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Kornecki, Krystyna MariaCRETACEOUS CONFLUENCE IN THE COON CREEK FORMATION (MAASTRICHTIAN) OF MISSISSIPPI AND TENNESSEE, USA: TAPHONOMY AND SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY OF A DECAPOD KONSENTRAT-LAGERSTATTE
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Coon Creek Formation of Mississippi and Tennessee possesses a diverse and abundant assemblage of decapods including lobsters, ghost shrimp, and crabs. The formation lies in a temporally and paleogeographically significant location, situated between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Western Interior Seaway, shortly before the closing of the seaway and the K-Pg Mass extinction. Coon Creek decapods have been little studied since the fauna was first described in the 1920’s. A large collection of specimens, ranging in preservation from poor to excellent, has recently become available for study. Because of the visible variation in preservation, the abundant material, and the paucity of cuticular data of this type of preservation, an investigative study of elemental composition of the sediment and cuticle of six species of decapod from six families (Palinuridae, Nephropidae, Callianassidae, Dakoticancridae, Raninidae, and Retroplumidae) is conducted using material collected at the Blue Springs Locality in Mississippi. Cuticle, concretions, decapod burrow, and sediment from the site are analyzed with X-Ray Florescence and Elemental Reflectance for preliminary elemental composition and subsequent mineral composition. Concretions and the burrow were observed in thin section and were mapped for elemental distribution using Energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy and dot mapping. The six species of decapod were analyzed using the same techniques. Taphonomic data supports preservation ranging from well preserved phosphatization to secondary alteration to silica-rich exterior and weathering clay minerals. Because the silica is not replacing the phosphatized exocuticle and microscopic structure of cuticle in cross section is not preserved in the silica layer, the cause of this alteration is uncertain. This preservation is un-like the decapod cuticle preservation of the concretions of the Bearpaw Shale Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Montana. Species of the Coon Creek Formation were re-assessed and assigned to modern taxonomic schemes. Sixteen species are identified and two new species are described including Hoploparia tennesseensis, Hoploparia mcnairyensis, Linuparus new species, Linuparus sp., Palaeopetrochirus enigmus, Seorsus wadei, Bournelyreidus new species, Cristipluma mississippiensis, Hoploparia georgeana, Mesostylus mortoni, Tetracarcinus subquadratus, Avitelmessus grapsoideus, Cretacoranina testacea, New genus new species (Carcineretidae), Dakoticancer australis, Prehepatus harrisi, and Latheticocarcinus atlanticus. This decapod assemblage shares common species with correlative units of the Western Interior Seaway, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain, supporting the hypothesis that the Mississippi Embayment is an ecotone for North American decapods.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Earth; Geology; Paleoecology; Paleontology

Keywords:

Decapoda Cretaceous Maastrichtian Taphonomy Systematic Paleontology Paleobiogeography Lobster Crab Taxonomy Preservation Palinuridae Nephropidae Callianassidae Dakoticanceridae Raninidae Retroplumidae Majidae

Onur, Emine MercanPREDICTING THE PERMEABILITY OF SANDY SOILS FROM GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Permeability is one of the most important and frequently used properties of soils. Grain size distribution and density are known to influence the permeability of sandy soils. Although the relationships between grain size distribution and permeability has been quantified in previous studies, the influenced of density has not been quantified. The objective of this research was to investigate the quantitative relationships between permeability and grain size distribution indices such as effective particle size (D10), coefficient of uniformity (Cu), coefficient of curvature (Cc), percentage of coarse sand fraction by weight of sample (%C), percentage of medium sand fraction by weight of sample (%M), and percentage of fine sand fraction by weight of sample (%F) to determine whether these relationships could be used for reliable estimates of permeability. Six samples of sandy soils, ranging from well graded to poorly graded, were tested in the laboratory to determine their grain size distribution, maximum dry density (MDD), and optimum water content (OWC). The D10, Cu, Cc, %C, %M, and %F values for each soil were calculated from the grain size distribution plots. Based on the compaction curves, five replicate samples of each soil were prepared at varying dry density values and tested for permeability using the constant head permeability test. Results show that the lowest permeability for sandy soils is achieved at or slightly on the dry side of OWC. To investigate the relationship between permeability and grain size distribution indices, bivariate and step-wise regression analyses were performed. The results show that D10, density, and %M have the strongest correlation (Adjusted R2 = 0.67) with permeability, explaining 67% of the variability in permeability. Permeability depends on the sizes and shapes of interconnections between adjacent pores which, in turn, are influenced by the entire grain size distribution. This research proposes a new grain size distribution index for predicting permeability, designated as the new permeability index. In addition to considering the entire grain size distribution, the new permeability index assigns different weights to different size fractions in the soil with the finest fraction having the maximum weight and the coarsest fraction having the least weight. The new permeability index values for the six soils were correlated with their corresponding permeability values, resulting in a second order quadratic equation with an R2 value of 0.76. This relationship can reliably be used to predict permeability as is indicated by the small amount of residuals between measured and predicted values of permeability. A 3-D model was developed to show the combined effect of the new permeability index and density on permeability.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Permeability, Grain size distribution, Grain size distribution indices, Density, Sandy soils, Statistical analysis, Permeability index

Safaei Jazi, RaminSimulation of Groundwater Flow System in Sand-Lick Watershed, Boone County, West Virginia (Numerical Modeling Approach)
MS, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Determining the hydraulic properties of aquifer and aquitards (K,T,and S) is very important in hydrogeologic studies. These parameters can be identified by methods such as laboratory permeability and borehole hydraulic response test. Because these approaches are sometimes costly, involving drilling test holes, and often may not be feasible, numerical modeling approaches can be considered as alternatives. In the following study, numerical modeling is applied to simulate groundwater flow system to determine the hydraulic properties of a weathered/fractured zone in a valley located within the Appalachian Plateau Geomorphic Province. The Appalachian Plateau is characterized by relatively flat-laying but intensely eroded bedrock, comprising cyclical sequences of Pennsylvanian age sedimentary bedrock dominated by sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal, claystone, and occasionally limestone. Fractured/weathered sandstone is potentially the main bedrock groundwater transmitting formation. The extent of fractures is from the ground surface to about 120-150 ft (or roughly 30-40m) under the ground surface. The main groundwater flow occurs from within the intergranular pore space through fractures and along bedding planes of the bedrock. The water level at a perennial stream in the valley can be considered as the phreatic ground-water level. Therefore, the elevation points along this stream may serve as model calibration points. Because the outflow from the valley is almost entirely via the creek, and creek water represents the groundwater level all along the valley, the model is calibrated and verified by the creek water elevations and the amount of water discharging through the valley. The site- specific hydrogeologic interpretation and evaluation technique presented in this study may be very well applicable to the significant portions of the Allegheny Plateau with similar geomorphologic, tectonic and lithologic characteristics.

Committee:

Yoram Eckstein, Professor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geology; Hydrologic Sciences

Keywords:

Hydraulic property; Aquifer; Numerical modeling; Appalachian Plateau

Widanagamage, Inoka HasanthiEMPA dating of Monazite from high grade metamorphic rocks along the Highland- Vijayan boundary zone, Sri Lanka
MS, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

Sri Lanka, a small-scale aggregate of contrasting crustal domains, has been the focus of lower crustal research for the past two decades. The timing of high-grade granulite metamorphism in the central Highland Complex (HC) of Sri Lanka is well-constrained at 570-550 Ma (Kroner et al., 1994; Sajeev et al., 2010). Amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Vijayan Complex (VC) to the east is less well constrained but apparently somewhat younger (Holzl et al., 1994). Additionally, the timing and nature of juxtaposition (via thrusting) of the HC above the VC is uncertain. The contact between the HC and VC, characterized by strong deformation, exotic tectonic slivers, migmatites, local serpentinite bodies, magnetite deposits, and gold mineralization is a major suture separating the Paleoproterozoic HC from the Grenville-age VC.

