Search Results (1 - 25 of 33 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Bressler, NancyLying in Familial Relationships as Portrayed in Domestic Sitcoms Since the Recession: An Examination of Family Structure and Economic Class
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Media and Communication
Through the fusion of media/cultural studies scholarship, interpersonal communication research, and triangulated method, this dissertation draws connections between our social and cultural interpretation of the American family, the discursive possibilities of humorous mediated representations, and the influence and implications of lying on familial relationships. The concept of the American family is as much a social and cultural identity as gender, class, and ethnicity; yet its construction has been typically ignored by cultural studies research. This dissertation addresses that deficiency by examining representations of the American family on Disney-owned situation comedies. These representations are analyzed through past interpersonal research and typologies on lying to determine how the motivation for lying and the relationship between the liar and the recipient of the lie impacts the portrayal of family structure and class status. This dissertation considers to what extent the idyllic and deviant portrayals of the American family marginalize and symbolically annihilate any family conceptualization that is not a nuclear, middle-class family and consider how these media depictions (re)flect and (re)present the broader cultural shifts surrounding the meaning of the American family. Finally, this research concludes by considering how the lie factors into the narrative of the episode and the overall perception of the familial characters. Using a triangulated approach toward textual analysis, including content analysis and narrative analysis, this dissertation draws connections between quantitative and qualitative approaches to provide a more complex and holistic investigation of American situation comedies. Across the sample of 84 episodes, 589 lies were recorded, or an average of 7 lies per episode. The findings of this dissertation also uncover two additional categories that warrant further exploration: “self-serving lies” and “punishment by lying.” Another key finding observed that family members who lie to outside characters for financial gain are rewarded, while those who lie to develop or sustain a relationship were punished. Overall, the results concluded that when considering the motivations for lying and relational impact from lies told, family structure provided less of a distinction than class status. The findings further contribute to uncovering which family structures or class statuses are potentially idealized and which are marginalized.

Committee:

Lara Lengel, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ellen Berry, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ellen Gorsevski, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

American family; lying; domestic sitcom; family structure; economic class

Frampton, AnthonyCross-Border Film Production: The Neoliberal Recolonization of an Exotic Island by Hollywood Pirates
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Media and Communication
This qualitative study explores the relationship between Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Hollywood's cross-border film productions by examining the strategies that these islands use to facilitate the filming of big-budget foreign films within their borders. The dissertation also analyzes the inherent implications of transnational film production practices from the perspective of the host location and reviews extant theories of international film production to explore whether they adequately explain the peculiar dynamics and experiences of filmmaking in SIDS countries by heavily financed, non-resident film producers. The study blends relevant strands of political economy of media and critical cultural studies to construct a customized theoretical backbone. From this critical standpoint, it engages theories of globalization, development, cultural industries, post-colonialism, and policymaking to analyze the interaction between SIDS nations and international satellite film productions. Adopting a grounded theory methodological framework, it uses interviewees, focus groups, participant observation and document analysis to collect data from the island of Dominica in the Caribbean, which hosted two films in Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean franchise. The study found that these foreign film producers received unprecedented levels of concessions and amassed huge savings from their ability to manipulate governmental authorities and local elites and exploit the weak institutional capacity of the state and its poor systems of accountability. It also revealed the relative incapacity of the host location to extend the inherent benefits of accommodating these big-budget film products from temporary economic activities to more lasting and sustainable development projects.

Committee:

Oliver Boyd-Barrett, Dr. (Advisor); Federico Chalupa, Dr. (Committee Member); Ewart Skinner, Dr. (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Caribbean Studies; Cinematography; Communication; Cultural Resources Management; Ethnic Studies; Film Studies; International Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Relations; Latin American Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Multimedia Communications

Keywords:

Cross-border; film; Hollywood; SIDS; island; Caribbean; Dominica; international; production; filmmaking; producer; transnational; CARICOM; location; satellite; tourism; developing; states; colonialism; post-colonialism; imperialism

Flynn, Mark AllenThe Effects of Body Ideal Profile Pictures and Friends' Comments on Social Network Site Users' Body Image: A SIDE Model Approach
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Media and Communication

Although a substantial body of research has explored the effects of exposure to idealized images in traditional media on one's body image, there is relatively little systematic investigation of the body ideal on social network sites (SNSs). In an attempt to further body image research, this study sought to explore the effects of exposure to Facebook body ideal profile pictures and body ideal comments on users' body image. In addition, the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) was used to explore Facebook users' adherence to a body ideal norm, as well as the role of group identification in this process. The SIDE model has been widely used to investigate group communication in CMC contexts, yet had not been used in SNS research prior to this study.

To address this issue, a pre-test post-test 2 x 2 X 2 between-group web-based experimental design was used on a mock Facebook status page. The design was comprised of body ideal profile pictures (body ideal vs. no body), body ideal comments (pro-ideal vs. anti-ideal), and group identification (high vs. low). A total of 501 participants completed the web-based experiment and passed all manipulation checks. Participants viewed pictures and comments on the Facebook status page and were able to leave their own comment before moving on to the post-test instrument.

