; Cd; cadmium; Cr; chromium; Ni; nickel

Fende, JenniferThe Effects of an Educational CD-ROM on Expectations and Fears about Therapy
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Literature has consistently supported educating clients about therapy prior to their first session. A CD-ROM program was developed by incorporating general knowledge about therapy with re-enacted therapy sessions in an interactive format. Ninety undergraduates at a Midwestern school participated in this two-part study, and were asked to simulate the role of clients about to see a therapist for the first time. Block randomization was used to assign thirty participants to each of the three groups: the CD-ROM group, an information-only group, and a no-treatment control group. Results indicate that the CD-ROM decreased the amount of anxiety associated with therapy, and changed expectations about client roles and the process and outcome of therapy for the better when re-assessed two days after the intervention. Future research will focus on altering the CD-ROM so that it may encompass a greater number of expectations, and will aim to test these hypotheses with actual clients.

Committee:

Timothy Anderson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Expectations; Fears; Educational CD-ROM; Preparation; Role Induction; Analogue Study

Al-Mafrachi, Basheer Husham AliDetection of DDoS Attacks against the SDN Controller using Statistical Approaches
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2017, Computer Engineering
In traditional networks, switches and routers are very expensive, complex, and inflexible because forwarding and handling of packets are in the same device. However, Software Defined Networking (SDN) makes networks design more flexible, cheaper, and programmable because it separates the control plane from the data plane. SDN gives administrators of networks more flexibility to handle the whole network by using one device which is the controller. Unfortunately, SDN faces a lot of security problems that may severely affect the network operations if not properly addressed. Threat vectors may target main components of SDN such as the control plane, the data plane, and/or the application. Threats may also target the communication among these components. Among the threats that can cause significant damages include attacks on the control plane and communication between the controller and other networks components by exploiting the vulnerabilities in the controller or communication protocols. Controllers of SDN and their communications may be subjected to different types of attacks. DDoS attacks on the SDN controller can bring the network down. In this thesis, we have studied various form of DDoS attacks against the controller of SDN. We conducted a comparative study of a set of methods for detecting DDoS attacks on the SDN controller and identifying compromised switch interfaces. These methods are sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), count-based detection (CD), percentage-based detection (PD), and entropy-based detection (ED). We implemented the detection methods and evaluated the performance of the methods using publicly available DARPA datasets. Finally, we found that SPRT is the only one that has the highest accuracy and F score and detect almost all DDoS attacks without producing false positive and false negative.

Committee:

Bin Wang, Ph.D. (Advisor); Yong Pei, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mateen Rizki, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

SDN; Controller; DDoS attacks; SPRT; CD; PD; CUSUM; ED

Chandrasekar, SowmyaProbing Metal and Substrate Binding to Metallo-β-Lactamase ImiS from Aeromonas Sobria using Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Master of Science, Miami University, 2004, Chemistry
In an effort to probe metal and substrate binding to metallo-β-lactamase ImiS from Aeromonas sobria, five site-directed mutants were generated, over-expressed, and purified. The mutants were characterized by using metal analyses, CD spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and steady-state kinetics. With the N116H, R121H, and N116H/R121H metal binding mutants, CD spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of the mutants compared to wild-type enzyme. Analyses of the data suggest that Asn116 and Arg121 play a role in catalysis. Steady-state kinetics on the K224T and N233S substrate binding mutants showed for the first time that Lys224 may be involved in catalysis and that Asn223 plays no catalytic role in ImiS. The data on metal binding mutants demonstrate how inflexible the metal binding site is in ImiS and suggest that a putative H-bonding network in proteins containing a β-lactamase fold is important for metal binding and maintaining overall structure of the enzymes.

Committee:

Michael Crowder (Advisor)

Subjects:

Chemistry, Biochemistry

Keywords:

ImiS; Site directed mutagenesis; CD spectroscopy; fluorescence spectroscopy; steady-state kinetics

Spera, Shelley M.Metal and Pesticide Preservation in the Winous Point Marshes, Sandusky, Ohio
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2004, Geology
Cores from marshes along the southwest shore of Lake Erie were 210Pb age-dated and analyzed for heavy metal and pesticide pollutants. The North Marsh is directly affected by agricultural run-off, while the West Marsh has been diked since 1978. Since marshes can act as sinks for metal, pesticides, and suspended solids, the chemistries of the marshes were expected to differ. However, concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn did not differ. Metal accumulation within each marsh was different for every metal studied except Ni. This was also true for accumulation averages from background (pre-1978) and recent deposits (1979-1997), which indicate the diking of the West Marsh has had a significant impact on the metal accumulation. Previously used pesticides, which have been banned for many years, were also found in both marshes. However, pesticide concentrations are higher in the agriculturally impacted marsh.