21 oriented samples were collected within and near (<6 km) the HC-VC boundary zone. West of the boundary (granulite terrain), coarse garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneiss with 5 mm euhedral inclusion-rich garnets are locally sheared with garnet elongate in the foliation plane. Within the boundary zone, garnet-(amphibole)-biotite gneisses exhibit a strong mesoscopic fabric consisting of ribbon quartz and compositional layering. Microscopically, static annealing is prevalent. East of the HC-VC deformation zone, coarse plagioclase-biotite orthogneisses exhibit compositional banding, augen, and incipient migmatization.

EMPA in-situ spot-dating of monazite grains record timing of peak and retrograde metamorphism of HC rocks. Thirty spot ages from eight monazite grains from the HC reveals a dominance of Pan African ages (533-613 Ma), and minor Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages (1069-1872 Ma). The qualitative monazite textural descriptions suggest that the age data are a function of chemical domains formed during and/or re-absorption of monazite. The average age for higher Y concentrations (>4000 ppm) is 558 Ma and 572 Ma age for lower Y concentrations (<4000 ppm). These ages consistent with a regionally widespread peak metamorphic age of 570 Ma for HC followed by retrograde metamorphism during exhumation at about 555-545 Ma (Sajeev et al., 2010).

Forty spot ages from seven monazite grains from the Boundary Zone preserved a dominance of Pan African spot ages between 595 and 635 Ma. Also, Paleoproterozoic spot ages (1858-1868 Ma) and Mesoproterozoic spot ages (1255-1350 Ma) are preserved in Boundary Zone rocks. Pre Pan African Neoproterozoic ages (700-1000 Ma) recorded from the Boundary Zone are absent in HC rocks analyzed here.

The Boundary Zone age data suggest shearing of HC rocks at moderate P-T conditions at 595-635 Ma and may therefore date the initial juxtaposition of the HC and VC terranes. The crustal thickening during and after the juxtaposition may have ultimately led to the peak metamorphism of Highland Complex at 570 Ma. Peak metamorphism was followed closely by rapid exhumation of the HC rocks beginning at 558 Ma in the east and 551 Ma in the western HC terrane.

Committee:

Dr. Daniel Holm, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Donald Palmer, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Alison Smith, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Monazite; EMPA dating; Metamorphism; Juxtaposition

Razzano, Mandy L.Monitoring Algal Production in Akron Water Supply Reserviors in Northeast Ohio Using Satellite Imagery
MS, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Akron Water Supply has been plagued for years with drinking water treatment issues related to nuisance algal growth in their drinking water reservoirs, located in the Upper Cuyahoga Watershed in Northeast Ohio. Chlorophyll a concentrations analyzed by Akron Water Supply Laboratory from Lake Rockwell and Wendell R. LaDue Reservoir were used to investigate the effectiveness of spectral measurements as a predictive tool for estimating algal production. Surface and depth integrated water samples collected by Akron Water Supply were filtered and the spectral reflectance of the water color was analyzed on a LabSpec Pro spectrophotometer. Landsat 5 TM and 7 ETM images of Lake Rockwell and Wendell R. LaDue Reservoir were utilized for this study. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were calculated from spectral reflectance captured in the Landsat images and from the spectral reflectance recorded by the LabSpec Pro spectrophotometer on the filtered water samples. NDVI values were calculated from the actual pixel reflectance values within the Landsat images that were identified by the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates of the field collected chlorophyll a samples, and a NDVI interpolation value was calculated from the eight surrounding pixel reflectance values. The NDVI values that were calculated from the spectral reflectance on the filtered water samples did produce strong positive correlations for surface water samples (r2= .94) and depth intergrade samples (r2= .84) with field collected chlorophyll a concentrations. NDVI values from Landsat satellite images proved statistically significant to estimate chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Rockwell and Wendell R. LaDue Reservoir for a wide range of chlorophyll a concentrations. Moderate negative correlation coefficients were established between Landsat NDVI actual pixel (r2= .48) and Landsat NDVI interpolation (r2=.57) with field collected chlorophyll a concentrations.

Committee:

Donna L. Witter, PhD (Advisor); Joseph Ortiz, PhD (Advisor); Darren Bade, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Management

Keywords:

Landsat; NDVI; chlorophyll a; spectrophotometer

Fisher, James E.Use of Remote Sensing in the Collection of Discontinuity Data for the Analysis and Design of Cut Slopes
MS, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
This study was conducted to examine the use of remote sensing techniques in the collection of discontinuity data for statistical and slope stability analyses. Two study areas where selected in Pulaski and Montgomery counties in central Virginia. Terrestrial LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and a transit compass were used to collect data at an abandoned quarry in the vicinity of Claytor Dam and Interstate 81 southwest of Christiansburg, Virginia. These data were used in a statistical analysis to compare both datasets and in a slope stability analysis for the adjacent section of Interstate 81. Digital photogrammetry was used to collect data on slopes along Interstate 81 northeast of Christiansburg. The digital photogrammetry dataset was qualitatively compared with the LiDAR dataset to illustrate differences and possible limitations of these remote sensing methods for the collection of discontinuity data. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) compare the use of LiDAR and transit compass methods in collecting discontinuity orientation data through graphical and statistical analyses; 2) compare the kinematic analyses for both LiDAR and transit compass methods to determine the differences in the results; 3) compare LiDAR and photogrammetry methods to evaluate any limitations therein; and 4) compare the use of LiDAR and transit compass methods in the design of cut slopes along a portion of Interstate 81. For the comparison of the LiDAR and transit compass datasets, results show that the two datasets have similar mean orientation values for the corresponding discontinuity sets and are graphically similar when plotted on stereonet plots. However, the two datasets are not statistically derived from the same population. More importantly, a joint set was identified in the transit compass dataset that was either not detected or has a different mean orientation in the LiDAR dataset. These differences affected the kinematic analysis results and, therefore, the cut slope design for Interstate 81. A possible explanation for these differences is that the tectonically disturbed nature of the bedrock within the site area coupled with method limitations for both the LiDAR and the transit compass resulted in the sampling of different subpopulations within the global population. Specifically, for the apparent missing discontinuity set in the LiDAR data, limitations in the method resolution lead to the under-sampling of discontinuity data comprising that discontinuity set, causing it to be poorly represented in the stereonet plots. The qualitative comparison of LiDAR and photogrammetry methods demonstrates that the stereonet plots have distinct differences in terms of discontinuity set data density and general scatter of the data. These differences are due to the distinct data acquisition procedures and processing steps of each method, which illustrates the limitations each method has with respect to collecting and deriving discontinuity orientation data. However, with adequate preparation and planning of field investigations to minimize the effect of method limitations, incorporating these remote sensing techniques will enable faster, more efficient, and safer data collection of discontinuity data for the design of cut slopes.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor, PhD (Advisor); Donna Witter, PhD (Committee Member); Dahl Peter, PhD (Committee Member)