Results demonstrated no significant main effects for either profile pictures or comments on participants' body image. However, those with low predispositional body satisfaction displayed significantly lower body satisfaction after viewing body ideal images than those with relatively higher predispositional body satisfaction. In addition, participants' comments were overwhelmingly in line with the body ideal norm. But, in support of the SIDE model, the group norm did significantly affect participants' behavior. Those exposed to anti-ideal comments were almost three times more likely to make anti-ideal comments than those exposed to pro-ideal comments. In contrast to recent SIDE model research, group identification played no role in either participants' adherence to the norm or in the relationship between exposure to body ideal pictures and comments on participants' body image. It was speculated that the CMC context of SNSs may have played a role in the lack of significant effects of group identification. Altogether, the findings from this study demonstrated the importance of continued body image research in SNSs as well as the applicability of the SIDE model in this newer CMC context. In addition, the findings illuminated potential of further research on body image that is guided by the SIDE model. Finally, the successful implantation of a novel web-based experimental design shows promise for similar research in future communication inquiries.

Committee:

Sung-Yeon Park, PhD (Advisor); Gary Heba, PhD (Other); Srinivas Melkote, PhD (Committee Member); Gi Woong Yun, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Body image; body satisfaction; social network sites; Facebook; SIDE model; social identity; media effects; profile pictures; experiment

Holody, Kyle J.CONSTRUCTING THE END: FRAMING AND AGENDA-SETTING OF PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication
Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a controversial and important social issue, yet it is not well understood by the US public. This is problematic, for previous research shows public opinion for legalizing PAS has grown more approving in recent decades. News salience and positive portrayals of the issue in news coverage have also increased. Despite increased positive opinion and news discussion, however, few members of the public have a full understanding of PAS. The basic purpose of this study was to examine how PAS is presented in news coverage and understood by members of the public. Specifically, the study examined people’s opinions of PAS to discover if their personal characteristics and/or characteristics of PAS news coverage predicted those opinions. As such, the study examined agenda-setting and framing as they occur in (a) the news media, (b) the public, and (c) external sources. To achieve these objectives, the study was divided into two method phases. The first method phase was a content analysis of 43 press releases, 198 newspaper stories, and 38 news Web site and Weblog postings from June 2005 to June 2009 to determine their level of salience and frames for PAS. PAS was not especially salient in news coverage and press releases during the time of study, although there were peaks in time when the issue did become salient. Further, the media types studied here (press releases, newspapers, and news Web sites and Weblogs) each used the legal frame most often to describe PAS and there was no significant difference in the overall frames the media types used to discuss the issue. The second method phase was a survey of 452 faculty and staff members at Bowling Green State University (a response rate of 17.01%) regarding their salience, frames, and opinions for PAS. Respondents overall had a slightly positive opinion of PAS, and these opinions could be explained by respondents’ marital status (non-married respondents had more negative opinions than married respondents), race (non-White respondents had more negative opinions than White respondents), support for abortion (increased support for abortion predicted more positive opinions of PAS), health status (better health predicted more negative opinions of PAS), personal salience for PAS (increased salience predicted more positive opinions of PAS), personal interest in PAS as a news item (increase interest predicted more positive opinions of PAS), and personal frame for PAS (respondents who used a personal autonomy frame had more positive opinions than respondents who used any other personal frame). Further, respondents did not consider PAS to be especially personally salient, and overwhelmingly used a personal autonomy frame when considering the issue. This study is among very few in communication research to have examined, at once, agenda-setting and framing as they occur in the media, the public, and external sources. The results contradict previous research that has found media agenda-setting and media framing predict people’s opinions of social issues. Respondents’ opinions of PAS were predicted by their personal salience and personal frames, but not by the salience and frames utilized by the news sources they use to find information about PAS. In the case of a highly controversial, highly personal issue like PAS, it is possible people are less affected by the news media than they would be with more established social issues. It is also possible that low news attention to PAS minimizes the effects that could occur from exposure to news content. This study suggests that news media effects are contingent on audience members’ own personal qualities and experiences, and on the attention given to specific issues by the news media.

Committee:

Srinivas Melkote, PhD (Advisor); Michael Weber, PhD (Committee Member); Sung-Yeon Park, PhD (Committee Member); Gi Woong Yun, PhD (Committee Member); Alfred DeMaris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Mass Media

Keywords:

physician-assisted suicide; framing; agenda-setting; media effects; content analysis; survey

Oommen, DeepaAn Examination of the Implications of Intrinsic Religiousness and Social Identification with Religion on Intercultural Communication Apprehension and Conflict Communication in the Context of Cultural Adaptation
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Media and Communication
The study explored the influence of the strength of intrinsic religiousness and the strength of social identification with religion on intercultural communication apprehension, and the preference for various face concerns and conflict management styles. Specifically, the study looked at how the strength of intrinsic religiousness, the strength of social identification with religion, and the interaction between the strength of intrinsic religiousness and the strength of social identification with religion influenced stress levels during cultural adaptation and how stress levels in turn influenced intercultural communication apprehension, and the preference for face concerns and conflict management styles. Further, the study also tested the indirect effect of the strength of intrinsic religiousness, the strength of social identification with religion, and the interaction between the strength of intrinsic religiousness and the strength of social identification with religion on intercultural communication apprehension, and the preference for face concerns and conflict management styles by assessing the mediating impact of stress. The major focus of research in the area of intercultural communication has been to explore how religion, along with national origin and race, forms a cultural variable influencing intercultural communication and the adaptation process (e.g. Gordon, 1964; Hargreaves and Majoub, 1997; Y. Y. Kim, 1988). The study, while acknowledging that religion can have ethnic connotations associated with it, emphasizes the need to explore the implications of religion as an entity by itself. The increasing importance of religion as a factor influencing the course of events at the individual, national, and international level necessitates the adoption of such an approach. Two hundred and ninety respondents, consisting primarily of international students, study abroad students, and exchange students, were surveyed for the study. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The results of the study revealed that the strength of social identification with religion positively influenced stress levels, in the form of anxiety and depression, and stress levels positively influenced the level of intercultural communication apprehension; and stress, in the form of anxiety, indicated a greater preference for self-face concern as opposed to mutual-face concern. In addition, the study also found that the greater the stress level, the greater was the preference for the avoiding conflict style as opposed to the integrating conflict style. The test of mediation revealed that stress levels mediated the relationship between the strength of social identification with religion and the level of intercultural communication apprehension and the strength of social identification with religion and the preference for the avoiding conflict style. The main implication of the study is that the strength of social identification with religion is more influential in predicting communicative behaviors in the intercultural context in comparison to the intrinsic aspect of religiousness. In addition, the results of the study also imply that stress reduction is essential for engaging in effective intercultural communicative behaviors.

