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Bolzenius, Sandra M.The 1945 Black Wac Strike at Ft. Devens
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
In March 1945, a WAC (Women’s Army Corps) detachment of African Americans stationed at Ft. Devens, Massachusetts organized a strike action to protest discriminatory treatment in the Army. As a microcosm of military directives and black women’s assertions of their rights, the Ft. Devens strike provides a revealing context to explore connections between state policy and citizenship during World War II. This project investigates the manner in which state policies reflected and reinforced rigid distinctions between constructed categories of citizens, and it examines the attempts of African American women, who stood among the nation’s most marginalized persons, to assert their rights to full citizenship through military service. The purpose of this study is threefold: to investigate the Army’s determination to strictly segment its troops according to race and gender in addition to its customary rank divisions; to explore state policies during the war years from the vantage point of black women; and to recognize the agency, experiences, and resistance strategies of back women who enlisted in the WAC during its first years. The Ft. Devens incident showcases a little known, yet extraordinary event of the era that features the interaction between black enlisted women and the Army’s white elite in accordance with standard military protocol. This protocol demanded respect all who wore the uniform, albeit within a force segregated by gender, race, and rank. It is this conflict that gave rise to one of World War II’s most publicized courts-martial, the black Wac strike at Ft. Devens.

Committee:

Judy Wu (Advisor); Susan Hartmann (Committee Member); Tiyi Morris (Committee Member); Peter Mansoor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Black History; Black Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Military History; Military Studies; Public Policy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC; World War II; Fort Devens; strike; African American women; military; court- martial; intersectionality; culture of dissemblance; Fort Des Moines; Alice Young; Anna Morrison; Mary Green; Johnnie Murphy; WAAC; African American; public policy

Kosstrin, Hannah JoyHonest Bodies: Jewishness, Radicalism, and Modernism in Anna Sokolow's Choreography from 1927-1961
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Dance Studies

This dissertation investigates Jewishness, radicalism, and modernism, and the interplay and connections among these ideas, in selected dances by Anna Sokolow (1910-2000) between 1927-1961. As an American choreographer of Russian Jewish heritage known for her leftist leadership and socially conscious dances, whose early work was highly representational of working-class and Jewish identity, Sokolow could have been labeled as “ethnic” low art. Instead, she came to be embraced by influential mainstream dance critics, such as John Martin, Walter Terry, Louis Horst, and Doris Hering. I ask how Sokolow’s work came to be regarded as “modernist,” thus transcending racial and class markers to become “American” in the 1950s, and I analyze the change over time in how her work was regarded. I examine Sokolow’s work within the historical arc of 20th-century concert dance while using it as a point of departure for important discussions in 20th- and 21st-century dance, Jewish, and gender studies.

I show that all of Sokolow’s work—not solely those dances labeled Jewish by critics and historians—was informed by her heritage, and is, in effect, Jewish. I argue that Sokolow intended to respond to the political zeitgeist through her choreography; her Jewishness and her politics were contingent upon one another. Finally, I demonstrate how the development of Sokolow’s choreographic aesthetic and the change in the way U.S. critics reviewed her work in the 1930s-1960s, from being integral to the workers movement, to making dances with overtly Jewish themes during the Holocaust, to reflecting postwar alienation, to directly addressing the Holocaust’s atrocities during the Cold War, reflects the assimilation of her generation of Jews into American society.

I frame this study within discourses of radicalism, modernism, Jewishness, race, gender, representation and the body, identity politics, and performativity. I use these ideas as lenses through which to conduct a textual analysis of Sokolow’s dances through movement description and Laban Movement Analysis, and a consideration of the work within a wider cultural and historical context. Sources include photographs, film, live performances, Labanotation scores, critical reviews from the mainstream, leftist, and Jewish/Yiddish presses, in the United States, Mexico, and Israel, and dancers’ recollections, through interviews, of their experiences performing the work. Additional archival sources include correspondence, clippings, and performance programs. Sokolow’s actions in Mexico City and Israel fed the international Jewish and radical currents integral to her work and representation; as such, the geographical foci for this study are the U.S. (primarily New York and Boston), Mexico City, and Israel.