Committee:

Alison Spongberg (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geochemistry; Geology

Keywords:

heavy metal concentrations; accumulation rates; heavy metals (including Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn); persistent pesticides (including DDT); Lake Erie; 210Pb age dating

SISTRUNK, ROSALIND SMITHTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATED CASE STUDIES ON CD-ROM FOR AUDIOLOGY STUDENTS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Allied Health Sciences : Communication Sciences and Disorders
Several health science disciplines have designed or used computer aided instructional (CAI) programs to address improved learning in their particular students. These programs focused on areas such as improving the presentation of a difficult subject, or helping students develop clinical and decision-making skills. Traditional instruction continues to be very important, however, lectures, textbooks, even clinical experiences often do not provide enough information or feedback to prepare students to be confident clinicians. With advances in technology such as faster computers, better imaging, and authoring software, computer programs can be developed to present materials in ways that are often not possible with the traditional methods of teaching. The purpose of this study was to create and field test Computer Simulated Testing (CST): Audiology, a CD-ROM demo of an interactive instructional program. The concept behind CST: Audiology was to take case studies that might be used to teach audiology students and to make them interactive. Traditionally, case studies are used to discuss the diagnostic and recommendation processes needed to assess persons with hearing impairments. CST: Audiology was designed to reinforce what is learned in the classroom by allowing the students to make their own diagnostic decisions and then to compare their results with the results from an actual case in an interactive CD-ROM format. After development, the CD-ROM was field tested by distributing it to 19 first year audiology graduate students from 3 different universities. The learning styles of the students who viewed the CD-ROM were assessed using the Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scales General Class Form. Upon completion of the CD-ROM the students also filled out a user survey about the computer program and finally, participated in an online focus group discussion. The results of the user survey and the focus group discussions revealed positive attitudes toward the computer program. The learning style scale suggested that the dominant learning styles of the students in this study were collaborative, participant, and dependent. According to Grasha (1996), teaching methods that incorporate case studies, simulations, and problem based tutorials should benefit students with the above mentioned learning styles.

Committee:

Dr. Laura Kretschmer (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Audiology

Keywords:

audiology; case studies; CD-ROM; computer aid instruction (CAI); higher education

Huffman, Celia A.Student Interactions With CD-ROM Storybooks: A Look At Potential Relationships Between Multiple Intelligence Strengths And Levels Of Interaction
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
This study looked at the potential relationship that may exist between students’ intelligence strengths, in particular their spatial and kinesthetic strengths, and their combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with a CD-ROM storybook. The multiple intelligence strengths of a sample of students, measured via the MIDAS/My Young Child (Shearer, 1994-2002) was correlated with their levels of interactions with the CD-ROM storybook as measured by the researcher’s adaptation of a rubric used by Labbo & Kuhn (2000). It was predicted that correlational analysis would show different measures of positive relationships between all intelligence strengths but a higher positive relationship between both the spatial intelligence strength and combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with the CD-ROM storybook and also between kinesthetic intelligence strength and combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with the CD-ROM storybook. Results appeared to demonstrate that it was the unique student intelligence profile as an entity, as opposed to particular and individual intelligence strengths, in relation to the content of the storybook that was more informative concerning potential relationships at work.

Committee:

Timothy Rasinski, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); William Kist, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Carolyn Brodie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Software; Educational Technology; Elementary Education; Instructional Design; Library Science; Literacy; Multimedia Communications; Pedagogy; Preschool Education; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Reading Instruction; Te

Keywords:

technology; literacy; CD-ROM storybooks; computers; transmedia; new literacies; multimedia; multiple intelligence theory; reader response; e-readers; e-storybooks

Pan, WenxiPart I. Studies on the total synthesis of halichondrin B Part II. Total synthesis of a CD-ring intermediate for isolaulimalide: Model study
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1993, Chemistry
Part I. Studies on the total synthesis of halichondrin B. Halichondrin B is a remarkably effective antitumor agent in vivo. A practical synthesis of an F-ring intermediate 91 for halichondrin B was accomplished starting from D-glucose. In the presence of HCl and methanol, glucose-derived 33 was rearranged to furan 32. Activation of alcohol 32 to phenylthiocarbonate derivative 40 followed by deoxygenation provided 39. The stereocenter at C17 (halichondrin numbering) of 32 was provided by C5 of D-glucose after inversion of the configuration, and C20 of 32 was from C2 of D-glucose. Activation of tosylate 32 to iodide 43 followed by treatment with lithio trimethylsilylacetonitrile gave nitrile 51, which was converted to ylide 62 via an imidazolide intermediate 63. Completion of the F-ring was achieved by conversion of acetal 39 to TBDMS ether 89 followed by Swern oxidation and subsequent treatment with Tebbe's reagent delivering methylenation product 91. In the synthesis of an ABCDEF-ring fragment, the use of Dowex-50 instead of H2SO4 increased the yield of acetonide 98. Preparation of p-methoxy benzyl ether 99 was improved by the use of a catalytic amount of NBu4I and conversion of di-p-methoxy benzyl e ther 100 to 99 with CAN. Synthesis of a JK-ring intermediate was explored with a model compound. Reaction of lactone 105 with lithio acetylide 106 followed by acylation gave an acyclic ketone 110. Compound 109 was protected with TBDMS followed by regio selective removal of TES using PPTS, and finally, oxidized to dione 117 using PCC. Part II. Total synthesis of a CD-ring intermediate for isolaulimalide: Model study. Isolaulimalide, an antitumor agent, was isolated from a sponge called Hyattella. Diol 130 is a degredation product of isolaulimalide. A model study for a practical synthesis of diol 130 was performed starting from D-glucose. Coupling of ylide 8 with aldehyde 67 afforded 131. Under photochemical conditions, compound 131 underwent both detosylation and debenzylation to deliver cis diol 145a, which was protected as dibenzoate 149. Alternatively, treatment of ethyl acetoacetate with propargyl zinc bromide gave alcohol 155. Protection of alcohol 155 with TESCl followed by cis addition of n-Bu3SnH to alkyne 36 delivered n-tributyl vinyltin product 162. Coupling of vinyltin compound with benzaldehyde followed by ring closure and elimination gave 163, a model compound for 130.

Committee:

Robert Salomon (Advisor)

Keywords:

studies total synthesis halichondrin B Total synthesis CD-ring intermediate isolaulimalide: Model study