Committee:

Stephen Croucher, PhD (Advisor); Alfred DeMaris, PhD (Committee Member); Canchu Lin, PhD (Committee Member); Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Religion; Social Psychology

Keywords:

intrinsic religiousness; social identification with religion; stress; intercultural communication apprehension; face concerns; conflict styles

Black, Andrew CDTV Implementation: A Case Study of Angola, Indiana
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Media and Communication
On June 12, 2011, the United States changed broadcast standards from analog to digital. This case study looked at Angola, Indiana, a rural community in Steuben County. The community saw a loss of television coverage after the transition. This study examined the literature that surrounded the digital television transition from the different stakeholders. Using as a framework law in action theory, the case study analyzed governmental documents, congressional hearings, and interviews with residents and broadcast professionals. It concluded that there was a lack of coverage, there is an underserved population, and there is a growing trend of consumers dropping cable and satellite service in the Angola area.

Committee:

Sandra Faulkner (Advisor); Victoria Ekstrand (Committee Member); Jim Foust (Committee Member); Thomas Mascaro (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

digital television; Angola; Indiana; broadcast policy; law in action

Berg, Suzanne Valerie LoenKnowledge, Cultural Production, and Construction of the Law: An Ideographic Rhetorical Criticism of Copyright
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication
Copyright is in theory a neutral legal instrument, but in practice copyright functions as an ideological tool. The value of creative content in culture vacillates between the rhetorical poles of progress and profit within copyright law. This study is an ideographic rhetorical critique of copyright. Ideographs are rhetorical containers of ideology that publics use to define various aspects of culture. Some ideographs are contained within the dialogue of a topic. I argue five terms that make up the ideographic grammar of copyright: public domain, fair use, authorship, ownership, and piracy. The public domain is the space where copyrighted material enters when the term of protection expires. The public domain expresses the ideology that creative material belongs to the people who consume content. Fair use is the free speech exception to copyright law that allows for certain types of infringement. Fair Use is the ideology in which the use of creative work belonging to others must be fairly represented. Authorship is how an author creates content and how an audience consumes it. Authorship is an ideology focused on progress towards the process of creating content as motivated by an author. The question at the center of authorship is who controls content: the author or the public. Ownership takes the question of authorship one-step further by invoking material property. Ownership is the embodiment of the idea that management, control, and profit of copyright are more valuable than original creation. The Corporate Public is focused on ownership of content, because ownership is a legal condition of property where a person or group can profit. Piracy, which appears most often in any discussion of copyright law, is an intentional theft of copyrighted work(s). Piracy is a battleground between content theft and the people who publicly resist copyright.

Committee:

Michael Butterworth, Ph.D (Advisor); Victoria Ekstrand, Ph.D (Committee Member); Joshua Atkinson, Ph.D (Committee Member); Kristen Rudisill, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Law; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Rhetoric; copyright; ideology; ideograph; public sphere; intellectual property; piracy; authorship; ownership; fair use; public domain; constitutive rhetoric; material rhetoric; media; corporations; law; legal; legislative; supreme court; critical;

Rowe-Cernevicius, BrittanyAs Seen on TV: Brand Placement and Its Influence on the Identity of Emerging Adults
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication

Advertisers’ use of hybrid messages and branded entertainment continues to increase in response to technologies such as the digital video recorder (DVR) and the TiVo which allow audiences to zip past commercial messages. The purpose of this study is to examine how exposure to one type of hybrid message—brand placement—may impact consumers’ identity formation. Three research questions and two hypotheses were proposed in order to gain a better understanding about the role that brand placement in television programming may play in identity formation among 18-25 year-olds, a population known as Emerging Adults. This particular population was selected because during these formative years, emerging adults are shedding their adolescent identities and beginning to develop new ones as they become contributing members of adult society.

The undergraduate student population at a small, Eastern college received a survey containing Russell, Norman, and Heckler’s (2004) Connectedness Scale in order to find individuals who were most likely to be affected by incidents of brand placement in television programs. Those who scored highest on the Connectedness Scale and who indicated they would be willing to participate in follow-up interviews provided the majority of the data analyzed for this project. In order to obtain a contrasting view, those who were least likely to be affected by incidents of brand placement (participants who scored lowest on the Connectedness Scale) were also recruited for follow-up interviews.

The analysis of survey results and interview transcripts indicates that those who are highly connected to a particular television show can have their identity influenced by instances of brand placement. Purchasing objects associated with their favorite shows, incorporating fashion and personal style brands into their wardrobes, and using products that are placed within the shows, enable emerging adults enact and shape their emerging identities.

