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The Origins, Early Developments, and Present-Day Impact of the Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps on the American Public Schools
Long, Nathan Andrew

2003, EdD, University of Cincinnati, Education : Educational Foundations.
The Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (Junior ROTC) has been a part of the American educational system for nearly ninety years. Formed under the 1916 National Defense Act, its primary function was and is to train high school youth military techniques and history, citizenship and discipline. The organization has recently seen its stature elevated and its reach widened once Congress lifted caps on its expansion in 2001. The Junior ROTC’s proliferation has led to criticism from peace activists who denounce military training and tactics in schools and political leaders who claim the benefits are suspect. Conversely, the program has earned the praises of varied school and government officials. What becomes clear is that little consensus on the program has been reached. It is my contention that Junior ROTC’s current popularity within the American educational system is multifaceted and cannot be simplistically embraced or summarily discounted by disparate analyses. One must understand the organization’s historical roots to comprehend its current manifestation. Thus, three related questions have guided my research. First, what, if any, prerequisites existed relevant to Junior ROTC? Second, how does recruitment correspond to the purpose of Junior ROTC’s inception and consequent growth? Third, has the program focused on the recruitment of working class and racial minorities over its ninety-year history? First, two dialectically related historical constructs – preparedness ideology and economic imperialism-expansionism – serve as prerequisites to Junior ROTC’s inception and consequent growth. The antecedent relationships of military philosophy, education, training and drilling are explored in relation to these constructs. Second, the historical record points to a program designed primarily to recruit high school aged youth. Primary data in various forms aptly illustrate the point. Third, the combination of historical and recent demographic data confirm Junior ROTC’s recruitment focus on working class and disadvantaged youth, primarily in urban centers, which provides the military a ready reserve of labor. Junior ROTC while an attractive program to ‘reach’ at-risk high school students is a quick-fix approach to the numerous structural and social barriers placed in front of our youth. Thus, attention is devoted in the last chapter to potential alternatives.
Dr. Marvin Berlowitz (Advisor)
226 p.

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Long, N. (2003). The Origins, Early Developments, and Present-Day Impact of the Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps on the American Public Schools. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

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Long, Nathan. "The Origins, Early Developments, and Present-Day Impact of the Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps on the American Public Schools." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2003. OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. 24 Jun 2017.

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Long, Nathan "The Origins, Early Developments, and Present-Day Impact of the Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps on the American Public Schools." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2003. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

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