Keywords:

remote sensing; terrestrial LiDAR; photogrammetry; disconinuity; stereonet; statistical analysis; slope stability; kinematic analysis; engineering geology; Virginia

Jones, Carson L.U-Pb geochronology of monazite and zircon in Precambrian metamorphic rocks from the Ruby Range, SW Montana: Deciphering geological events that shaped the NW Wyoming province
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

U-Pb accessory minerals in metamorphic rocks from the Ruby Range, southwestern Montana, were analyzed isotopically and chemically by microprobe techniques in order to constrain the timing of Precambrian thermotectonic events that affected the NW edge of the Wyoming craton. Dated samples represent the Cherry Creek Metasupracrustal Suite and associated pegmatites (CCMS, youngest), the Dillon quartzofeldspathic gneiss (DQG), and the Pre-Cherry Creek basement gneisses (PCCG, oldest). Undeformed bodies of pegmatite cross-cut the NE-trending fabric of the CCMS, and coexisting monazite and xenotime from the pegmatite yield crystallization ages of 1762 ± 6 Ma and 1754 ± 6 Ma, respectively (207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept ages reported at 95% confidence). These results constrain latest magmatism to within a ~1760 Ma time frame, while also establishing this as a minimum age for the cross-cut fabric. Metamorphic monazite in CCMS metapelites formed at 1814 ± 15 and 1773 ± 8 Ma, whereas monazites preserved as inclusions in CCMS garnet record a much older ~2450 Ma event (total-Pb ages reported at 95% confidence).

In DQG samples that also contain ~2450 Ma monazite in garnet, matrix monazite preserves mixed ~1760-1580 Ma dates. In one DQG sample, polymetamorphic matrix monazite formed at 1784 ± 57 and 2468 ± 11 Ma, whereas older magmatic zircon formed at 2772 ± 11 Ma. Polygenetic zircon in another DQG sample formed at both 2471 ± 20 Ma (metamorphic; Th/U = 0.0-0.1) and at 2772 ± 7 Ma (magmatic; Th/U = 0.5-0.7). Likewise, zircon in two PCCG samples preserves mostly 2437 ± 47 and 2762 ± 37 Ma ages in rims and cores, respectively, but also exhibits subordinate, inherited cores of ~3000-3500 Ma age. Indications of a ~2550-2500 Ma event in the Ruby Range are represented by a single total-Pb date of monazite (inclusion in DQG garnet) and by a population of PCCG metamorphic zircon dated at 2523 ± 14 Ma (upper-intercept age).

The mixed ~1760-1580 Ma dates observed for monazite in one DQG migmatite are of uncertain origin. Possible hypotheses include rifting related to the development of the Belt Basin or to younger break-up and dispersal of supercontinent Rodinia. The ~1760 Ma mineral ages date the waning phases of thermotectonism associated with the Wyoming-Medicine collision along the Great Falls tectonic zone, which spanned an ~1865-1760 Ma interval. Monazite growth ages of ~1815-1770 Ma document earlier stages of this collision. The ~2460 Ma mineral ages reflect an earlier, cryptic thermotectonic event that is temporally associated with incipient breakup of the ~2700-2500 Ma supercontinent Kenorland. The ~2550 Ma ages may record the juxtaposition of the Montana metasedimentary terrane as part of the Wyoming craton, along the NE-trending Madison mylonite zone, during terminal assembly of Kenorland. Finally, occurrences of ~2780 Ma mineral ages in the DQG record the Beartooth orogenic signature, whereas preservation of ~3000-3500 Ma zircon ages documents a Pre-Beartooth history for the PCCG basement.

Committee:

Peter Dahl, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Holm, Dr. (Committee Member); Richard Heimlich, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Geochronology; Radiometric Dating; Plate Tectonics

Hajdarwish, Ala' MGeologic Controls of Shear Strength Behavior of Mudrocks
PHD, Kent State University, 2006, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Shear strength is one of the most important properties for design of engineering structures built on or within mudrocks (claystones, mudstones, siltstones, shales, etc.), and also the most difficult to evaluate. This is because it is usually difficult to obtain undisturbed samples of mudrocks, due to their weak nature, as required for determination of shear strength parameters. This research investigated geological characteristics and engineering properties that can be used statistically to predict the shear strength parameters of a broad range of mudrocks. Forty-five samples of various types of mudrock were collected from highway cuts from eleven different states. Clay content, clay mineralogy, water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity, dry density, void ratio, absorption, adsorption, slake durability, and shear strength parameters of cohesion (c) and friction angle (Φ) were determined for each sample. Data were analyzed statistically, using bivariate and multivariate regression techniques, to determine the relationships between shear strength parameters, geologic characteristics, and engineering properties. Prediction equations were developed for all mudrocks using selected number of independent variables on the basis of bivariate plots. Results show that cohesion and friction angle of mudrocks can be meaningfully predicted from a few geologic or engineering properties. Cohesion is found to be controlled by percent expandable clays, absorption, adsorption, and slake durability index, whereas friction angle is controlled by percent expandable clays, absorption, adsorption, and plasticity index. The adjusted R2 values for cohesion and friction angle are 0.278 and 0.370, respectively. However, the role of lithologic characteristics and engineering properties involved in the prediction equations is clearly evident.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Cohesion; Friction Angle; Shear Strength Parameters; Multi-regression analysis; Prediction; Direct Shear Test; Mudrocks; Weak Rocks; Claystone; Mudstone; Siltstone; Shale

Maharjan, MadanINTERPRETATION OF DOMESTIC WATER WELL PRODUCTION DATA AS A TOOL FOR DETECTION OF TRANSMISSIVE BEDROCK FRACTURED ZONES UNDER COVER OF THE GLACIAL FORMATIONS IN GEAUGA COUNTY, OHIO
MS, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of identifying transmissive bedrock fracture zones and regional trend(s) of fracture under the blanket of glacial till in NE Ohio by mapping hydraulic conductivitiy estimated by using the residential water well production data provided in the Water Well Log and Drilling Reports. Water Well Log and Drilling Report data for private residential water wells were collected randomly amid the wells tapped within the Sharon Sandstone aquifer. Typical Well Log and Drilling Report includes a rudimentary description of the lithological column along with the following data from the well production test: (1) static water level, (2) time duration of pumping or bailing, (3) the rate of pumping or bailing and (4) water level at the end of the production test. The data was used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from the tests in water wells within the Sharon Sandstone aquifer in Geauga County, Ohio by applying Cooper and Jacob (1946) and Jacob’s (1950) approximation to Theis’ (1935) non-equilibrium radial flow equation. As all the wells in the study area were neither cased nor screened within the aquifer and the production test rates were low (27.25-109.02m3/day, or 5-20gpm), the well loss can be assumed negligible. The resulting hydraulic conductivity values followed quasi-log normal distribution with the geometric mean of 9.88x10-6 m/s. (2.80 ft/day). The hydraulic conductivity values were mapped and grouped into two distinct populations: the low values presumably corresponding to the primary porosity zones within the aquifer and high values assumed corresponding to the fractured zones. The mapped patterns of the higher hydraulic conductivity values clearly followed two distinct orientations: N340E and N440W. Trends on map of hydraulic conductivity correlated fairly well with the regional fracture pattern of the Allegheny Plateau Province, the trends of N210E and N570W obtained for Southwestern Pennsylvania and Northwestern West Virginia with equal amount of separation between the joint systems (Bench, Diamond and McCulloch, 1977). N340E also follows the alignment of glacial advance and retreat as a result of the stress loading and subsequent unloading during glaciation. The result of the research implies that the use of private residential water well data can serve as an alternate method for detecting regional transmissive fractures under the cover of glacial drift.

