Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships. The purpose of this correlational study was to identify factors that predict quality classroom technology use and inform educators about effective technology integration.
The researcher analyzed both Technology-Related (Risk-taking Behaviors and Comfort with Technology, Perceived Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom, Beliefs and Behaviors about Classroom Technology Use, Teacher Support for Technology Use, Teacher Technology Proficiency, and Technology-Related Professional Development) and Non-Technology-Related (Teacher Self-Efficacy, Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Professionalism: Hours Beyond Contract, and Teaching Professionalism: Years Teaching Experience) variables in regard to Teacher, Student, and Overall Technology Use. Five research questions were developed to investigate factors of quality classroom technology use.
This study relied primarily upon two frameworks to identify factors that predict and a method of measuring quality classroom technology use. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) is a conceptually-based theoretical framework for understanding the complex relationships between Technology, Pedagogy, and Content that pertain to classroom technology use. In addition, the study also utilized a framework, the Tiers of Technology Integration into the Classroom Indicators (TTICI), which was developed by the Washington State Technology Integration into the Curriculum Working Group (2005). The researcher applied the TTICI framework in order to generate technology integration scores, based upon levels (low, moderate, high) of quality classroom technology use.
Two online surveys were administered to 280 K-12 public school teachers in Northwest Ohio. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all five research questions and inferential statistics, including correlation and multiple regression, t-test of independent samples, and an ANOVA were calculated for research questions 3-5. The study revealed that Technology-Related factors generated better models in predicting technology use than Non-Technology-Related factors. The factors that best predict weighted technology use were: 1) Beliefs and Behaviors about Classroom Technology Use; 2) Technology Proficiency in Productivity Software, and 3) Perceived Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom. A few, culminating themes have emerged from the literature review and data analysis of the results. The study concludes that: 1) teachers, in general, are still not using technology effectively; 2) technology-related professional development is essential to promoting quality technology use; 3) measuring classroom technology use is a complex, multifaceted process; and 4) educators must become reflective practitioners in an effort to promote quality classroom technology use.