Implications of this study include fitting Sokolow, her work for social change, and her Jewish identity into the changing American socio-political landscape. The study not only illuminates an historical moment connecting social politics, American Judaism, and the arts, but it brings to light many aspects of Sokolow’s life and work that have yet to receive critical attention. Sokolow portrayed her political ideals, which were intertwined with her Jewish identity and modernist aesthetic, in her work that both reflected and reacted to the time in which she made it.

Committee:

Karen Eliot, PhD (Advisor); Candace Feck, PhD (Committee Member); Donna Guy, PhD (Committee Member); Sheila Marion, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Dance; Gender Studies; Holocaust Studies; Judaic Studies; Latin American History

Keywords:

Anna Sokolow; modern dance; Martha Graham; Jewishness; Jewish dance; modernism; Workers Dance League; New Dance League; Mexican modern dance; postrevolutionary Mexico; Holocaust; assimilation; "ethnic" dance; Cold War; Israeli modern dance; gender

Feiner, Christina AnnFifth Monarchist Constructions and Presentations of Gender in Print
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, History
This thesis argues that Fifth Monarchist ideas on gender were not easily categorized because of the active construction and negotiation of gender within their religious/political ideological framework and within Interregnum England. The study argues this through a series of cases studies of two male and two female Fifth Monarchists. This thesis contributes to the field with a gender analysis of the male Fifth Monarchists.

Committee:

Michael Graham (Advisor); Michael Levin (Advisor)

Subjects:

European History; Gender; History; Religious History

Keywords:

gender; print; Fifth Monarchist; Early Modern England; England; radical religion; Interregnum England; Mary Cary; Anna Trapnel; John Rogers; Christopher Feake; European History; history; religion

Cunningham, Connie K.ECHOES FROM HENDERSON HALL: THE HISTORY OF ONE PIONEER FAMILY SETTLING IN THE OHIO VALLEY
Masters in Education, Marietta College, 2006, Education
Every family has a history. It may be filled with heroism, patriotism, and fame, or it may be filled with treachery, violence, and shame. Regardless of the content, it is the legacy and heritage of the family’s descendents. This researcher has attempted to convey the story of one family whose pioneer ancestry began in old Virginia and extended into the beautiful river bottoms of the Ohio Valley. Entwined in the legacy of the Henderson family is their friendship with George Washington, disclosure of the treasonous plans of Aaron Burr and Harman Blennerhassett, and a court case over a runaway slave. From the House of Burgesses to the modern renovation of the train depot of Williamstown, West Virginia in 1998, this pioneer family’s legacy covers over 250 years of written and oral history that deserves to be heard, for it is a heritage that exceeds the boundaries of family. It is the heritage of a people, a region, a country, and a nation.

Committee:

William Bauer (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

HENDERSON FAMILY HISTORY; Anna; HENDERSON HALL; Rosalie

Fisher, Victor CIN DEFENSE OF “JUST IMMUNITIES”: ONTOLOGICAL RISK AND NATURAL COMMUNITY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, English
In seventeenth-century England, narratives of earthly perfection often intersected with the pursuit of social power. In response, resistant perspectives arose that challenged the notion of perfection as an achievable or even desirable national and personal condition. Using the work of biopolitical theorists Michel Foucault, Roberto Esposito, and Eric Santner, I track these resistant perspectives in the works of Anna Trapnel and John Milton. In their writing I reveal a significant anxiety surrounding the social immunization of civil power, as well as a vision for enriching the self and the community through exposure to ontological risk. I consider the continuing significance of these early modern authors and their perspectives on self-determination, community, and risk, and relate them to recent works in biopolitical theory.

Committee:

Katharine Gillespie, PhD (Committee Chair); James Bromley, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Hebard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

Seventeenth Century; England; English Literature; Biopolitics; John Milton; Foucault; Anna Trapnel; Eric Santner; Roberto Esposito; English Civil War