Committee:

Terry Rentner (Committee Chair); Oliver Boyd-Barrett (Committee Chair); Lara Martin Lengel (Committee Chair); Susan Schultz Kleine (Committee Chair); Jude Edminster (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Communication; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Brand Placement; Identity Formation

Hillman, Cory AnthonyThe Sports Mall of America: Sports and the Rhetorical Construction of the Citizen-Consumer
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Media and Communication
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate from a rhetorical perspective how contemporary sports both reflect and influence a preferred definition of democracy that has been narrowly conflated with consumption in the cultural imaginary. I argue that the relationship between fans and sports has become mediated by rituals of consumption in order to affirm a particular identity, similar to the ways that citizenship in America has become defined by one’s ability to consume under conditions of neoliberal capitalism. In this study, I examine how new sports stadiums are architecturally designed to attract upper income fans through the mobilization of spectacle and surveillance-based strategies such as Fan Code of Conducts. I also investigate the “sports gaming culture” that addresses advertising in sports video games and fantasy sports participation that both reinforce the burgeoning commercialism of sports while normalizing capitalism’s worldview. I also explore the area of licensed merchandise which is often used to seduce fans into consuming the sports brand by speaking the terms of consumer capitalism often naturalized in fan’s expectations in their engagement with sports. Finally, I address potential strategies of resistance that rely on a reassessment of the value of sports in American culture, predicated upon restoring citizens’ faith in public institutions that would simultaneously reclaim control of the sporting landscape from commercial entities exploiting them for profit.

Committee:

Michael Butterworth, PhD (Advisor); David Tobar, PhD (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati, PhD (Committee Member); Joshua Atkinson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Xu, YingUnderstanding Local Facebook Yard Sales Communities: The Relationship Between Trust, Facebook Use, and Sense of Community
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Media and Communication
The growth of local yard sale groups on Facebook is a new trend spreading throughout the country. The core research question of this current study is to understand local yard sales in the context of Facebook. Based on prior literature, this study explores how sense of community, Facebook usage, security features of the group affect the trust, as well as the stickiness and purchase intentions of members. A model based on these factors was empirically tested through employing an online survey. Using the data collected from eight local Facebook yard sale communities, this study investigated the role of information-based trust, experience-based trust, institution-based trust, and identification-based trust in these communities. The significant relationships between these different kinds of trust and members’ stickiness and their purchase intentions in targeted communities have also been partially supported. In conclusion, Facebook use and perceived attributes of communities can generally positively predict trust in the Facebook yard sale communities. Furthermore, sense of community is also confirmed as a significant predictor to information-based trust, institution-based trust, and identification-based trust. Even though it cannot predict members’ stickiness and purchase intentions in local Facebook yard sale communities, the significant correlations between them were confirmed. With respect to trust as an independent variable, it can significantly predict participants’ purchase intentions. Suggestions were made for further development and flourishing of Facebook yard sale communities.

Committee:

Louisa Ha (Advisor); Michael Horning (Committee Member); Gi Yun, Woong (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Community; Communication; Information Technology; Marketing; Mass Media

Keywords:

Facebook yard sales communities; trust; sense of community

Widmer, AnastasiaRelational Communication about Religious Differences among In- Laws: A Case Study about the Quality and Health of In-Law Relationships in Orthodox Christian Families
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication
This dissertation explores relational communication of in-laws in multi-religious families of American Orthodox Christians and represents an interpretive analysis of collected personal narratives. These narratives describe American Orthodox Christian identity in in-law relationships that is directly tied to ethnic identity. Thus, the presented research is built on the findings about multi-religious and multiethnic family relationships in the fields of relational communication, family therapy, and religious studies. I argue that religion and ethnicity are fundamental bases for the formation of family identity and family culture. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on how religious differences impact the relational health and quality of communication among the in- laws. The theoretical framework of the study is Relational Dialectic Theory; I focus on its two major premises: (1) relationships are products of cultures in which they develop and (2) the broader cultures offer a variety of meanings that we attach to our relationships, many of them are oppositional to each other. To explain relational dialectics in in-law relationships, I used the concept family culture and adopted the critical perspective on acculturation. I argue that there exists a natural connection between acculturation and relational dialectical tensions: people find themselves in constant push towards and pull away from a non-native family culture. (For example, identified in my research dialectical tensions of integration – separation, closedness – openness, which constitute discursive oppositions of wanting to preserve old family culture – wanting to develop independent new family culture and stigmatized – iii iv stigmatizing Orthodox identity, provide support for my argument.) The combination of these theoretical frameworks allowed me to offer another perspective on existing research of in-law relationships. Particularly, I provide a critique to Morr Serewicz’ in- law love triangle and argue that it is an amorphous structure in which the composition of its relationships perpetually changes in the relational contexts defined by constantly fluctuating dialectical tensions. In addition, this dissertation focuses on the intersections of religious, ethnic, and gender identities in in-law relationships. The attention to these intersections helped to reveal that the meanings participants attach to their faith are influenced by the larger political discourses about ethnicity, faith, and gender.