Committee:

Yoram Eckstein, PhD (Advisor); Abdul Shakoor, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Ortiz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Sharon Sandstone; Hydraulic conductivity; Pumping test; Water Well Log;Fractures; orientation of fractures in NE-Ohio

Amey, Katherine SpringerHydrology And Predictive Model Of Headwater Streams And The Groundwater/Surface Water Interactions Supporting Brook Trout Habitat In Northeast Ohio
PHD, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

The hydrology and hydrogeology of a set of eight cold-water streams in Lake and Geauga Counties in northeast Ohio were evaluated in order to develop a new predictive model for the successful introduction of native Ohio brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The model may be used to assess future sites for potential introduction of this threatened species. A field study was conducted from February 2009 to May 2010 in streams where the brook trout had been previously introduced. These streams were good candidates for study because four had been designated successful, two variable, and two failed in terms of the brook trout’s ability to flourish by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). The field study examined the groundwater/surface water interaction in the hyporheic zones, ecologically important areas where brook trout build their spawning beds, known as redds. To improve on the current model of brook trout introduction, and subsequent habitat suitability index (HSI), this study determines if there is a relationship between the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater input into the stream’s hyporheic zone, and successful, variable or non-successful outcome of brook trout introduction. Nested minipiezometers at the riffle head and tail allowed the study of the water quality, hydrogeology, stable isotopes (δ18O, δD), soils, and ultimately determined the source of coldwater input to the streams. Benthic macroinvertebrates and ostracodes were analyzed to assess the biological integrity of the stream.

Factors found to be significant in successful Ohio trout populations were hydrology of the streams, including low discharge (Q<0.13-0.51 ft3/s), and hydrogeology of the aquifer, most importantly, a high hydraulic conductivity of the headwaters (K>100 gpd/ft2). Key features of successful streams include high percent canopy cover (40%-55%) or high percent instream cover (18%-37%), and a high number of benthic macroinvertebrate cold-water taxa (10-16 species). A long-term water temperature study over both winter and summer seasons (successful stream yearly average hyporheic water temperature 4.6°C-17.2°C and surface water temperature 0.3°C-18.0°C) is recommended prior to introduction. Successful streams are part of an ecologically sensitive “surface system”, and should be protected in the headwaters of streams sustaining the brook trout population.

Committee:

Alison Smith (Advisor); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk (Committee Member); Donald Palmer (Committee Member); Daniel Holm (Committee Member); Ferenc de Szalay (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Ecology; Environmental Geology; Freshwater Ecology; Geology; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology

Keywords:

Hydrology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater Surface Water Interaction; Vertical Hydrauic Gradient; Precipitation; Temperature Study;Brook Trout; Cold Water Streams; Stable Isotopes; Benthic Macroinvertebrates; Northeast Ohio; Predictive Model

Sload, Eric JohnMICROWEAR ANALYSIS OF CRAB CLAW FINGERS: A FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Traditionally, microwear analyses have focused on scratches, pits, and other scars on the surface of the teeth of vertebrates. These methods have proven effective in reconstructing the diet of extinct and extant taxa. Such studies have been completed on a wide range of vertebrates, including conodonts, fish, non-avian dinosaurs, and mammals, exhibiting the versatility of microwear analysis. This study applies the methods used in dental microwear analyses to study the potential functional and taphonomic significance of wear patterns on the claws of the Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818). Molds are made of the inner and outer claw surfaces, as well as the denticles using a high resolution polyvinylsiloxane compound, and casts are poured using epoxy resin. The study area was standardized by selecting the center of each claw finger molded. This replication procedure is used extensively in dental microwear studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with the semi-automated software Microware 4.02 is used to quantify wear marks seen on cuticle. Patterns in wear features are then determined and an attempt is made to relate them to functional morphology. Number of scratches, mean scratch length, and angular dispersion were the primary factors used to make interpretations. Some differences are important to note, such as the varying hardness of decapod cuticle, as well as its softness in relation to enamel and dentine. Also, the function of claws is very different from the role teeth occupy in the life of vertebrates. Decapod claws function to capture food, to manipulate food toward the mouthparts, and to defend against predators; claws do not masticate the food. Taphonomic effects on wear marks were investigated by tumbling a modern Menippe claw in sediment for set time intervals. Tumbling results suggest that transport in sediment does not produce new wear features and may obliterate previously deposited features. An SEM investigation was initiated using modern crab claws and fossil specimens, in which wear patterns on crusher and pincer claw types were compared statistically. These data showed no significant difference between claw types, and may have been the result of sampling site or other biomechanical and behavioral factors. This study is, to the author’s knowledge, the first of its kind attempted on an invertebrate taxon.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeremy Green, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carrie Schweitzer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology; Paleontology

Keywords:

Microwear, paleontology, fossil, crab, claw, biomechanics, cuticle, paleoecology, functional morphology

Admassu, YonathanDeveloping Design Methodology for Cut Slopes in Ohio
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Design of cut slopes along Ohio highways depends on geologic conditions and type of slope stability problems prevalent in the state. Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that may exhibit discontinuity-related failures; 2) incompetent rock design unit consisting of shales, claystones, and mudstones that may exhibit raveling and gully erosion; and 3) interlayered rock design unit consisting of both competent and incompetent rocks where differential weathering may result in undercutting-induced failures. Geological parameters (stratigraphy, joint orientation, joint spacing, bedding thickness, total unit thickness), geotechnical parameters (point load index, slake durability index, rock quality designation) and geometrical parameters (slope heights, slope angles) were compiled from data collected from 49 cut slopes representing the three design units. These parameters were used for the commonly performed slope stability analyses techniques against rotational failure using geological strength index (GSI) for all design units, and Franklin’s shale rating system for incompetent and interlayered design units. Stability against discontinuity orientation controlled failures in competent units was also analyzed. The results showed that study sites for the most part are stable against rotational failure as well as discontinuity-orientation controlled failures such as plane, wedge and toppling failures. Additional analyses that focused on the prevalent problems were investigated and included 1) use of cartoon models to study undercutting-induced toppling in the case of competent design units 2) relationship between talus angle and stable slope angle against ravelling for incompetent design units. 3) multiple regression analysis to identify factors that contribute to undercutting of competent rocks underlain by incompetent rocks. Slopes at 0.5H:1V for competent design units; and 2H:1V – 1.5H:1V for incompetent and interlayered design units are adequate in minimizing the potential for the identified types of failure. For competent and interlayered design units steeper slopes at 0.25H:1V in conjunction with stabilization techniques are also recommended. Bench and catchment ditch designs for the three design units are recommended based on rockfall simulation analysis.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor, Dr. (Committee Chair); Peter Dahl, Dr. (Committee Member); Wells Neil, Dr. (Committee Member); Kazim Khan, Dr. (Committee Member); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Ohio rock slopes; cut slopes; rockfalls; undercutting; kinematic analysis; GSI