Middaugh, Karen Lee“The golden tree”: The court masques of Queen Anna of Denmark
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1994, English
Using the theory and methodology of French anthropologist Pierre Bourdieu, this dissertation analyzes the six court masques sponsored by Queen Anna of Denmark between 1604 and 1611. The masques are examined as political rituals through which the Queen attempted to define her actual and symbolic position at the Jacobean Court. Through the use of historical records, the Court is presented, not as a homogeneous group controlled by the autocratic power of the King, but as a highly fragmented and decentered field through which power constantly circulated in an exchange similar to that of the economic marketplace. In this heterogeneous environment, the court masque becomes a more understandable expression of Jacobean society's need for stability and class cohesion. The first chapter examines the historical behavior of queens consort, showing that the behaviors of Queen Anna parallel those of her class while responding to the specific conditions of her historical milieu. The chapter then argues for the court masque as an appropriate ritual expression of the Queen's needs. Each of the following four chapters examines one of the Queen's masques within its historical context. In each chapter, the discussion outlines the development of the Queen's personal symbolism as mediator and representative of the Jacobean state. The final cha pter shows how the Queen's own iconography became dependent upon and related to that of her son, the heir apparent Prince Henry, as he approached maturity. The conclusion then sets forth possible explanations for the Queen's abandonment of the masquing stage after her son's premature death at the age of eighteen

Committee:

Thomas Bishop (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature, English

Keywords:

Queen Anna of Denmark; court masques

Collins, Jennifer RebeccaEssential Functions: American Delsartism and Its Influence on Women’s Roles in Society
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Theatre
American Delsartism originated from the theory developed by French drama and music teacher Francois Delsarte (1811-1871) and was further developed by his pupil, Steele MacKaye (1842-1894). Delsarte began to construct a comprehensive system in 1839 by observing human gestures, expressions, and vocalizations. Delsarte’s emphasis was on the voice until he began to work with his only American pupil, Steele MacKaye, who introduced Delsarte’s system to the United States and revised it to emphasize gesture. From roughly 1880 through 1920, American Delsartism surged in popularity. The impact of Delsarte’s method of expression is undeniable within modern dance theory, yet American Delsartism also influenced acting theory, film, and literary recitation because Delsarte’s method involved the training of an actor’s voice and body. Moreover, American Delsartism influenced social life by creating opportunities for women to take ownership of their bodies and pursue positions of authority: women eventually became authority figures on Delsarte’s system. Chapter One explains the theoretical framework of the Delsarte system and provides a foundation for the remaining chapters. Chapter Two focuses on four plays by Steele MacKaye: Won at Last (1877); Hazel Kirke (1880); A Fool’s Errand (1881); and Paul Kauvar; Or, Anarchy (1887). Descriptions of significant gesture from these plays are juxtaposed with the illustrations and descriptions in two of Steele MacKaye’s unpublished notebooks. Chapter Three analyzes the transformation of the Delsarte system from an acting theory to a physical fitness program and discusses the formation of authoritative roles for women through an exploration of the work of Genevieve Stebbins, Emily Bishop, and Anna Morgan. Chapter Four investigates the application and implementation of the Delsarte system by Percy MacKaye and Hazel MacKaye and by prominent Delsartean-trained women who were involved in their productions. This dissertation posits that the use of gesture in American Delsartism created opportunities for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to resist and transform established gender roles and social structures. I argue that, through the implementation and modification of the Delsarte system, it evolved into several performance techniques that were acceptable to and embraced by the American public. Furthermore, the Delsarte system promoted health and wellness, propelled women into positions of authority, and created an atmosphere conducive to women’s corporeal autonomy.

Committee:

Nena Couch (Advisor); Shilarna Stokes (Committee Member); Lesley Ferris (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies

Keywords:

American Delsartism; Francois Delsarte; Delsarte system; Steele MacKaye; Genevieve Stebbins; Emily Bishop; Anna Morgan; Percy MacKaye; Hazel MacKaye; Gesture

Rewinski, Zachary D.Dostoevsky and Tolstoy's Oblique Responses to the Epidemic of Chernyshevskian Philosophy
BA, Oberlin College, 2010, Russian

This paper focuses on Fyodor Dostoevsky and Lev Tolstoy's subtle responses to the work and philosophy of the radical intelligent, literary critic and philosopher Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky. Dostoevsky and Tolstoy had deep qualms about Chernyshevsky's ideas and their consequences, both for the individual and Russian society at large. The goal of this paper is to describe these ideas and consequences as they appear in two of the most famous and important works of 19th century Russian and world literature, Dostoevsky's "Crime and Punishment" and Tolstoy's "Anna Karenina."