Committee:

Sandra Faulkner, Dr. (Advisor); Judy Adams, Dr. (Committee Member); Lynda Dixon, Dr. (Committee Member); Laura Martin Lengel, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Relational Dialectic Theory; Relational Communication; Family-in-law; Orthodox identity; Religion

Ma, LuyueA Comparative Analysis of Weibo and Xinhua in Framing Chinese Civic Engagement
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication
This study employs a comparative framing analysis approach to examine how the popular Chinese social media Weibo and government-run news website Xinhuanet cover three Chinese civic events: the Guo Meimei Event (2011), the Wenzhou Train Crash Event (2011), and the Kindergarten Abuse Event (2012). The findings indicate that Xinhua is more likely to use individualized frames to cover civic issues in order to justify the government actions as well as maintain social stability and government legitimacy. Weibo, on the other hand, is more likely to employ societal or political frames to cover civic events. The discourse on Weibo diverges independently from the traditional media and is more civic oriented. This study concludes that Weibo can be regarded as a potentially better civic media despite inadequacies, including the spreading of rumors, lack of in-depth conversations, and even future restrictions from the government.

Committee:

Thomas Mascaro, PhD (Committee Chair); Sung-Yeon Park, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Horning, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism

Keywords:

Civic engagement; framing; Weibo; Xinhua; China

Henize, Sarah EBreast Cancer in the Media: Agenda-Setting and Framing Effects of Prevalent Messages on College-Aged Women
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication
This study investigated the potential effects of breast cancer media messages on young women, a population that has the potential to make lifestyle changes early enough to prevent the disease. Based on framing and agenda-setting theories, a web survey focused on the relationships between the characteristics of prevalent breast cancer media messages and respondents' levels of breast health knowledge, breast health behaviors, and the direct behavioral impact of such messages (i.e. to take specific breast health protective actions). The agenda-setting statistical analysis revealed that college-aged women are most likely to have encountered prevalent breast cancer messages on social networking sites or television advertisements within the last one to six months. The most frequently perceived purposes of such messages are fundraising or to create awareness. Those who believe the main point of their most memorable message is to fundraise are significantly less behaviorally impacted by it than those whose message attempts to create awareness. The framing statistical analysis revealed that loss-framed messages have a significantly higher behavioral impact on participants and are more associated with detective breast health behaviors than gain-framed ones. Prevalent messages are more likely to employ anecdotal than statistical evidence to support their main points, although statistical evidence is associated with a higher behavioral impact. Finally, nearly 75 percent of participants have made a "pink" purchase within the past year, while just a third made plain monetary donations or volunteered at breast cancer events in the same time frame. In total, these results confirm that breast cancer is high on the health agenda of college-aged women, that the format of prevalent breast cancer messages does make a difference in the potential impact they may make, and that the most prominent quality of breast cancer to this group of women is its commerciality. These results expand both agenda-setting and framing theories to better understand the differential effects of messages and images in a health advertising context. Based on such findings, practitioners should encourage the sponsors of prevalent breast cancer media messages to alter their content for the good of society. In future, scholars must continue to study how key aspects of prevalent media messages may be altered to reduce the incidence of breast cancer and other preventable diseases.

Committee:

Terry Rentner (Advisor); Louisa Ha (Committee Member); Sandra Faulkner (Committee Member); Cynthia Ducar (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Public Health; Womens Studies

Keywords:

breast cancer; agenda-setting; framing; cause-related marketing; survey; young women; college-aged women; media effects; health communication

Anarbaeva, Samara MamatovnaYOUTUBING DIFFERENCE: PERFORMING IDENTITY IN ONLINE DO-IT-YOURSELF COMMUNITIES
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication
This study examines women’s performance of gender, ethnicity, and race in a “How-to & Style” YouTube community. Studying visual communities like YouTube helps us understand culturally constituted discourses as well as meaning-making practices of everyday life. Today, users actively participate and create content online, such as blogs and YouTube videos. Through textual and visual analysis, I examine a specific community of women who participate in the Beauty tips section under “How-to & Style” category on YouTube. I look at these women’s YouTube profiles, videos, and comments from their subscribers in order to reveal a deeper sense of what meaning users derive through creating videos on YouTube. I ask the following question: How do women in the YouTube Beauty community perform their identity (gender, ethnicity, and race) and ‘difference’ in their videos? In order to textually and visually analyze YouTube, I look at YouTube videos produced by a community of ordinary women. After analyzing the videos and the dialogues, three themes have emerged in this project: a sense of belonging and connectedness, identity performance at the interface, and globalized fashion cultures. Underrepresented women go to YouTube to relate to others who are like them, which gives them a sense of belonging and connects them to millions of others who are craving the same connection. Through video blogs, these women perform their gender, race, and ethnicity. Finally, through creating fashion and makeup tutorials according to their different facial features and differences, I see the formation of a globalized fashion culture.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala (Advisor); Lynda Dixon (Committee Member); Lara Lengel (Committee Member); Mark Earley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

gender; race; ethnicity; women online; videos; YouTube; cyberspace; textual analysis; visual analysis; do-it-yourself