Franţescu, Ovidiu DanielBrachyuran decapods (including five new species and one new genus) from Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) coral reef limestones from Dobrogea, Romania
MS, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Analysis of the fossil decapod faunas in coral reefs from localities at Topalu and Piatra in Central Dobrogea, Romania, yielded five new species and one new genus belonging to superfamilies Homolodromioidea Alcock, 1899, and Glaessneropsoidea Patrulius, 1959. Comparison of the abundance and diversity of decapod faunas from these Jurassic coral reefs with the abundance and diversity of decapod faunas from sponge-algal reefs in the same geographic area and of the same age (middle Oxfordian) has led to some interesting paleoecological differences. The coral reef environments yielded 30 specimens of decapods that represented six families in seven genera and ten species, including the new taxa. The sponge reef environments yielded 22 specimens that represented only three families with four genera and five species. These two different types of environments share only one genus in common, and no species. Thus, the number of specimens is similar, but the diversity is markedly different. Furthermore, the nearly complete taxonomic difference between the environments (no shared species and only one shared genus) suggests that the environments selected for different adaptations, leading to niche partitioning within and between habitats. The higher abundance and diversity in the coral environments may reflect a higher number of niches available for decapods, shallower water depth, higher oxygen content and/or difference in energy levels in the two environments, making coral reefs a more suitable environment for decapods.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann, Dr. (Advisor); Carrie Schweitzer, Dr. (Committee Member); Neil Wells, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Earth; Geology; Paleoecology; Paleontology

Keywords:

Decapod; Romania; Dobrogea; Jurassic; Brachyurans; Coral reefs.

Frantescu, Ovidiu DSYSTEMATICS, PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF CRETACEOUS DECAPOD FAUNAS FROM NORTHEAST TEXAS
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Investigation of decapod fossils from the Pawpaw Shale, Albian, Texas, has yielded 17 new species, and seven new genera. In total, 14 brachyuran; 3 astacidean; 4 anomuran; 8 axiidean; 5 palinuridean, and one stomatopod species were described and classified according to the latest classification scheme. Shale samples from a single locality in Fort Worth were analyzed for their grain size, mineral and trace element content. The Pawpaw Shale consists of sediments derived from the Llanos uplift to the southwest of Fort Worth, and represents a fining upward sequence deposited in a restricted lagoonal environment. The decapod fauna of the Pawpaw Shale is one of the richest decapod faunas of Albian age known to date, composed of a population of adult and juvenile crabs and lobsters. The peculiar small size of the individual lobsters of this fauna is attributed to their representing an early ontogenetic stage. No trace elements known to affect the biology an physiology of extant decapods could be found in the shale samples analyzed to indicate an environmental cause for the reduced size of the Pawpaw lobsters.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann (Advisor); Carrie Schweitzer (Committee Member); Joseph Ortiz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology; Paleoecology; Paleontology

Keywords:

Decapoda; Cretaceous; Texas; Pawpaw

Wiles, Sarah GraceNature and Mechanisms of Displacements at Wolf Creek Dam, Jamestown, Kentucky
MS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The Wolf Creek Dam was constructed from 1941 to 1952 and is located on the Cumberland River approximately 20 miles from Jamestown, Kentucky. Design deficiencies associated with the foundation and construction techniques of the 1930s and 1940s have resulted in uncontrolled seepage through the karst limestone foundation and piping problems at the project. Distress indicators were noticed in 1967, resulting in the installation of a seepage cutoff wall, completed in 1979. During the early 2000s instrumentation data began to indicate the dam was in distress once again. Piezometers water levels were rising, some were even flowing water. Settlement monuments showed increasing rates of settlement and upstream deformation. Crack pins installed on the crest of the dam confirmed the same settlement and deformation. Inclinometers installed in the diaphragm wall indicated that the wall had flexed and there was upstream deformation. The majority of the concerns for the dam lie in an area defined as Critical Area 1, which is located from Station 34+00 to 38+50. This research was conducted to investigate the nature of the vertical settlement and lateral displacement in the embankment occurring at the Wolf Creek Dam as well as the mechanisms responsible for these displacements. Field work in this study was conducted to collect and interpret instrumentation readings and to document any visual signs of movement. A subsurface investigation was performed to collect samples of the embankment soil for testing. Laboratory work included Atterberg limit, direct shear, and consolidation testing to determine the engineering properties of the embankment soil. The embankment monuments show as much as 5.6 inches (14.1 cm) of vertical settlement and 1.4 inches (3.7 cm) of lateral movement in the upstream direction. The diaphragm wall monuments show as much as 1.5 inches (3.9 cm) of vertical settlement and 2.0 inches (5.1 cm) of lateral movement in the upstream direction. Inclinometers show as much as 4.2 inches (10.7 cm) of lateral movement in the upstream direction. Crack pins show as much as 1.8 inches (4.5 cm) of lateral movement. The embankment soil is classified as a clay of low plasticity (CL) with the exception of one sample, which is classified as a clay of low plasticity to silt with low plasticity (CL-ML). X-ray diffraction tests show that the soil samples do not contain any expansive minerals that could result in swelling. Stability analysis indicates that the factor of safety for the upstream embankment slope is 1.48. It can be concluded that the settlement and upstream deformation in the embankment is caused by a decrease in the shear strength and an increase in the stress on the embankment, mainly brought on by lowering of the pool level and construction activities. Further confirmation of these conclusions can be obtained by continuing to monitor the project after the pool is restored to normal operations and by comparing the response of Wolf Creek Dam to the response of other earthfill dams during extended periods of pool reduction.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor (Advisor); Daniel Holm (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Wolf Creek Dam; embankment; settlement; displacements; upstream movement

Hojnowski, Jenna C.Tying together textures, temperatures, and timing in the Western Tatra Mountains, Slovakia
MS, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

In the Western Tatra Mountains, the Variscan-age (~340 Ma) exhumed shear zone, reveals high-grade metamorphic rocks thrust over medium-grade metamorphic rocks, creating an unusual macroscopic rock geometry known as an inverted metamorphic sequence. Polyphase petrographic fabrics record the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence, making it ideal for characterizing mid-crustal deformation mechanisms of large-scale tectonic processes. A combination of microstructural (optical petrography) and microanalytical (monazite EMPA, Titanium thermometry, Electron backscatter diffraction-EBSD fabric analysis) techniques reveal the dynamic processes involved in the evolution of this major crustal-scale discontinuity.

The timing of the Early Variscan continent-continent collision was measured by U/Pb monazite dating at c. 370 Ma in the mica schists, with titanium-in-zircon temperatures of ~ 880 °C in the migmatite. These data reflect the peak metamorphic conditions of Early Variscan deformation. During or following exhumation of the high-grade rocks into the mid-crust, titanium-in-quartz data suggests the newly formed inverted metamorphics coexisted at temperatures of approximately 540 °C. The age of Variscan SE thrusting (~ 340 Ma) and its kinematic indicators are lacking in the mica schists. Instead, additional monazite ages from mica schists correlate to younger (c. 315 Ma) plutonism/uplift? and microstructural and analytical results reflect kinematics in a E-W orientation.

Collectively, data on the textures, temperatures, and timing within the Tatra tectonic zone do not support the ‘hot iron’ model of inverted metamorphic formation. Rather, simultaneous or closely related exhumation of the high-grade metamorphics with orogen parallel extension.