Discussion begins with exegesis of the radical utilitarian and utopian philosophy advocated by Chernyshevsky in his influential "What is to be Done?" and "The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy". Having discussed the main tenants of Chernyshevsky's philosophic system, the author continues to investigate the appearance of these ideas in "Crime and Punishment" and "Anna Karenina" through an analysis of primary and secondary characters in each novel. The polyphony of Dostoevsky's prose extends, the author claims, to issues of Chernyshevsky's philosophy and its influence on Russia, and characters of "Crime and Punishment," primarily Raskolnikov, Razumikhin and Luzhin, are analyzed through this lens. Karenin, Vronsky, Anna Karenina and Levin provide the primary focus for analysis of Tolstoy's "Anna Karenina."

As much as is possible, the author aspires to include biographical and philosophic detail about Dostoevsky and Tolstoy in order to remain close and true to the two authors' respective visions for and understandings of Russia. Dostoevsky and Tolstoy held views of human nature, Russia, and man's interactions with fellow man which drastically differed from those of Chernyshevsky and the radical intelligentsia. Dostoevsky and Tolstoy's hesitance to embrace Chernyshevsky's philosophy appears in their works, at times with great subtlety, and elucidation of the literary manifestations of their philosophic responses serves as the primary impetus for this paper.

Committee:

Thomas Newlin (Advisor); Arlene Forman (Committee Member); Heather Hogan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Russian History; Slavic Literature

Keywords:

Chernyshevsky; What is to be Done?; Dostoevsky; Crime and Punishment; Tolstoy; Anna Karenina; Russian radical intelligentsia

Renner-Fahey, OnaMythologies of poetic creation in twentieth-century Russian verse
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
In my dissertation, I address how four twentieth-century Russian poets grapple(d) with the mysteries of poetic inspiration and I propose what I consider to be their personal mythologies of the creative process. As none of these poets offers a comprehensive description of his/her personal mythology of poetic creation, my task has been to sift through the poets' poems and prose in order to uncover pertinent textual references to themes of inspiration. The four poet-subjects are Osip Mandelstam, Anna Akhmatova, Joseph Brodsky, and Olga Sedakova. Together they represent many of the factors contributing to the remarkable genius of twentieth-century Russian poetry. By looking at these four particular mythologies of poetic creation, we are able to view notions developed by both genders, within two faiths, in both capitals, and throughout the entirety of the century. It is significant that each of these poets has turned to prose to work out his/her ideas concerning the creative process. In reconstructing these mythologies of poetic creation, I have looked to the poets' entire oeuvres and the "single semantic system" working within each of them. My work aims to bring together poets' prose and poetry and to offer readings of texts that are guided by the poets' own concerns and beliefs.

Committee:

Angela Brintlinger (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature, Slavic and East European

Keywords:

Russian literature; Poetry; Twentieth century Russian literature; Russian poets; Osip Mandelstam; Anna Akhmatova; Joseph Brodsky; Olga Sedakova

Seamon, Mark Jeffrey1W (flexible casting): diversity and doubleness in Anna Deavere Smith's On the Road: A Search for American Character
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Theatre
This dissertation examines playwright and performer Anna Deavere Smith’s critically acclaimed series, On the Road: A Search for American Character. Focusing on the project’s thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth installments, Fires in the Mirror: Crown Heights, Brooklyn and Other Identities, Twilight, Los Angeles, 1992, and House Arrest: A Search for American Character In and Around the White House, Past and Present, respectively, this study demonstrates how diversity and doubleness serve as the foundation of Smith’s dramaturgical investigation into the relationship between language and character. Smith focuses on communities experiencing socio-political duress and persons whose voices have gone largely unheard within those communities. In collecting, editing, and performing verbatim excerpts from interviews with white, African American, Korean, Latino, and Jewish women and men, Smith’s interest in cultural diversity plays a crucial role in fulfilling the mission of On the Road: to make connections between the seemingly disconnected and spark productive discussion about matters of race. Characters in Smith’s dramas regularly reveal a sense of double consciousness, to quote W.E.B. Du Bois’s influential concept, grappling with their awareness of themselves as racial minorities and how their identities are viewed as “other” by the dominant culture. Furthermore, many events upon which the plays are based are shown to have double meanings and be open to a wide range of interpretation. The same holds true for the imperfect but poetic language employed by characters to describe these events. By presenting a panoply of voices and exploring events from multiple perspectives, Smith investigates how and why disagreements, tensions, failures to understand, and inabilities to communicate have plagued the diverse populations of Crown Heights, Los Angeles, and the United States. This dissertation also explores how Smith’s multiple identities as African American, woman, interviewer, playwright, and actor complicate her staged representations of character and are essential to reading her work in production. Finally, it examines the plays’ production histories and critical response, weighing the consequences of how critics did and did not take into account arguably the most important character of all in On the Road: Smith herself.