Watkins, Sean EdwardTorture Survivor Advocacy Nonprofits and Representation on the Internet: The Case of Freedom From Torture
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication
This dissertation primarily examines the ways in which images and videos of tortured bodies are used in a neo-liberal socio-economic system. In this dissertation, I examine how the bodies of torture survivors have been used in order to market anti-torture nonprofit websites. In an economically harsh time period, nonprofits are forced (and sometimes encouraged) to act more like corporations. Therefore, their "products" must be advertised similarly to the marketing of corporations in order to gain financial support. In the dissertation, I mainly focus on two nonprofits that are situated in the United States and two in the United Kingdom. I use Freedom from Torture's website as a base template from which I use to compare and contrast the other sites. Of the four, Freedom from Torture has one of the most affectively powerful websites. Because their website has changed so much over the period of this dissertation, I am able to create a roadmap of their development to help categorize the other websites. I argue that Freedom from Torture creates a diversity of images that are sometimes problematic, but include many images that break the concept of survivor as only victim. Freedom from Torture's website helps to empower the survivor. Through my observations of their website, I create the Anti-Torture Nonprofit Development Model in order to better understand the representation of clients on these sites. The model consists of three stages that describe how these organizations represent survivors of torture. I argue that all anti-torture nonprofit websites should strive for the third stage of development where the voice of survivors is central. I use this model to examine Freedom from Torture, Redress, Program for Victims of Torture and Torture Abolition and Survivor Support Coalition International. I believe that this model will be useful to anti-torture websites and other nonprofits that are interesting in empowering their clients through positive representations.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala (Advisor); Tori Ekstrand (Committee Member); Oliver Boyd-Barrett (Committee Member); Phil Stinson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Torture; Torture Survivors; Nonprofits; Images; Freedom From Torture; Redress; Program for Torture Victims; Torture Abolition and Survivor Support Coalition International; Implied Torture;

Cruea, Mark DouglasThe Virtual Hand: Exploring the Societal Effects of Video Game Industry Business Models
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication
The purpose of this study was threefold. The first goal was to investigate the evolution of business models within the video game industry with a specific focus on the console segment within the United States and including Microsoft, Nintendo, and Sony as the three largest console manufacturers. The second goal was to examine the connections between these business models and practices of planned obsolescence. The third goal was to determine the connections between the business models in use and any associated externalities. Externalities of particular interest included effects related to violence, gender, race, military connections, and the environment. Political economy served as both theory and method. Results showed that past business models have heavily relied on a cycle of production and consumption that contributes to a culture of overconsumption and regularly produces and reproduces both positive and negative externalities that are not accounted for as a cost of doing business despite the effects borne by society.

Committee:

Oliver Boyd-Barrett, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Radhika Gajjala, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sung-Yeon Park, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Savilla Banister, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Mass Media

Keywords:

video games; political economy; externalities; planned obsolescence; overconsumption; race; gender; violence; environment; military; Microsoft; Sony; Nintendo; business models

Chen, LanmingThe Effect of Acculturation on Chinese International Students’ Usage of Facebook and Renren
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Media and Communication

Drawing from the theoretical framework of uses and gratifications theory, this project explored the ways that acculturation affects Chinese international college students’ usage of two social networking sites, Facebook and Renren. An online survey was conducted to gather data about Chinese international students’ acculturation levels and their usage of and gratifications for Facebook (N = 144) and Renren (N = 106). Pearson correlations and bootstrapping analyses were performed.

Results showed that the adaptation to American culture was positively related to participants’ gratifications for and usage of Facebook. Moreover, gratifications mediated the relationship between acculturation and Facebook usage. Similarly, participants’ identification with Chinese culture was positively associated with their gratifications for Renren. However, acculturation was not found to be correlated with Renren usage. These findings have several implications for uses and gratifications theory, the bidimensional model of acculturation, and ethnic media use studies. In addition, this study provides suggestions for acculturative stress coping programs and marketers’ use of social networking sites.

Committee:

Lisa Hanasono, PhD (Committee Chair); Katherine Bradshaw, PhD (Committee Member); Louisa Ha, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

acculturation; SNS usage; Facebook; Renren; Chinese international students

Meier, Matthew R.Laughing at American Democracy: Citizenship and the Rhetoric of Stand-Up Satire
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Media and Communication
With the increasing popularity of satirical television programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report, it is evident that satirical rhetoric has unique and significant influence on contemporary American culture. The appeal of satirical rhetoric, however, is not new to the American experience, but its preferred rhetorical form has changed over time. In this dissertation, I turn to the development of stand-up comedy in America as an example of an historical iteration of popular satire in order to better understand how the rhetoric of satire manifests in American culture and how such a rhetoric can affect the democratic nature of that culture. The contemporary form of stand-up comedy is, historically speaking, a relatively new phenomenon. Emerging from the post-war context of the late 1950s, the form established itself as an enduring force in American culture in part because it married the public’s desire for entertaining oratory and political satire. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a generation of standup comedians including Mort Sahl, Lenny Bruce, and Dick Gregory laid the foundation for contemporary stand-up comedy by satirizing politics, racism, and social taboos. The of generation of performers that followed in their wake, notably Richard Pryor and George Carlin, would further refine the form and reinforce the significance of its capacity to provide an outlet for satirical rhetoric. Drawing on examples from their satirical stand-up, I argue that the rhetorical nature of the form and its ability to serve as a vehicle for political satire provides what Kenneth Burke would call “equipment” for citizenship in a democratic society. Organized as a generic exploration of satirical stand-up comedy and an historical treatment of satirical rhetoric in American culture, this project demonstrates how satire and stand-up comedy offer alternative avenues of political expression and equipment for democratic citizenship.