Committee:

Daniel Holm (Advisor); David Scneider (Committee Member); Donald Palmer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geological; Geology

Keywords:

Tatra Mountains; inverted metamorphic sequence; Variscan; EBSD; TitaniQ; Monazite

Wijekoon, NishanthiSPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF SURFACE COVER IN AN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
This study determined the capability of moderate resolution satellite imagery of 30 meter pixel dimension to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve, which is a dynamic coastal wetland of Lake Erie. Water quality and land cover reflectance data is interpreted with respect to in-situ sample measurements collected every 16 days in coincidence with the Landsat-5 TM over passing days mainly in summer 2005 and 2006. The study involved a variety of qualitative and quantitative, physical and remote sensing measurements generated from surface water and its constituents, aquatic emergent and terrestrial macrophytes, exposed mudflats, and radiometrically corrected Landsat-5 TM imagery. The prevailing environmental and climatic conditions of the area regulated the spatial and temporal variability of those land cover types.The study developed a suspended sediment concentration calibration method and two land cover variability mapping methods using Landsat-5 TM data. The two wetland mapping methods are based on principal component analysis (PCA) and scattergram segmentation of selected normalized difference remote sensing indices. In addition, the mineralogy and morphology of suspended particulates were investigated using an X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) which revealed the dominance of silica and calcite in surface water.The surface water samples provided total suspended particulate concentration (TSP) measurements which reported 0.7 correlation against normalized difference water index (NDWI) of bands 1 and 5, establishing a model to quantify TSP concentration in surface water. The principal component analysis (PCA) extracted endmember land covers reporting 87 % of total variance and their spatial and temporal distribution was mapped in order to identify the seasonal variability of macrophytes, open-water, and exposed ground. One dimensional spaces of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), and normalized difference ground index (NDGI) segmented their respective scattergrams to identify the land cover interfaces in order to re-map the same land cover variability for better evaluation of the two wetland mapping techniques.

Committee:

Joseph Ortiz (Advisor)

Keywords:

Land Cover; Remote Sensing; Old Woman Creek; Wetland; Suspended Sediment; Principal Component Analysis;

Vlack, Yvette A.A Diffuse Spectral Reflectance Library of Clay Minerals and Clay Mixtures within the VIS/NIR Bands
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The versatility of diffuse spectral reflectance (DSR) was investigated as a complementary methodology to XRD and XRF when studying clay minerals in stratigraphic sequences. The Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) LabSpec® Pro FR UV/VIS/nIR spectrometer provides an innovative nondestructive methodology that is cost effective, portable, quick, and easy to use with samples in the lab or field. LabSpec® Pro FR spectrometer and similar equipment are remarkable research tools underutilized in the area of clay mixtures. This study develops a new methodology that demonstrates the versatility of the LabSpec® Pro FR and the use of DSR as a tool for generating a spectral library and then determining clay mineralogy of various core samples. Samples from two sources were evaluated: (1) sediment from core MNK3, from a slack water Pleistocene lake near St. Louis, in which stratigraphic changes in clay mineralogy occur down core, and (2) the Ordovician Millbrig K-bentonite (samples from AL, GA, KY, TN, and VA), an altered tephra in which the changes occur laterally in a single horizon. DSR spectral data is validated against XRD, ICP-MS, and XRF data. This spectral library was generated from four primary clays and clay mixtures, consisting over 231 two variable mixtures in 5% increments, by weighted percents and is augmented with spectra from the USGS spectral library. Clay mineral standards were obtained from the Clay Mineral Repository and Wards Natural Science. The aim is to close the gap that currently exists for an expanded spectral library of clay mixtures and explore the DSR variability of clay mixtures. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) was used to correlate the spectral data of the library with the two MNK3 and Millbrig sample sets. Stepwise Linear Regression (SLR) analysis was used with the composite library as an identification tool. By combining PCA analysis of unknowns with SLR against our clay mixture library, we identify our components in an objective, quantifiable way. The model predictors from the analysis gave highly significant R-squared values for the extracted PCA assemblages depending on component. One of the challenges was comparing the XRD clay percents against the predicted models. Frequently, the primary clay was predicted, but not the secondary clay. Basically, the result is an ordinal distribution of the amounts of minerals present in the mixture. Ordinal distributions, as non-parametric data, do not allow the computation of averages or proportions, but tell only relative amounts such as greater, greatest, and least. This may be because both cores represent a four component clay mixtures plus ancillary minerals, as opposed to the two component library. Predictability difficulties may also have been due to confounding factors such as the presence of iron-bearing minerals in the mixture causing what is termed by Balsam, 1999, as the ‘matrix effect’; Balsam also states that iron-bearing minerals such as hematite may be masked by illite and chlorite. The spectral clay mineral library is useful and the methodology pursued has proven successful. However, at this time there is no consistency in the predictability of the data. As a result, future research needs to eliminate intervening factors sequentially to determine various iron components and their impact on readings (Balsam et al, 1999).

Committee:

Joseph Ortiz, PhD (Committee Chair); John Haynes, PhD (Committee Member); Ernest Carlson, PhD (Committee Member); Nancy Grant, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Geology; Soil Sciences

Keywords:

DSR; diffuse spectral reflectance; clays; clay minerals; clay mixtures; spectral library; PCA; priniciple component ananlysis; stepwise linear regression; SLR; regression models; MNK3; Millbrig; iron-bearing minerals; ASD; Analytical Spectral Device

Weghorst, Pamela L.MODIS algorithm assessment and principal component analysis of chlorophyll concentration in Lake Erie
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

The purpose of this study was to use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) chlorophyll data to identify the predominant spatial and temporal patterns in chlorophyll variability in Lake Erie. Three algorithms were tested against in situ chlorophyll measurements: O’Reilly’s OC2 and OC3 algorithms (1998) and Cannizzaro’s shallow water algorithm (2005). These algorithms can be calculated from atmospherically corrected reflectance data distributed by NASA; algorithms that required data without atmospheric corrections were not considered. The initial regression results showed no correlation for any of the algorithms tested. However, outliers for all three algorithm regressions were consistently missing reflectance values at one or more wavelengths. Removing pixels that had missing reflectances at any wavelength, even those not required to compute the algorithm, greatly improved algorithm performance. This result supports the hypothesis that a more advanced correction procedure for atmospheric scattering that produced more reliable reflectance values for turbid inland waters would improve the performance of chlorophyll retrieval algorithms for Lake Erie.

While none of the algorithms were valid in Lake Erie’s turbid western basin, OC3 performed best in the central and eastern basins, with an R2 of 0.56 and RMSE of 0.73. OC3 chlorophyll concentrations were calculated for all the available 2002-2007 non-winter MODIS images of Lake Erie. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the resulting time series, which extracted patterns of seasonal variability from the data set. The central basin showed more seasonal variability than the eastern basin, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations in spring and fall.