Committee:

Joy Reilly (Advisor)

Subjects:

Theater

Keywords:

Anna Deavere Smith; Female Playwrights; Theatre; Documentary Theatre; Solo Performance; American Identity; Diversity; Race; Crown Heights Riots; Los Angeles Riots

Li, WeijiaAnna Seghers´ China-Begegnung in ihrem Leben und ihren Werken
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Germanic Languages and Literatures

My dissertation examines Anna Seghers’s encounter with China and how this encounter influenced her life and her writing. By using materials available in the Anna-Seghers-Archive in Berlin, results of studies in various related disciplines such as sinology, history, and political science, etc., as well as historical and current Chinese sources, this dissertation seeks to reconstruct chronologically Anna Seghers’s intellectual involvement with China.

My research traces Seghers’ encounter with China back to her study of Chinese language and culture at the University of Heidelberg and her internship in the East Asian Art Museum in Cologne in the early 1920s. It illustrates that her early fascination with the cultural and political developments in China and her personal contact with several Chinese political refugees in Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s were essential for her intellectual involvement with China over the following 50 years.

As the first comprehensive study of its kind, this dissertation seeks to fill a void surrounding current research on Anna Seghers. The study will produce meaningful connections between Seghers’ intellectual pathways and literary activities as they intertwine with the writer’s encounter with another culture and nation. Findings from my research will inform future studies in contextualizing Seghers’ works within various cultural paradigms that played a role in the eventful career of the most prominent German woman writer of the twentieth century.

Committee:

Helen Fehervary (Advisor); Bernd Fischer (Committee Member); John Davidson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

German literature

Keywords:

Anna Seghers; China

Boney, Kristy RickardsMapping topographies in the anglo and German narratives of Joseph Conrad, Anna Seghers, James Joyce, and Uwe Johnson
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Germanic Languages and Literatures
While the “space” of modernism is traditionally associated with the metropolis, this approach leaves unaddressed a significant body of work that stresses non-urban settings. Rather than simply assuming these spaces to be the opposite of the modern city, my project rejects the empty term space and instead examines topographies, literally meaning the writing of place. Less an examination of passive settings, the study of topography in modernism explores the action of creating spaces—either real or fictional which intersect with a variety of cultural, social, historical, and often political reverberations. The combination of charged elements coalesce and form a strong visual, corporeal, and sensory-filled topography that becomes integral to understanding not only the text and its importance beyond literary studies. My study pairs four modernists—two writing in German and two in English: Joseph Conrad and Anna Seghers and James Joyce and Uwe Johnson. All writers, having experienced displacement through exile, used topographies in their narratives to illustrate not only their understanding of history and humanity, but they also wrote narratives which concerned a larger global culture. Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1900) and his Lord Jim (1904) compare to Seghers’ Transit (1944) and Revolt of the Fisherman from St. Barbara (1928) in that each explores crises of modernity. Instead of using the city, Conrad and Seghers utilize the sea, the harbor, and marginalized communities to illustrate thresholds of historical crises. The topographies echo a world affected by imperialism and particularly for Seghers, fascism. In my analysis of Joyce’s Ulysses (1921) and Johnson’s Anniversaries (1970-83), I steer away from a traditional examination of the classic modernist city narrative. I show how the texts provide a broader and more encompassing look of the modern world through the memory of imperialism and fascism as it is reflected from outside the city limits, most notably on the coasts of the Mediterranean and Baltic seas, and on the banks of the Hudson and Liffey. Merging a socio-historical approach with a close literary analysis, my project seeks to explore an uncharted subset of modernism, and map out poetic, durable, and visual contours for literary and cultural studies, sculpting new textures for understanding history, memory, and humanity.

Committee:

Helen Fehervary (Advisor)

Keywords:

Joseph Conrad; James Joyce; Anna Seghers; Uwe Johnson; Writers in Exile; Displacement; Topography; Space in Literature; Landscapes in Literature; Place in Literature; Modernism; Water in Modernism; The city in Modernism; Vietnam War