Committee:

Gorsevski Ellen, Ph.D. (Advisor); Butterworth Michael , Ph.D. (Advisor); González Alberto, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Begum Khani, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Rhetoric; Democracy; Satire; Stand-up Comedy; Humor; Citizenship; Comedy; Mort Sahl; Lenny Bruce; Dick Gregory; George Carlin; Richard Pryor

Barhite, Brandi M.LIVING THE NEWS: LEARNING COMMUNITIES AND THE BG NEWS AS AN APPROACH TO ADDRESS JOURNALISM EDUCATION GOALS
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication
Numerous studies have demonstrated the value of learning communities on campus to higher education because students who participate in them are more likely to be engaged in their field of interest, more likely to attend workshops, and more likely to develop relationships with faculty who become mentors. Similarly, anecdotal evidence suggests that working for a student newspaper can have a lasting value for students' personal and professional development. But while learning communities usually involve students in a common major like theater or an interest like service learning, involvement in the student newspaper on many campuses has no connection to a particular major or department. This is true at Bowling Green State University, where students of any major may begin at The BG News whenever they want and quit whenever they want. In keeping with national accrediting expectations, the BGSU Department of Journalism and Public Relations has eleven learning outcomes for its majors, many of which are furthered when students work at The BG News. This thesis explores how a learning community connected both with The BG News and the journalism department might benefit students, meet the needs of the changing student newspaper landscape and assist the department in preparing majors for professional media careers. A review of the literature provided a list of the academic and social outcomes that scholars have identified as the result of student participation in learning communities. Those results were then matched against the particular journalism objectives to determine whether there was any correlation. The analysis suggests there might be a benefit for both department and students. First, students in a learning community are surrounded by peers with similar interests and faculty who can help at almost any time. Secondly, when students live or meet on a regular basis, they become more engaged. Finally, a community creates a closeness and passion that mimics the newsroom teamwork, which can reinforce the BGSU journalism objectives. These findings suggest a learning community tied to the paper and the department would be advantageous because it would further departmental goals and enhance the very aspects of teamwork that build better journalists.

Committee:

Catherine Cassara, PhD (Advisor); Brett Holden, PhD (Committee Chair); James Foust, PhD (Committee Member); Bortel Robert, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

student newspapers; learning communities; media

Yoon, KisungReligious Media Use And Audience's Knowledge, Attitude, And Behavior: The Roles Of Faith Motivation, Program Appeals, And Dual Information Processing
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication

The effect of religious media is a controversial topic of debates among religious media practitioners, theologians, and ministers in religious communities because they differently understood the roles of religious media on audience members' religious practice. Based on the uses and gratification perspective, this dissertation investigated how audience members' motivation to deepen their faith via religious media affects their religious knowledge, religious attitude, and religious behavioral intention. This study examined (a) how religious media affect religious audience members, (b) how the effect differs in a various demographic and religious audience groups, such as education, income, the duration of audience members' religious experience, their activeness in practicing their faith, and their motivation to deepen their faith, and (c) how the employment of the central vs. peripheral information processing strategies influences the outcomes of religious media use. This study proposed that the relationship between the faith motivation and the outcomes of religious drama exposure will be mediated by the employment of the information processing strategy in the elaboration likelihood model (ELM).

A three-phase pre-test and post-test field experiment was conducted to trace the changes in participants' religious knowledge, religious attitudes, and religious behavioral intention. Participants watched one hour-long manipulated rational or emotional religious drama in their parishes. In data analysis, participants were divided into novice Catholics and experienced Catholics, passive Catholics and active Catholics, and Catholics with low faith motivation and those with high faith motivation to test the premises of the uses and gratification and the ELM.

The results show that religious drama is an effective format in religious programming in audience members' religious knowledge increase, their religious attitude reinforcement, and their religious behavioral intention changes. Some demographic variables, such as education and household income, affect the outcome variables. The three faith related variables, (a) the duration of practicing faith, (b) audience members' activeness in practicing faith, and (c) their motivation to deepen their faith via religious media, interact with one another and directly affect audience members' religious knowledge, attitude, and behavioral intention. Therefore, the moderating model explains the effects of religious drama exposure better than the mediating model. Theoretical and practical implication of this research is discussed.

Committee:

Louisa Ha, PhD (Advisor); Lance Massey, PhD (Committee Chair); Gi Woong Yun, PhD (Committee Member); Sung-Yeon Park, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Religious Media; Religious Drama Exposure; Religious Media Programming; Media Effect; Uses and Gratifications; Faith Motivation; Elaboration Likelihood Model; Rational Appeal and Emotional Appeal; Korean Catholic Church History; Father Choi Yang Up

White, Brion“KILLING IN SILENCE: Alternative and Mainstream Media Coverage of U.S. DRONE STRIKES.”
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Media and Communication
ABSTRACT This dissertation focuses on the media coverage of U.S. drone strikes by both mainstream and alternative media sources. Chapter 1 introduces some background on alternative media and drone strikes and introduces the main points of the project. Chapter gives an extended literature review of ideology, media and power and alternative media to establish the parameters of the study and establish previous work on similar topics. Chapter 3 establishes both the method and methodology of the study, including why I conducted the study I did and how I processed the information from both mainstream and alternative media. Chapter 4 includes the results from both the mainstream media and alternative media texts I used in this study. Finally, Chapter 5 reviews my contributions to the literature along with future research based on the findings of this study.

Committee:

Joshua Atkinson, Dr. (Advisor); Clayton Rosati, Dr. (Committee Member); Joesepth Oliver Boyd Barrett, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Hendricks, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

media; narrative; drones;

Medjesky, Christopher A.The Logic of Ironic Appropriation: Constitutive Rhetoric in the Stewart/Colbert Universe
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Media and Communication

Scholars have long considered myth to be the driving force of rhetorical constitution. While myth has and remains a key logic that aids rhetoric in the formation of audiences, Roland Barthes argues that myth is a tool best served to produce right-leaning political discourse. As such, the shared logic of myth has encouraged the constitution of audiences that are positioned to act in ways that lead to predetermined judgments of politics and society that reinforce current power structures. Yet, Barthes argues that, despite myth’s dominance in discourse, another logic must exist that is better suited for left-leaning political purposes.