Committee:

Donna Witter, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Freshwater Ecology; Geology; Hydrology; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

chlorophyll; Lake Erie; remote sensing; algorithm; atmospheric correction

Scheiner, Scott W.Refining Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Sequence Boundaries in East-Central Minnesota, Carlton County: Implications for Source, Age, Correlations, and Tectonic Histories
MS, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The Animikie Basin in north-eastern Minnesota is usually interpreted as a Penokean (1875-1835 Ma) foredeep deposit consisting mainly of 2 to 5 km thick turbidite sequences underlain by banded iron formations and quartzite conglomerates, all deposited in a foreland basin north of the accreted Penokean arc terrain. Much of the Animikie basin sequence is non-metamorphosed and only mildly deformed. However, along its southern margin in Carlton County, east-central Minnesota, the sedimentary sequence is strongly deformed into refolded nappes. The twice deformed sequence occurs south of a similar sedimentary sequence that has undergone a single deformation. The contact between these sequences, although nowhere exposed, was interpreted by Holst (1985) as a Penokean thrust fault and all of the deformation assumed to be Penokean in age. This contact is commonly referred to at Holst’s Line. A wealth of new data collected over the last ~15 years document Yavapai-age magmatism, metamorphism, sedimentation and deformation overprinting the Penokean orogen. Metamorphic ages post-date the Penokean orogeny and detrital zircon ages indicate that some of the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks may be younger than previously thought. Based on this new evidence, I propose Holst’s Line to represent an unconformity separating sedimentary foredeep packages of different ages and test this hypothesis using geochemical and Sm/Nd isotopic data. Geochemical analyses were obtained on 10 samples divided into two groups based upon location north or south of Holst’s Line. Relative proportions of major elements varied little within and across these groups. Trace element ratio plots of La/Sc vs Ti/Zr, Sc/Cr vs La/Y, Th vs Zr and Sc vs V were created with the hope of distinguishing between different tectonic settings. The results show a concentrated grouping of data from the southern samples and a much larger spread from northern samples, suggesting a more variable source for the northern sedimentary sequence. Neither Sm nor Nd are significantly fractionated compared to each other during surficial processes, and therefore, Nd isotopes are frequently used in sedimentary rocks as an indicator of provenance. Four samples were analyzed, two from north of Holst’s Line and two to the south. Using detrital zircon and stratigraphic relationships, ages of 1770 Ma and 1850 Ma were assigned to the northern and southern rocks respectively. ƐNd (T) was then calculated for each sample with the results indicating the northern rocks were derived from an older Archean crustal source whereas the southern rocks were derived from a younger, possibly arc source. The differences documented here argue against Holst’s Line being a tectonic contact. Instead, Holst’s Line is reinterpreted as an unconformity separating Penokean foredeep and Yavapai foredeep Paleoproterozoic deposits. This reinterpretation has important ramifications for interpreting structures throughout the upper Great Lakes region. Lastly a new tectonic sequence model for the formation and deformation of the Animikie Basin is proposed.

Committee:

Daniel Holm, PhD (Advisor); David Hacker, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Palmer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Paleoproterozoic; Animikie Basin; Thomson Formation; Holst's Line; Carlton County; Yavapai Orogeny; Penokean Orogeny

Stepp, Ashleigh MDescriptions and biodiversity of decapods in the Seroe Domi Formation of Curaçao
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
The aims of this study are to describe a collection of brachyuran decapod crustaceans (crabs) from the Seroe Domi Formation of Curaçao and to compare the diversity of the decapods to those from other similar-aged reef deposits in the surrounding Caribbean islands. Though the Seroe Domi Formation is a complex Mio-Pliocene unit that has been studied for its sedimentology and diagenetic history, up until this point the decapod crustaceans of the formation have been ignored. Very little attention was paid to the fossils in the unit in past studies other than to use the corals and microfossils to help determine the paleoenvironmental setting. The collection totals approximately 250 specimens that exhibit excellent preservation of fine details, including fragile spines and delicate surface textures; however, the majority of the specimens are fragmented and disarticulated. The five families present were identified as: Raninidae De Haan, 1841; Leucosiidae Samouelle, 1819; Majidae Samouelle, 1819; Portunidae Rafinesque, 1815; and Calappidae De Haan, 1833. Within the five familes, seven genera were identified. Additional decapod taxa are represented by fragmentary remains and are difficult to identify. The seven genera identified from the Pliocene portion of the Seroe Domi Formation were then compared to other Pliocene Caribbean brachyuran (crab) genera in order to determine the relative diversity of Curaçao to the surrounding Caribbean islands. It was found that Jamaica hosts the largest concentration of Pliocene brachyurans in the Bowden shell bed of the Bowden Formation. The other Caribbean localities, such as Costa Rica, Panama, Florida, and the Dominican Republic possessed numbers of genera similar to that of the Seroe Domi Formation. After the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama and the end of genetic exchange between the Pacific and Atlantic, crab species that previously spanned both oceans evolved into distinct Pacific and Atlantic forms. The Pliocene represents an important time in the fossil record of the Caribbean. The crabs identified from the Seroe Domi all belong to species which represent Atlantic forms. It is important to study the fossils of the Caribbean Pliocene deposits in order to better understand this critical time in brachyuran evolution.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geobiology; Geology; Paleontology

Keywords:

Decapods; Brachyuran; Seroe Domi Formation; Curacao; Pliocene

Dennison-Budak, Cordelia W.Ostracodes as indicators of the Paleoenvironment in the Pliocene Glenns Ferry Formation, Glenns Ferry Lake, Idaho
MS, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Lake Idaho was a large and permanent lake of Pliocene age located in the southwest portion of what is now Idaho and parts of eastern Oregon. This project looks at ostracodes as paleoenvironmental indicators from an extension of Lake Idaho, the Plio-Pleistocene Glenns Ferry Lake, located in Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument (HAFO), Hagerman, Idaho. Fluvial-lacustrine sediments from the Glenns Ferry Formation dominate HAFO’s geologic record. Deposition of Lake Idaho began approximately 3.8 Ma with the deep-lake phase beginning 3.5-3.3 Ma and lasted until around 2.4 Ma (early Pleistocene time). Previous studies indicate that during the Pliocene, ENSO was in a permanent El Niño phase. However, based on cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and isotopic δ18O analysis of the ostracodes collected from HAFO, I demonstrate that ENSO was already cycling between La Niña and El Niño phases when HAFO lacustrine sediments were deposited in the late Pliocene through early Pleistocene. The range of δ18O and corresponding δ2H values is consistent with the range of modern winter and summer precipitation values, indicating a precipitation pattern similar to that of today. This conclusion is also supported with multi-proxy evidence from pollen and fish fossils, collected from the literature. Four ostracode assemblages suggest four paleolake phases. The first and earliest in this study, the Limnocythere robusta Assemblage represents a fresh but variable environment. The second, the Limnocythere friabilis Assemblage represents an oligohaline environment. The third, the Candona crogmaniana Assemblage represents a second fresh but variable environment. The fourth and final assemblage, dominated by Limnocythere ceriotuberosa represents a final oligohaline environment. The ostracode assemblages, the paleolake phases and the initiation of a cyclic ENSO phase show the start of the modern climatic variability in Idaho in late Pliocene time.

