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Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group
Mills, Lisa Ann

2003, Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, Anthropology.
The Hopewell Earthworks (33RO27) near Chillicothe Ohio have inspired awe and curiosity since their discovery. The mounds have been the focus of numerous research projects which have posed the classic questions of archeology. Mortuary analysis and biological profiling have been the main tools used by researchers to examine the Hopewell skeletal material. With the invention of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), it has become possible to apply molecular biotechniques to archaeological questions. This dissertation focuses on the results of research which examines the following questions: 1. What are the phylogenetic relationships and affiliations between the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group mtDNA lineages to other ancient and contemporary North Native American mtDNA lineages ? 2. What information does mtDNA add to what is known biologically about the prehistoric groups of the Ohio River Valley ? 3. Is there evidence to support matrilineal descent among the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group ? 4. Is there segregation of individuals interred within the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group based upon mtDNA lineages; specifically within Mounds 2 and 25 ? Ancient mtDNA was extracted from the teeth of thirty-four individuals excavated by H.C. Shetrone and interred in Mounds 2,4,7,25 and 26, as well as those unable to be assigned to a mound. Both Phenol-Chloroform (Paabo 1993) and Yang Protocol C (1998) extraction methods were utilized to test for restriction site polymorphisms (RFLP) to distinguish the five maternal mtDNA haplogroups (A,B,C,D, and X) and sequence Hypervariable region I (HVI) from 16047 to 16429. Results have identified four of the possible five mtDNA haplotypes known to be involved in the initial peopling of the New World. HV I data from 50 modern and ancient Native American sample populations generated Neighbor Joinging trees allowing the placement of the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group sample in the context of existing modern mtDNA variation in North America and grouping them with individuals who share similar haplotype mutations. In a search of GENE BANK, the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group sample shares unique mutations with mtDNA lineages in China, Korea, Japan and Mongolia. Genetic analysis was also completed utilizing Arlequin to calculate, <pi>, theta and Tajima's D indicating that the Ohio Hopewell have polymorphic mtDNA lineages. The Hopewell Earthworks (33RO27) near Chillicothe Ohio, they have inspired awe and curiosity since their discovery. The mounds have been the focus of numerous research projects which have posed the classic questions of archeology. Mortuary analysis and biological profiling have been the main tools used by researchers to examine the Hopewell skeletal material. With the invention of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), it has become possible to apply molecular biotechniques to archaeological questions. This dissertation focuses on the results of research which examines the following questions: 1. What are the phylogenetic relationships and affiliations between the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group mtDNA lineages to other ancient and contemporary North Native American mtDNA lineages ? 2. What information does mtDNA add to what is known biologically about the prehistoric groups of the Ohio River Valley ? 3. Is there evidence to support matrilineal descent among the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group ? 4. Is there segregation of individuals interred within the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group based upon mtDNA lineages; specifically within Mounds 2 and 25 ? Ancient mtDNA was extracted from the teeth of thirty-four individuals excavated by H.C. Shetrone and interred in Mounds 2,4,7,25 and 26, as well as those unable to be assigned to a mound. Both Phenol-Chloroform (Paabo 1993) and Yang Protocol C (1998) extraction methods were utilized to test for restriction site polymorphisms (RFLP) to distinguish the five maternal mtDNA haplogroups (A,B,C,D, and X) and sequence Hypervariable region I (HVI) from 16047 to 16429. Results have identified four of the possible five mtDNA haplotypes known to be involved in the initial peopling of the New World. HV I data from 50 modern and ancient Native American sample populations generated Neighbor Joinging trees allowing the placement of the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group sample in the context of existing modern mtDNA variation in North America and grouping them with individuals who share similar haplotype mutations. In a search of GENE BANK, the Ohio Hopewell Mound Group sample shares unique mutations with mtDNA lineages in China, Korea, Japan and Mongolia. Genetic analysis was also completed utilizing Arlequin to calculate, <pi>, theta and Tajima's D indicating that the Ohio Hopewell have polymorphic mtDNA lineages.
Paul Sciulli (Advisor)
173 p.

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Mills, L. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

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Mills, Lisa. "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. Ohio State University, 2003. OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. 19 Nov 2018.

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Mills, Lisa "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the Ohio Hopewell of the Hopewell Mound Group." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. Ohio State University, 2003. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

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