Looking at the related paratexts from Jon Stewart, Stephen Colbert, and the entire Stewart/Colbert universe, I argue this universe utilizes such an alternative logic to produce left-leaning constitutive rhetoric. This logic of ironic appropriation serves to hail an audience into being, position that audience toward action, and uses that action to make judgments about the world in which the audience lives. Using the three principles of ironic appropriation—irony, intertextuality, and interactivity—the Stewart/Colbert universe produces texts that encourage individuals to come together into an audience that questions the normalization of incommensurability in discourse and, instead, seeks to find ways to build bridges and increase political activity. Far from producing a cynical audience, the Stewart/Colbert universe uses ironic appropriation to help the audience see democracy as an interactive experience that truly serve the needs of the people when the people are willing to work together.

Committee:

Michael Butterworth, PhD (Advisor); Joshua Atkinson, PhD (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Heba, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Mass Media; Rhetoric

Keywords:

constitutive rhetoric; ironic appropriation; myth; irony; satire; parody; pastiche; intertextuality; interactivity; judgment; incommensurability; Jon Stewart; Stephen Colbert; The Daily Show; The Colbert Report

Hicks, Manda V.Negotiating Gendered Expectations: The Basic Social Processes of Women in the Military
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Media and Communication
This research identifies the basic social processes for women in the military. Using grounded theory and feminist standpoint theories, I interviewed 39 active-duty and veteran service women. Feminist standpoint theories argue that within an institution, people who are the minority, oppressed, or disenfranchised will have a greater understanding of the institution than those who are privileged by it. Based on this understanding of feminist standpoint theories, this research argues that female service members will have a more expansive and diverse understanding of gender and military culture than male service members. I encouraged women to tell the story of their military experiences and used analysis of narrative to identify the core categories of joining, learning, progressing, enduring, and ending. For women service members, the core variable of negotiating gendered expectations occurred throughout the basic social processes and primarily involved life choices, abilities, and sexual agency. This research serves as a forum for the lived experience of women in the military; through these articulations a set of particular standpoints regarding gender, war, and military culture emerge. Additionally, these data offer useful approaches to operating within male-dominated institutions and provide productive strategies for avoiding and challenging discrimination, harassment, and assault.

Committee:

Sandra L. Faulkner, PhD (Committee Chair); Ellen Gorsevski, PhD (Committee Member); Lynda D. Dixon, PhD (Committee Member); Vikki Krane, PhD (Committee Member); Melissa Miller, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

women in the military; feminist theories; grounded theory; military culture; gender

Jiang, Jing Racialization in the United States: A Case Study of Chinese Students' Experiences in a Summer Work Travel Program
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Media and Communication
This study explored the lived experiences of international students, particularly Chinese students from mainland China, Taiwan, and Malaysia, who participated in the Summer Work Travel Program in a city in the United States. Drawing from the theoretical framework of postcolonial studies, this project situated the international labor flow in historical contexts. This study adopted in-depth interviews, participant observation, and autoethnography to collect data. I interviewed 12 Chinese student workers, 1 supervisor, 2 local Christians, and 3 local workers, and wrote down about 43,000 words of fieldnotes. Employing a grounded theory approach, I identified five major themes from the data: racialization, racism, internalized racism, personal transformation, and religious assimilation. This study revealed that the Chinese students had racial encounters with other ethnic groups, witnessed racism against other ethnic groups, and experienced racism against themselves. They endured pain, pressure and hardships, and harvested friendships and personal growth. Local Christians played an important role in providing practical assistance to the international students and engaging them in cultural exchange. This study also found violations of labor laws and inhumane treatment of the student workers by the employers. In addition, not every employer or sponsor made efforts in creating cultural exchange opportunities for the international student workers, which was required by the federal regulations on the Summer Work Travel Program. Lessons that can be learned from this project, and proposed suggestions to improve the operation of this program are presented at the end of this manuscript.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala, Dr. (Advisor); Lisa Hanasono, Dr. (Committee Member); Sue McComas, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

race; racism; racialization; postcolonialism; international labor; Chinese; Summer Work Travel

Ding, ZhaoThe Internet Meme as a Rhetoric Discourse: Investigating Asian/Asian Americans' Identity Negotiation
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Media and Communication
This study draws concepts from rhetorical criticism, vernacular rhetoric, visual rhetoric, and whiteness studies, to investigate how Asian/Asian Americans’ online identities are being constructed and mediated by Internet memes. This study examines the use of Internet memes as persuasive discourses for entertainment, spreading stereotypes, and online activism by examining the meme images and texts, including their content, rhetorical components, and structure. Internet memes that directly depict Asian/Asian Americans are collected from three popular meme websites: Reddit, Know Your Meme, and Tumblr. The findings indicate that Internet memes complicate the construction of racial identity, invoking the negotiation and conflicts concerning racial identities described by dominant as well as vernacular discourses. They not only function as entertaining jokes but also reflect the social conflicts surrounding race. However, the prevalence and development of memes also bring new possibilities for social justice movements. Furthermore, the study provides implications of memes for users and anti-racist activities, as well as suggests future research directions mainly in the context of globalization.

Committee:

Alberto González, PhD (Advisor); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Internet meme; Asian and Asian Americans; identity; rhetoric

Next Page