Committee:

Alison Smith, J (Advisor); Donald Palmer, F (Committee Member); Neil Wells (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Paleoecology

Keywords:

ostracode; Pliocene; Pleistocene; Hagerman; paleolimnology; oxygen isotope;

Fein, Elizabeth MayFlow fabric determination of two Mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift dike swarms, northeastern Minnesota
MS, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology

Dike structures represent evidence of planar conduits along which magma is transferred via flow in the upper crust. This study documents regional-scale igneous flow patterns in two Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) mafic dike swarms by measuring anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics as a proxy for magmatic fabrics. The 1100 Ma MRS stretches about 2,300 km across the central North American continent and comprises one of the thickest packages of igneous and sedimentary rocks in the world. The Carlton County (CC) and Duluth dike swarms, located in and around Duluth, MN, are proximal but distinct in strike pattern, age, and chemical composition. The subparallel, reverse polarity (older) CC dikes intrude Paleoproterozoic metagreywackes, whereas the more irregularly striking, normal polarity (younger) Duluth dikes intrude MRS volcanic rocks. The dikes in both swarms appear massive and lack visible flow structures, making traditional, macroscopic fabric measurement impossible. AMS, defined in this study by the preferred orientations of magnetic mineral grains, provides for sensitive delineation of fabrics in apparently isotropic rocks. Using a Kappabridge KLY4-S susceptibility bridge at field intensity 300 A/m, a significant measure of magnetic fabrics was achieved for 32 oriented block samples from 26 dikes (13 from each swarm). The bulk magnetic susceptibility (Km) for all 530 cubes (an average of ~17 per sample) yielded a mean value of 3.0x10-2 SI volume, meaning that the magnetic signal is robust and likely dominated by ferromagnetic phases. The mean corrected degree of magnetic anisotropy (Pj) for both swarms is 1.036 ± 0.006 with a range of 1.002-1.142. A plot of Pj versus Km also suggests that ferromagnetic phases control the AMS signal in all samples.

The principal directions cluster well at most sample sites. Site-averaged directional results for the CC dikes indicate mostly normal AMS fabrics with subvertical to steeply inclined magnetic lineations that cluster relatively consistently. In contrast, site-averaged directional results for the Duluth dikes are more complex and indicate mostly inverse AMS fabrics, with the interpretable normal sites preserving oblique to the SW magnetic lineations. The inverse AMS fabrics in the Duluth swarm rocks may be a result of the influence of tiny single-domain magnetite grains or may be attributable to the influence of a more complex stress-state during emplacement within the rift axis.

The AMS data indicate vertical regional magma flow in the off-axis CC dike swarm and more complex subvertical to oblique SW to NE regional flow for the on-axis Duluth swarm. Vertical dike emplacement is predicted above a proposed 500-km-radius plume head, consistent with the CC swarm results. However, local variations in stress state may have led the on-axis Duluth swarm to deviate from this model. This study provides evidence that a single long-lived regional magma source potentially fed both sets of intrusions as the MRS evolved through time via vertical to oblique migration of rift melts from depth.

Committee:

Daniel Holm, PhD (Advisor); Donald Palmer, PhD (Committee Member); David Schneider, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Midcontinent Rift; continental rift; dikes; anisotropy of magnetic suscetibility; AMS

Robins, Cristina M.Systematics of the Late Jurassic members of the superfamily Galatheoidea Samouelle, 1819, from the Ernstbrunn Limestone of Ernstbrunn, Austria
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Jurassic galatheoids have long been underrepresented in the literature, so theirexplosive diversification during the Late Jurassic has only recently become apparent. However, critical early stages of this explosive radiation are well represented in the extensive mid-20th century collections made by Friedrich Bachmayer, from from five quarries in the Ernstbrunn Limestone, from around Ernstbrunn, Austria. The Naturhistorische Museum of Vienna, Austria, recently made the Friedrich Bachmayer decapod collection available for study. During the summers of 2006 and 2007, over 250 galatheoids from the superfamily Galatheiodea Samouelle, 1819, were borrowed from the extensive collection, of which more than 170 were studied for this thesis. The remaining galatheoids, as well as additional ones borrowed during the summer of 2008, will be studied in a future work. Galatheoids that were either never studied before or previously had been assigned solely to the genus Gastrosacus von Meyer, 1851, were found to be diverse enough to form a new family, with 8 new genera, and 22 new species. In addition to the new species, three previously identified species were studied: Gastrosacus eminens (Blaschke, 1911), Gastrosacus ernstbrunnensis Bachmayer, 1947, and previously synonymized Galathea acutirostris Moericke, 1889, now placed within a new genus. The galatheoids that belong to this new family have a distinctive groove structure with extensive regional definition and strong ornamentation. A standard terminology for these galatheoids is enumerated within this work in order to simplify the diagnoses and descriptions.

Committee:

Rodney Feldmann, PhD (Advisor); Carrie Schweitzer, PhD (Committee Member); Neil Wells, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geology; Paleontology

Keywords:

galatheoids, galatheids, Gastrosacus; Ernstbrunn, Austria; systematics

Griffin, Jason AllanDEVELOPMENT OF A RATING CLASSIFICATION FOR ROCK TO BE USED AS TOE-BENCH MATERIAL
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
Engineering properties of a rock considered suitable for rock toe benches in highway embankments are different than the properties required for fill material. A method of evaluating toe-bench material is needed to assess various rock strata that are encountered during preliminary site investigations for highways so that easy distinctions can be made between rock preferred for toe benches, rock favored for use as fill material, and rock that is not suitable for either. Rock quality is assessed on the basis of absorption, density, slake durability, unconfined compressive strength, freeze-thaw durability, and L.A. abrasion loss. These are considered important properties in defining the integrity of the rock, and provide for a basis for systematic evaluation of rock material. A rating classification for evaluating rock material from Carboniferous strata of western Pennsylvania for use as toe-bench material is presented herein. A series of laboratory tests were performed on three sandstone and two limestone rock units for differentiation on the basis of strength, durability, and overall usefulness as a fill material. Samples were collected from five Mississippian-Pennsylvanian strata consisting of low to high durability rock. Typically, low durability rock units such as shales, claystones, and siltstones, etc., are neglected considering their infrequent use as durable rock fill. Specifications for acceptance of rock toe material do not currently exist within state and federal construction manuals. Therefore, research was conducted to determine the commonly specified engineering property values for rock fill applications in highway construction. These engineering properties were then used to determine rational cutoff boundary values for acceptance of rock material for use within a rock toe structure. Values for various properties tested range from 0.26-4.7% for absorption, 2.46-2.67 for specific gravity, 154-170 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (2.47-2.72 Mg/m3) for bulk density , 0.7-11.6% for porosity, 10,300 to over 25,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (71-172 Mpa) for unconfined compressive strength, 97.3-99.6% for slake durability index, 21.2-45.9% for L.A. abrasion loss, and 1.5-21% for freeze-thaw loss. Bivariate statistical analysis showed a lack of significant correlations within the data set. Compressive strength showed the best correlation with bulk specific gravity (r2 = 0.61) and exhibited modest relationships with L.A. abrasion loss (r2 = 0.52) and with the value of L.A. abrasion divided by bulk specific gravity (r2 = 0.58). Based on the test data produced, an evaluation of rock material is conducted on the five rock units studied. Each rock unit is categorized as passing, marginal, or failing based on the previously determined cutoff boundaries. Predicted values of engineering properties from bivariate correlation equations produced similar results in the evaluation, although based only on compressive strength as estimated by other index properties. The use of empirical equations is considered to be marginally useful as only values of unconfined compressive strength, L.A. abrasion, and bulk specific gravity could reasonably be determined in this manner. Test data proved to be useful in determining the relative, and to a lesser extent, overall quality and durability of rock material for use in rock toe structures, as defined by other uses of rock fill material in highway and embankment construction.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor, PhD (Advisor); Peter Dahl, PhD (Committee Member); Ernest Carlson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Geology

Keywords:

geology; rock; toe; bench toe-bench; strength; durability; classification; rating; material; geotechnical; slope; stability; embankment; carboniferous; western; pennsylvania; key; berm; compressive strength; abrasion: L.A.; LA; engineering;

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